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International Opium Commission 

SHANGHAI, 1909 



Vol. I.— REPORf OF THE PROCEEDINGS 



REPORT 



OF THE 



International Opium Commission 



SHANGHAI, CHINA 



February 1 to February 26, 1909 



Vol. I.— REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 



SHANGHAI: 
Printed and Published by the North-China Daily News & Herald Ltd. 

1909 

J) 



InternationaLOpium Commission 



President : 

The Right Reverend CHARLES H. BRENT, d.d. 

Bishop of the Philippine Islands 

(Chief Commissioner of the American Delegation) 



Secretary : 

FRED. W. CAREY 

(Associate-Delegate for China) 



Assistant (and French) Secretary : 

XAVIER DE LAFORCADE 
( Sec7'etary to the French Delegation) 



Official Stenographer : 
J. WALLIS BRINING 



Clerk : 

LI KWAY-YOONG 

(Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs) 

( I ) 



List of Delegations and Representatives 



America, United States of. 

Dklk(;atks: — 

The Right Reverend CHARLES H. Brent, d.d. (Chief Commissioner), 
Bishop of the Philippine Islands. 

Hamilton Wright, m.d. 

Charles D. Tenney, ll.d., 

Chinese Secretary to the American Legation, Peking. 

Secretary: — 

H. F. Hawlev. 



Austria- H ungary 



Delegate :- 



Dr. Karl Bernauer, 

Acting Consul-General for Austria-Hungary. 

China. 

Delegates: — 

His Excellency Tuan Fang (High Commissioner), 
Viceroy of the Liangkiang Provinces. 

His Excellency Jui CnfeNG, 

Official of the Second Civil Rank, 
Provincial Treasurer of Kiangsu. 

His Honour TSAi Nai-huang, 

Official of the Fourth (with Brevet of Second ) Civil Rank, 
Shanghai Customs Taotai. 

His Honour Lew Yuk-lin, 

Official of the Fourth (with Brevet of Second) Civil Rank, 
Councillor of the Waiwupu and Expectant Taotai of Chihli. 

Dr. Hstj Hua-CHING, 

Official of the Fourth (with Brevet of Second) Civil Rank, 

President of the Army Medical College and Expectant Taotai of Chihli. 

T'ang Kuo-an, 

Official of the Fifth Civil Rank, 
Member of the Waiwupu. 

( 3 ) 



Associate-Delegates : — 
F. A. Carl, 

Official of the Second Civil Rank, 

Commissioner of the Imperial Maritime Customs, Newchwang. 

J. L. Chalmers, 

Official of the Third Civil Rank, 

Acting Statistical Secretary, Inspectorate Staff, Imperial Maritime Customs. 

Wu Pao-yen, 

Official of the Sixth (with Brevet of Fourth) Civil Rank, 
Member of the Waiwupu. 

Fred. W. Carey, 

Official of the Fourth Civil Rank, 

Acting Assistant Secretary, Inspectorate Staff, Imperial Maritime Customs. 

France. 

Delegates: — 

J. Ratard (Chief Commissioner), 
Consul -General for France. 

H. Brenier, 

Sous-Directeur de I'Agriculture et du Commerce en Indo-Chine. 

J. CORNILLON, 

Adjoint au Directeur-G^neral des Douanes et Regies de I'lndo-Chine. 

Secretary: — 

Xavier de Laforcade, 

Consul suppliant de France. 

Germany. 

Delegates: — 

Dr. Walther RoSSLER (Chief Commissioner), 

Consul-General (H.I.G.M.'s Consul at Canton). 

Dr. G. Pernitzsch, 
Referendar, 
Assistant Interpreter, H.I.G.M.'s Consulate-General, Shanghai. 

Great Britain. 

Delegates : — 

The Right Honourable Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G. (Chief Commissioner). 
Sir Alexander Hosie, Kt., 

H.B.M.'s Consul-General. 

William Lyon Mackenzie King, c.m.g. 

James Bennett Brunyate, 

Acting Financial Secretary to the Government of India. 

Robert Laidlaw, m.p. 



( 4 



Assessors -. — 



Warren D. Barnes, 

Secretary for Chinese Affairs, Straits Settlements and Federated IMalay States. 
Cecil Clementi, 

Assistant Colonial Secretary, Hongkong. 



Italy. 

Delegate : — 



R. Faraone, 

Acting Consul-General for Italy. 



Japan. 

Delegates : — 

His Excellency TSUNEJIRO Miyaoka (Chief Commissioner), 
Councillor of Embassy, H.I.J.M.'s Diplomatic Service. 

Dr. Y. Tahara, 

Director of the Imperial Hygienic Laboratory, Tokio. 

Dr. T. Takaki, 

Director of the Medical School and Chief of the Sanitary Bureau of the Government 
of Formosa. 

Secretary : — 

Keizo Yokoyama, 

Chancellor of H.I.J.M.'s Consulate-General, Shanghai. 



Netherlands. 

Delegates -. — 

A. A. de Jongh (Chief Commissioner), 

Inspector-in-Chief and Head of the Opium Regies in Netherlands-India. 

W. G. VAN Wettum, 

Acting Inspector of the Opium Regies in Netherlands-India. 



ersia. 



Delegate :- 



M. D. Rizaeff, 

Official Agent for H.M. the Shah of Persia. 

Secretary: — 

b. a. somekh. 

( S ) 



Portugal. 

Delegates : — 

Oscar George Potier (Chief Commissioner), 
Consul-General for Portugal at Shanghai. 

Commendador C. A. R. d'Assump^ao, 

Chief of the Chinese Translation Department at Macao. 

Russia. 

Dklegate: — 

His Excellency Monsieur C. KleimkN(j\V, 
Councillor of State, 
Consul-General for Russia at Shanghai. 

Siam. 

Delegates : — 

The Right Honourable Phya Sakdisinie (Chief Commissioner), 

High Commissioner of the State of Patani. 
His Honour LuANG VisUTR KOSA, 

Secretary of Legation attached to the Foreign Office at Bangkok. 
His Honour Phra Manas Manit, 

Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Bangkok. 



List of Committees 



Ways and Means : 

H.E. Monsieur C. KLEnrKNOW {Chairman). 
Dr. Karl Bernauer. Senhor PoTlER. 

Signer Faraone {Hon. Treasurer) Monsieur J. Ratard. 

Trade Statistics : 

R. Laidlaw, Esq., m.p. 
Dr. T. TAKAKr. W. G. van Wettum, Esq. 

Growth of Poppy and Production of Opium : 

Sir Alexander Hosie. 
Hon. Lew Yuk-lin. Dr. Hamilton Wright. 

Revenue Statistics, Tariffs, Excise, etc. 

Monsieur J. CORNILLON. 
Hon. Luang Visutr Kosa. Dr. W. Rossler. 

Treaties and International Agreements. 

H.E. TsuNEjiRO Miyaoka. 
Monsieur H. Breniek. Dr. C. D. Tenney. 

Press Committee ; 

Sir Alexander Hosie. Monsieur H. Brenier. Dr. T. Takaki. 

Printing Committee : 

Sir Alexander Hosie. 
Monsieur H. Brenier. J. H. Chalmers, E.sq. (Acting for Mr. T'ang Kuo-an.) 

( 7 ) 



Report of the Proceedings 



The Commission assembled for the first time at ii a.m. on the ist February, 1909, in 
the Palace Hotel at Shanghai. His Excellency Tuan Fang, Viceroy of the Liangkiang, 
nominated by Imperial Rescript for the purpose, welcomed the delegates in an address, which 
was afterwards repeated in English by Taotai Wen Ping-chung. 

The translation read was as follows: — 

Gentlemen. — On the 20th of September, 1906, an Imperial Edict was issued prohibiting 
the cultivation and use of opium throughout the Empire within the period of ten years. 
According to a Report from the Ministry concerned, the result of an inquiry into the question 
shows that up to the present progress has been made in reducing the area under cultivation of 
the poppy plant in the various provinces. 

As a matter of fact, the area where the poppy has been cultivated in the Kiangnan 
portion of Kiangsu province, has been now reduced by eighty per cent, while it is on record that 
from the six provinces of Shansi, Yunnan, Fukien, Anhui, Honan and Heilungkiang, or 
Northern Manchuria, memorials have been presented to the Throne reporting that the 
cultivation of the poppy will be entirely stopped by the winter of the present year. Even 
more than that, the gentry and merchants of the various provinces of the Empire have 
everywhere started societies to exhort and assist opium smokers to get rid of the baneful habit. 
For instance, we have an Association in Fukien province known as the "Anti-Poison Society" 
which has been making considerable progress in its campaign against the drug. 

Indeed, from the present outlook, together with the state of Public Opinion throughout 
our Empire, there are great hopes that the consumption of opium can be stopped in its 
entirety before the end of the prescribed limit of ten years. 

To-day it is m}' good fortune to be present at this International Conference, having 
been appointed by Imperial Rescript to open the proceedings. I am convinced that the 
countries of the world recognize the benevolence and philanthropy which have led to the 
gathering of the present Conference in the interests of civilization, and I may state that the 
people of our whole Empire are most grateful for it. It will need more eloquence than mine 
to fittingly express the cordial welcome with which our country hails the inauguration of 
this International Opium Conference, but I may take this opportunity, first, respectfully to 
tender the thanks of my Government and that of the people of this Empire to the American 
Government for initiating the movement which has brought about this Conference, and, next, 
to thank the Governments of the various countries here represented for so heartily joining 
in it. 

As the Representative of the whole Empire, I beg leave to give this Conference some 
of our ideas on the subject in view. 

I may be permitted to express my belief that this Conference will be principally guided 
by feelings of reason, benevolence and philanthropy in its desire to eradicate a poison and 
a bane to mankind. This being universally recognized, it becomes us to put aside alt 
prejudices of nationality and race, and be guided solely by that world-wide philanthropy and 
enlicrhtenment which have brought about this International Conference. For instance, the 
manner in which the Governments of the countries concerned have set about to stop the 
consumption of opium in their colonies and dependencies such as Formosa, Annam, the 
Philippine Islands, Java, etc., has been to undertake the monopoly of the sale of opium 
therein, a procedure which China alone has not yet put into actual force. As a matter of fact, 
the mere prohibition of opium without the Government having the monopoly of the sale of the 
drug will prevent the Government from learning the number of persons suffering from the 
habit, nor can it put into effect any laws for the suppression of opium consumption. Mr. 
Leech, Councillor of the British Legation in Peking, has stated — " Whether China can 
completely obtain the good she seeks, without government control of opium, both native- 
grown and imported, is somewhat doubtful," an opinion which gains my deep admiration for 

( 9 ) 



lo International Opium Commission 

his wisdom and far-sightedness, and merits our sincere thanks for his warm sympathy in our 
endeavours. What, however, is to be apprehended is that Chinese merchants importing opium 
may claim that such a step will be contrary to former treaties and disadvantageous to their 
trade, and so oppose it, thereby preventing China from putting into effect a proper control over 
opium and the spread of the opium prohibition throughout the country. Thus not only will it 
not agree with the sincere intentions first expressed by the British Government to give every 
assistance to China but also be a hindrance to the movement initiated by the American 
Government; nor will it enable the various countries represented in this Conference to show 
their unanimity in assisting this Conference to solve the questions before it. This is a matter 
to be regretted, indeed, and it is my earnest hope that this Conference will thoroughly go into 
this matter during its deliberations. 

It was at first intended to limit the abolition of opium in the Empire to ten years, but 
the various provinces have been able so to reduce the cultivation of the poppy that it would 
seem that this cultivation may be entirely stopped within the next couple of years. Moreover 
the sale of prepared opium has also been rapidly reduced to over one-half, so that we may 
certainly be able entirely to stop the sale and consumption of the native-grown opium within 
the prescribed limit of ten years. With the complete stoppage of our native-gi'own opium it 
would follow that the importation of the foreign drug will also stop as a natural sequence. 
Such being the case the people of my country will have reason to congratulate themselves on 
what has gone before, and this we will owe to the assistance given by the British Government, 
and to the labours of the American Government in initiating the movement which brought 
about this Conference. On the other hand the attempts of this Government to suppress opium 
are hampered by existing treaties. Should a way be found by which such clauses in the 
treaties that restrict the freedom of my Government in its work of abolishing the consumption 
of the drug in the Empire may be got over, so that we may succeed in accomplishing our 
great and important task — ^fortunate indeed will it be for our Government and the people of 
this Empire. It is my earnest hope that this Conference will use its best endeavours to 
thresh out this question. 

On the whole, since the main object of this Conference will be to consider the question 
of putting a stop to the consumption of opium, fortunate indeed will it be for the whole world 
if by the labours of the Conference a way be found to shorten the limit and bring about the 
abolition of opium at an early date. I do not think that national interests and division of 
races will be brought forward and produce difficulties between our countries, thereby hampering 
the work of opium abolition. 

What is the meaning of the phrase " to seek for gain and yet fear to overcome 
difficulties"? The honourable gentlemen who are present this day as members of the 
Conference have all been selected by their respective Governments for their benevolence, 
philanthropy and fame. Since such is the case, I am certain that none amongst this 
distinguished assembly will act contrary to the benevolent and enlightened objects which 
have brought them together here. I will, therefore, be the first to declare to this Conference 
that the Government and people of my country are determined to succeed in their object and 
will not by any means turn aside from accomplishing the task before them. 

As to the methods to be employed in accomplishing this end, the main idea will be to 
prohibit the cultivation of the poppy, the sale of the drug and the consumption thereof It is 
only to be apprehended that in putting into effect the law for this prohibition it may conflict 
with certain clauses of the treaties. It is my hope that this Conference will carefully 
investigate the matter beforehand so that there may be no misunderstandings in the future. 
In this my speech I do not know whether I have been successful in gaining the approval of 
the honourable gentlemen of this distinguished assembly, but I am ready to receive such 
suggestions as may be instructive to me from this honourable assembly, whereby I shall 
indeed be fortunate. Therefore, I now declare this Conference open. 

Immediately after the Viceroy's speech had been read, M. Ratard, Consul-General for 
and Senior Commissioner of the Delegation representing France, rose, and, addressing the 
Viceroy in French, preferred a request that French should be the official language of the 
Commission. He referred to a recent decision of the Waiwupu that the French tongue 
should be the official medium of diplomatic intercourse, and asked that, if not the language 
of the Commission, it should be placed on an equality with English in its deliberations. 

M. KleIMENOW, Consul-General and Delegate for Russia, stated that this proposal had 
his hearty support. 



Minutes of Proceedings 



1 1 



Monsieur Ratard'.s request was explained to the Viceroy by one of his Secretaries, but 
His Excellency appeared to be unwilling to express an opinion on the matter, and he almost 
immediately rose and left the room. 

Following the Viceroy's departure the International Opium Commission held its first 
session, the public and Press being excluded. 



Minutes of the First Session 

rst February, 1909 

The proceedings commenced at 1 1.40 a.m. On the proposal of one of the Chinese 
delegates, the Hon. Lew Yuk-lin, which was seconded by the Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi 
Smith, Chief Commissioner of the British Delegation, the Right Reverend Bishop Brent, Chief 
Commissioner of the Delegation representing the United States of America, was unanimously 
elected President of the Commission. 

Taking the Chair at 11.45 a.m., the PRESIDENT addressed the Hou.se as follows: 

Fellow Members of the International Opium Commission : — In electing me your 
Chairman, you have conferred an extraordinary honour on the Government which I represent. 
In behalf of the United States of America and also in behalf of my esteemed colleagues, 
I beg to thank you for this distinction. I cannot ignore the personal aspect of your action. 
Permit me, therefore, to express m\' appreciation of your willingness to select me as your 
Chairman. I am conscious of the fact that I am the junior in experience of many here 
present and I shall depend upon your counsel and aid to fulfil the functions of my office. 
As I interpret the position of Chairman, he is a momentary leader, and a leader is but the 
foremost companion. As far as in me lies, I shall strive to deal impartially and wisely 
with the various questions that shall arise, but I am well aware of my limitations. I recognize, 
however, that in any deliberative assembly there must exist between the Chair and the 
assembly the heartiest co-operation and desire to afford mutual help, so I shall constantly 
look to this honourable assemblage for that support and aid which the Chair will need. 
The high privilege of such a position as that in which I have just been inducted entails 
heavy responsibility. I dare assume only with the support of your aid the duties involved 
in the privilege that you have conferred upon me. 

The question that brings us together — the opium question — is an extremely difficult 
one and I think the very first thing that all of us should do is frankly to recognize the 
fact and openly to admit it. It is a great problem and we can hope to reach a successful 
solution of it only bj' facing facts and facing them squarely. We must have courage, and 
it seems to me that two principal features of courage are sincerity and thoroughness. All 
great problems go through two distinct stages. The first stage is what might be termed 
the emotional stage; it is based largely upon sentiment and ideals that are conceived in 
the inner self, sometimes more independent of facts than is warranted. In the problem before 
us, for a long period we have been passing through this preliminary stage — what I have 
termed the emotional stage. The emotional stage finds expression in agitation. We have 
had agitation. Now I believe we are at least midway in the second or scientific stage, when 
men deal with ascertained fact, and on the basis of ascertained fact reach certain conclusions 
of a practical character that will enable those upon whom the responsibility rests to arrive 
at some final conclusion. 

The first steps towards this International Commfssion were taken some time since by 
the Government which I have the honour of representing. The negotiations for the 
establishment of the Commission have covered a considerable period of time. At first it 
seemed wi.se to restrict the nations that would take part in this investigation, or Commission of 
Inquiry, to those which through territorial possessions, agriculture, or commerce, were actively 
interested in the opium question in the Far East. Since that time the scope has been 
considerably widened. Countries that have not the problem in its more acute form, as in the 
case of my own country and that of other countries similarly situated, were by mutual consent 
included by the Powers already interested, so that now I think we may say we are in a very 
real .sense an International Commission. Almost at the last moment— indeed at the very last 



12 International Opium Commission 

moment— two countries without a serious opium problem of their own were included by their 
expressed desire, and by the ready acquiescence of all other countries that up to date had 
notified their willingness to take part in the inquiry. Last summer it was decided by the 
American Commission — and notification was sent to all other Governments concerned — to 
study every phase of the opium question in their own territory, including the homeland. So 
that, presumably, in this International Commission, as we are desirous to ascertain all facts 
that will enable us to come to some satisfactory conclusion, we shall agree in the desire to 
receive such information as is presented regarding the various aspects of the question in all 
the countries represented on the Commission. 

It devolves upon me to pronounce with emphasis that this is a Commission, and as 
those who are informed — as all of you must be in matters that pertain to International affairs 
of this kind — a Commission is not a Conference. The idea of a Conference was suggested, 
but it seemed wise to choose this particular form of action rather than a Conference, because, 
for the present at any rate, we are not sufficiently well informed, and not sufficiently unanimous 
in our attitude, to have a Conference with any great hope of immediate success. Further, this 
Commission is a temporary Commission as distinguished from some of the permanent 
Commissions already in existence, and if we were to look for the source of our origin, I think 
we would find it in the articles of the Second Hague Conference, which provides for such 
International Commissions of Inquiry where points of difference on matters kindred to that 
which is before us arise between the Powers. So that in all our deliberations and in all our 
committee work, we must bear in mind that we are to confine ourselves to facts that will enable 
us to reach, I trust, certain unanimous resolutions and, perhaps, some recommendations of a 
practical, broad and wise character in connection with those resolutions. But, if I may be 
permitted to make a suggestion to this assembly, it seems to me that it would be extremely 
wise if we were to rule out of our deliberations what might be termed useless historical 
questions beneath which a great deal of controversy lies hidden, and which would only tend 
to fog the issue. The one way to reach a satisfactory solution of a grave problem is 
to simplify, as far as possible, the elements of that problem, and I believe that history 
bears me out when I say that no great question has ever been satisfactorily settled 
until men have come to a realization of the fact that purely side issues, and controversial 
matters which do not touch the main question, must be set aside and ignored. They may be 
of interest, but they are of no practical importance and, indeed, are impediments in the actual 
working out of the main question. 

I feel that I am speaking not merely for myself and my colleagues on the American 
Commission, but for this entire distinguished assembly, when I say that we are here to do such 
work as will bring the utmost credit to our respective countries and the utmost benefit possible 
to mankind. We must study this question in its every aspect — moral, economical, and 
commercial, diplomatic also, if you will — and we must study it, as I have already said, with 
those two phases of courage which will bring us to a happy conclusion of our labours — with 
sincerity and thoroughness. 

Nothing more remains for me to say, gentlemen, except to announce that this Inter- 
national Opium Commission is now organized and ready for business. 

With the consent of the Commission the Chair appointed 

Mr. F. W. Carey (Associate-Delegate for China) 

to be Secretary of the Commission, and 

Monsieur L. DK GlETER 

to be Assistant Secretary of the Commission. 

The names of the members of the several delegations were read out by the Chair 
as follows : — 

AMERICA, U. S. OF 

The Right Reverend Bishop Brent, d.d. 
Dr. Hamilton Wright. 
Dr. C. D. Tenney. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 
Dr. Karl Bernauer. 



Minutes of Proceedings 13 

CHINA. 

H.E. TUAN Fang, High Commissioner 
His Honour Lew Yuk-lin. 
Mr. T'ang Kuo-an. 
Dr. Hsu Hua-ching. 

FRANCE. 

Monsieur J. Ratard. 
„ H. Brenier. 

J. Cornillon. 

GERMANY. 

Dr. Rossler. 

Dr. G. Pernitzsch. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, g.c.m.g. 

Sir Alexander Hosie. 

Mr. Mackenzie King, c.m.g. 

Mr. James Bennett Brunyate. 

Mr. R. Laidlaw, m.p. 

ITALY. 
Signor R. Faraone. 

JAPAN. 

H.E. TsuNEjiRO Miyaoka. 
Dr. Y. Tahara. 
Dr. T. Takaki. 

THE NETHERLANDS. 

Mr. A. A. DE Jongh. 
Mr. W. G. VAN Wettum. 

PERSIA. 
Mr. M. D. RiZAEFF. 

PORTUGAL. 

Senhor O. G. POTIER. 

Commendador C. A. R. D'AssuMPgAO. 

RUSSIA. 
H.E. Monsieur C. Kleimenow. 

SIAM. 

The Right Hon. Phya Sakdisinie. 
His Honour Luang VISUTR KoSA. 
His Honour Phra Manas Manit. 

M. Ratard moved, and M. Kleimenow seconded, that the Commission should meet for 
deliberation in the afternoons only. But it was eventually agreed that a Committee on Rules 
and Order should be nominated, to discuss the question of hours of meeting, procedure, etc. 



14 International Opium Commission 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith proposed that, the said Committee being an important 
one, each delegation should nominate one member, and that the Committee should elect its 
own Chairman. This was carried nem con. The Committee on Rules and Order was then 
nominated as follows : — • 

America, U. S. of: Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT. 

Austria-Hungary : Dr. KarL Bernauer. 

China: Mr. T'ano Kuo-AN. 

France : Monsieur Brenier. 

Germany : Dr. W. RoSSLER. 

Great Britain : Mr. R. Laidlaw, M.P. 

Italy: Signor FaraoNE. 

Japan : H.E. Monsieur MiYAOKA. 

Netherlands: Mr. A, A. DE JONGH. 

Portugal : Senhor O. G. POTIER. 

Russia: Monsieur Kleimenow. 

Siam: The Right Hon. Phya Sakdisinie. 

On the proposal of Senhor Potier, seconded by Dr. Hamilton Wright, Mr. R. Laidlaw 
M.P., was elected Chairman of the Committee. 

The Commission adjourned at 12.45 p.m. 



Minutes of the Second Session 

2nd February, 1909 

The President took the Chair at 2,30 p.m. 

Before the business of the meeting commenced, the Right Hon. Sir CECIL CLEMEN TI 
Smith, addressing the Chair, asked on behalf of himself and the members of the Commission 
that the President's inaugural speech might be printed verbatim, and copies furnished to each 
delegate. The President acceded to this request. 

The Minutes of the previous meeting of the Commission were read by the Secretary 
and passed. 

The following statement was made by the Presh^ent : — 

" The Chair in announcing the names of accredited Commissioners yesterday felt compelled 
to omit those of two members of the Chinese Delegation, viz., H.E. Jui Ch'eng and His 
Honour Ts'ai Nai-huang who, though properly appointed by their Government, and bearing 
letters from the Waiwupu, had not been reported to the convening Power. Now, however, the 
request has gone forward that such notification be made, so that the formality necessary to 
place these delegates in regular standing will be forthwith observed." 

The following telegram from the President of the United States, received the same 
morning, was read out by the Chair : — 

" I extend to the Commissioners to-day assembled my good wishes and conviction that their 
labours will be of the greatest importance towards the general suppression of the the opium evil 
throughout the world. 

" Theodore Roosevelt." 

A number of telegrams addressed to the Commission by various Educational and 
Anti-opium Societies in the provinces of Kiangsu, Fukien and Kwangtung, were read b)- the 
Secretary {see Appendix: Vol. I). 

At the suggestion of Dr. Hamilton Wright, it was decided that in future non-urgent 
telegrams addressed to the Commission should not be read, but that sufficient copies should 
be printed and circulated for the information of the delegates. 



Minutes ok Pkoceeuings 15 

A recess of fifteen minutes was taken for the informal consideration of the Rules 
drawn up by the Committee on Rules and Order, appointed the previous day. On 
re-assembling, the Commission accepted the following Rules, without discussion : — 

I. — That the Chair shall be addressed as " Mr. President." 

2. — That no Delegate shall continue to speak until recognised by the Chair. 

The next Rule presented by the Committee read as follows : — 

3. — That each Delegation in its turn (alphabetically) shall lay a report covering 
its data on the opium question before the Commission as a whole, without 
discussion or debate; that a sub-Commission shall then be appointed by the 
President from names handed in by the various Delegations, and that the 
several reports shall be referred to the sub-Commission for discussion and 
report to the Commission in plenary session. The Commission shall nominate 
the Chairman of the sub-Commission; the sub-Commission shall appoint its 
secretaries and reporter. 

Mr. DE JONGH moved as an amendment that the second part, commencing "that a sub- 
Commission shall then be appointed," be struck out, and the following clause substituted: — 

"The International Opium Commission shall as a rule sit in plena; one or more sub- 
Commissions may be appointed when it is apparent that previous study by a limited number 
of experts is necessary for successfully dealing with any specific portion of the problem 
under consideration." 

The amendment was supported by the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith, who 
considered that the discussion of important points could not properh' be left to individual 
members of any delegation. 

After some discussion, Mr. de Jongh's amendment was put to the vote and carried 
(15 to 10). 

A proposal b\- Sir Cecil Clementi Smith that the Rules should be referred back 
to the Committee for revision was accepted, and the Commission adjourned at 4.40 p.m. 
until II a.m., 5th February. 



Minutes of the Third Session 

5th February, 1909 

The Commission assembled at 1 1 a.m. The President announced that the Minutes 
of the previous meeting would not be read unless called for. 

Monsieur de Gieter having given notice of his intention to resign. Monsieur de 
Laforcade was nominated Assistant Secretary, on the proposition of Monsieur Ratard ; and 
Mr. True was appointed official stenographer to the Commission. 

A Committee of Ways and Means was appointed, with authority to defray, and at the 
same time devise means for meeting, all expenditure incurred by the Commission as a whole. 

The President then addressed the House. Taking the Report of the Hague Peace 
Conference of 1907, he read extracts from the instructions given by the Secretary of State for 
the United States to the delegates representing that Government at the Conference, and spoke 
briefly on the object and scope of the International Commission on Opium. He reminded the 
deleo-ates that they were neither Envoys Extraordinary nor Ministers Plenipotentiary ; that 
it was clearly laid down that none of the Governments represented would be bound to accept 
the conclusions or to act upon the recommendations of the Commission ; consequently, they 



i6 International Opium Commission 

would not in any sense commit tiieir Governments to any definite course of action by the- 
views which they might express, individually or collectively, during the course of the enquiry.. 
It was their duty to thoroughly examine all questions that might come before them, and in. 
doing so to speak their minds with the utmost freedom, otherwise it would be next to- 
impossible to arrive at any practical conclusions, and the Commission would have failed to- 
serve any useful purpose. 

The following names, having been reported to the convening Power, were formally 
added to the official List of duly accredited members of Delegations : — 

Wu Pao-yen, Associate-delegate for China. 
F. A. Carl, do. do. do. 

J. L. Chalmers, do. do. do. 

F. W. Carey, do. do. do. 

C. Clementi, Assessor for Great Britain 
W. D. Barnes, do. do. do. 

As Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Order, Mr. R. Laidlaw, m.p., presentedl 
the following report : — 

The Committee met from 3.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. on the 2nd, and from 10.00 a.m. to. 
12.30 p.m. on the 4th February. The following Rules were drawn up: — 

It is resolved : — 

I. — That the Chair shall be addressed as " Mr. President." 

2. — That no delegate shall continue to speak until recognised by the Chair. 

3. — That when a vote is taken each delegation shall have only one vote. In the event 
of a vote being equally divided, the President shall have a deciding vote. 

4. — That immediately upon the adoption of these Rules, the President shall call for 
the presentation of reports concerning the various phases of the Opium ques- 
tion in the territories and dependencies of their respective countries from the 
delegations taking part in the International Opium Commission. 

5. — That each delegation in its turn (alphabetically) shall then lay a report covering 
its data on the opium question before the Commission, without discussion or 
debate. 

6. — That a reasonable time shall be allowed to members of the Commission generally 
for the examination of the reports presented. 

7. — That whilst the Commission will as a rule sit in plena, one or more Committees 
may be appointed for the purpose of studying the reports referred to under 
Rules 4, 5, 6, or any specific portion of them, when it is apparent that previous 
study by a limited number of experts is necessary for arriving at a conclusion 
regarding any problem under consideration. 

8. — That any Committee so appointed for the detailed study of a report, or section of 
a report, shall, upon the termination of its labours, report the result of its. 
examination to the Commission in plenary session, whereupon a general 
discussion on the report of such Committee shall be in order. 

9. — That the number and constitution of Committees shall in every case be decided by 
the Commission in plenary session, but a Committee may complete its own 
organisation. 
10. — That the manner of forming Committees shall be as follows : Each delegation 
shall hand in the name of one of its members to the President, who from 
amongst them will proceed to nominate the number necessary to serve on any 
one Committee. 
II.— That all proposals submitted to the Commission shall be handed to the President 
(or Chairman of a Committee) in writing, and a copy supplied on request to 
each delegation. 
12. — That the public shall not be admitted to the Commission, but that such 
communications regarding the progress of the general proceedings as may be 
deemed useful or expedient to make public shall be made to the Press by a 
Committee of three to be elected for that purpo.se. 



Minutes of Proceedings 17 

13- — That the Minutes of the plenary sessions of the Commission shall give a succinct 
resume of their deliberations, a proof copy of which shall be opportunely 
delivered to the members of the Commission ; and the Minutes shall not be read 
at the beginning of a session unless specially called for. Each delegate, shall, 
however, ha\e the right to request the insertion in full of his special declarations, 
according to the text delivered by him to the Secretary, and to make 
observations regarding the Minutes. 

14. — That the English language .shall be recognised as the official language of the 
deliberations and acts of the Commission. The Secretary shall, with the 
consent of the speaker himself, see that speeches delivered in any other language 
are summarized orall)' in English. 

15. — That each delegation shall have the right to introduce a secretary of delegation to 
the meetings of the Commission, providing that such secretary holds a 
substantive post in his Government Sfcr\'ice. Exception to this rule may be 
made in the case of a delegation of a country having no Consular or Diplomatic 
representative in China; but under no circumstances will other than bond-fide 
secretaries be admitted. The names of secretaries to delegations shall be 
formally reported to the Chair. 

16. — That except when otherwise decided by the Commission the hours of meeting of 
the Commission shall be from 10.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m., and from 2 to 5 p.m., 
on ever}' day of the week except Saturday and Sunday. 

Mr. L.MDLAW proposed that until all the Rules had been accepted or voted upon, each 
delegate should vote individually. 

As an amendment, Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT moved that "the Rules be considered and 
voted upon in the order in which they have been submitted by the Committee, and that each 
rule as adopted take effect automatically." 

This led to considerable discussion, but eventually the amendment was lost, and Mr. 
Laid law's proposal carried. 

Rules I and 2 having already been accepted at the last Session, Rule 3 came up for 
discussion. Monsieur Ratard moved the addition of the words "in questions of procedure 
and discipline" to the Rule, which was carried as amended. 

The following Rules were passed neni dis,: — Nos. 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, and 15. 

Rule 5 was accepted with the following addition, proposed by the Right Hon. Sir Cecil 
Clementi Smith : " It shall be within the power of the President to allow the presentation 
of any report to be postponed on due cau.se shown." 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith moved that Rule 6 should be altered to read as follows : — 

" That a copy of each report be supplied to each member of the Commission, and a reason- 
able time allowed to members of the Commission generally for the examination of the report 
presented ; and that thereafter the President shall call upon the Commission to discuss any 
report that may be ready for investigation." 

This was passed 7iein con. 

Dr. RoSSLER moved as an amendment to Rule 7 that the words " whilst the Commission 
will as a rule sit in plena" be deleted, and that the word "delegates" be substituted for 
"experts." After a further amendment by Mr. de Jongh had been negatived, the Rule as 
amended by Dr. Rossi er was passed. 

Sir Cecil Clemi-.nti Smith proposed the following addition to Rule 10:^ 

" That any delegate who is not himself a member of the Committee may attend the sittings 
of such Committee without taking part in any of its proceedings." 

The Rule was carried with this addition. 



i8 International Opium Commission 

On the motion of Monsieur Ratard, Rule 14 was altered to read as follows : — 

" That both English and French shall on principle be recognised as the languages to be 
used in the Commission, and that steps shall be taken to ensure that the deliberations be 
rendered, if necessary, and the Minutes recorded in both languages." 

The Rule was accepted as altered. 

With reference to Rule 16, Dr. Tennev moved that the Commission should also 
sit on Saturday mornings, but the proposition was negatived when put to the vote. 

As finall)' adopted b\' the Commission, the Rules of Procedure read as follows: — 

It is resolved :— - 

I. — That the Chair shall be addressed as "Mr. President." 

2. — That no delegate shall continue to speak until recognised by the Chair. 

3. — That when a vote is taken each delegation shall have only one vote. On questions 
of procedure or discipline, the President — in the event of a vote being equally 
divided — shall have a deciding vote. 

4. — That immediately upon the adoption of these Rules, the President shall call for the 
presentation of reports concerning the various phases of the opium question in 
the territories and dependencies of their respective countries from the dele- 
gations taking part in the International Opium Commission. 

5. — That each delegation in its turn (alphabetically) shall then lay a report covering 
its data on the opium question before the Commission, without discussion or 
debate. It shall be within the power of the President to allow the presentation 
of any report to be postponed on due cause shown. 

6. — That a copy of each report shall be supplied to each member of the Commission, 
and a reasonable time allowed to members of the Commission generally for the 
examination of the report presented : and that thereafter the President shall call 
upon the Commission to discuss any report that may be ready for investigation. 

7. — That one or more Committees may be appointed for the purpose of studying the 
reports referred to under Rules 4, 5, 6, or any specific portion of them, when 
it is apparent that previous study by a limited number of delegates is necessary 
for arriving at a conclusion regarding any problem under consideration. 

8. — That any Committee so appointed for the detailed study of a report, or section of 
a report, shall, upon the termination of its labours, report the result of its 
examination to the Commission in plenary session, whereupon a general 
discussion on the report of such Committee will be in order. 

9. — That the number and constitution of Committees shall in every case be decided by 
the Commission in plenary session ; but a Committee ma)' complete its own 
organisation. 
10. — That the manner of forming Committee shall be as follows: Each delegation shall 
hand in the name of one of its members to the President, who from amongst 
them will proceed to nominate the number necessary to serve on any one 
Committee: any delegate who is not himself a member of a Committee may 
attend the sittings of such Committee without taking part in any of its 
proceedings. 
[ I. — That all proposals submitted to the Commission shall be handed to the President 
(or Chairman of a Committee) in writing, and a copy supplied on request to 
each delegation. 
12. — That the public shall not be admitted to the Commission, but that such 
information regarding the progress of the general proceedings as may be deemed 
expedient to make public shall be communicated to the Press by a Committee 
of three to be elected for that purpose. 
I 3. — That the Minutes of the plenary sessions of the Commission shall give a succinct 
resumd of the deliberations, and that a proof copy shall be opportunely 
delivered to the members of the Commission ; and the Minutes shall not be read 
at the beginning of a session unless specially called for. Each delegate, shall 
however, have the right to request the insertion in full of his. special declara- 
tions, according to the text delivered by him to the Secretary, and to make 
observations regarding the Minutes. 



Minutes of Proi kkdincs 19 

14. — That both English and French shall on principle be recognised as the languages to 
be used in the Commission, and that steps shall be taken to ensure that the 
deliberations be rendered, if necessar\-, and the Mituites recorded in both 
languages. 

15, — That each delegation shall have the right to introduce a secretar\- of delegation to 
the meetings of the Commission, providing that such secretary holds a substan- 
tive post in his Government service. Exception to this rule may be made in 
the case of a delegation of a country having no Consular or Diplomatic 
representative in China ; but under no circumstances will other than bond-fide 
secretaries be admitted. The names of secretaries to delegations shall be 
formal])- reported to the Chair. 

16. — That, except when otherwise decided by the Commission, the hours of meeting of 
the Commission shall be from 10.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m., and from 2 to 5 p.m., on 
everv day of the week except Saturday and Sunday-. 

The Commission adjourned till 2 p.m. On re-assembling, the President selected three 
delegates to act as a Press Committee (Rule 12). 

In accordance with Rules 4 and 5, the President announced that the House was read\- 
to receive Reports from the several Delegations. Dr. Hamilton Wright, on behalf of the 
United States Delegation, presented a Report on the Opium Question as it affected the States, 
Territories, District of Columbia, and Possessions under the American flag. He summarized 
the data sjiven under the following heads : — 



N.A.TIONAL. 

Treaties with other Governments in regard to opium traffic. 

Tariffs under which opium is imported into the United States, its Territories and the 

District of Columbia. 
Excise Laws, governing the manufacture of Smoking Opium. 
Statutes that restrain American citizens from engaging in the Opium trade. 
Effect of Treaties and Tariffs on the trade in Opium. 
Opium, whence obtained. 

Smoking Opium, and the Chinese population in United States. 
Growth of the Popp\' within the United States, its Territories and the District of 

Columbia. 
Disposition of imported Opium. 

Federal, State and Municipal Laws, governing the use of Opium and its derivatives. 
Final Destination of Opium imported into the United States ostensibly for medicinal 

purposes. 
Final Destination of imports of Smoking Opium. 

Recent Effect of National, State and Municipal laws bearing on Opium and its derivatives. 
Revenue derived from import and excise duties on Opium. 
Present Status of laws on Opium of various sorts. 

PORTO RICO 

CUIiA 
INTKRNATIONAI. 

Measures needed to make recent home Law effective. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright referred to the Bill that had just been passed by Congress, 
which he summarized as follows : — 

gg(, J After April first, 1909, it shall be unlawful to import into the United States opium in 

any form, or any preparation or derivatives thereof, except that opium and 
preparations thereof other than smoking opium or opium prepared for smoking, may 
be imported for medicinal purposes only, under regulations which the Secretary of 
the Treasury is hereby authorized to prescribe, and when so imported it shall be 
subiect to the duties which are now or may hereafter be imposed by law. 



20 International Opium Commission 

Sec. 2. — If any person shall assist in importation or receive, buy or sell prohibited opium or 
derivatives, such opium shall be forfeited and destroyed, and the offender shall be 
fined not exceeding five thousand dollars nor less than fifty dollars, or imprisoned 
not more than two years, or both. Possession of such opium or derivatives thereof 
to be deemed sufficient evidence to authorize ccmviction unless defendant explain 
possession to the satisfaction of the jury. 

He said that they were justified in feeling, so far as the United States itself was 
concerned, that they were capable of enforcing the provisions of this bill. The Government 
could keep without its borders all opium that was not required for legitimate medicinal 
purposes. Nevertheless, it was the desire of the Government that countries immediately 
adjacent to the United States should take similar measures in regard to opium as they had done. 

During the reading of the American Report the President vacated the Chair, which at 
his request was taken temporarily by the Chief Commissioner for Great Britain. 

The Right Rev. J^ishop Brent presented a report on the opium question in the Philippine 
Islands. In the course of his remarks he stated that the chief difficulties encountered by the 
Government in carrying out prohibitory legislation were — 

(i) Inadequate facilities, neither sufficient money nor men being provided for the 
vigorous enforcement of the law: and 

(2) The ease with which opium could be smuggled. There was a constant supply of 
contraband opium coming into the Islands from Hongkong, Singapore and 
British North Borneo, and without International co-operation it would be 
impossible to control such smuggling. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith followed with a report explaining the 
Regulations and Restrictions in force with regard to Opium and Morphine in Great Britain, 
Australia, Hongkong, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements and Weihaiwei. 

H.E. TSUNEJIRO MiYAOKA, in submitting a report on the Opium question in Japan 
and Formosa, said : — 

" In a note which was addressed by the United States Charge d'Affaires, July 14th, 
1908, to H.I.J.M.'s Minister for Foreign Affairs it was stated that the subject which would come 
up for the consideration of this International Commission was being investigated by the United 
States Commissioners, and that as far as they were concerned the investigation related to 

" I. — The importation of crude opium, its derivatives and chandu ; 
"2.— Internal consumption of crude opium, both licit and illicit ; 
" 3 — -Internal manufacture and use oi chandu ; 
"4. — Manufacture of morphia and other derivatives; 



"9 
'10 



— Use of the crude drug and preparations ; 

— Use of morphia and other derivatives, both licit and iUicit ; 

— Extent of popp\' cultivation in America; 

— Possibilities of poppy cultivation ; 

— Federal laws regarding the importation of opium ; 

— Municipal laws governing the use of opium and its derivatives. 



" It was not possible for us to pursue precisely the programme laid down, but we have 
followed the general outline of the investigation suggested by the United States Government. 
I will not trouble this Commission by reading the whole of our Report, but I will state the 
general principles on which it is based. 

" We have divided the subject of our inquiry into Japan Proper and Formosa. The 
manufacture of opium for medicinal purposes is entirely in the hands of the Government 

There are three chemical laboratories maintained by the Central Government one in Tokyo' 

one in Osaka and one in Yokohama. These three medical laboratories are under the control 
of the Minister of Home Affairs. Of these three laboratories, the one in Tokyo, of which 
my esteemed colleague Dr. Tahara is the Director, is the only laboratory where the manufac- 
ture of opium for medicinal uses is conducted. You have here, therefore, the only man 
who is responsible for the production of opium for medicinal purposes in Japan. 



MiNUTKS OK I^ROCEKDINCS 21 

" In Japan proper, when the medicinal uses of opiuin became known to us, it was our 
intention, if possible, to produce tlie opium necessaiy for medicinal puipuses in Japan. I<"or 
that purpose the cultivation of poppy was encouraged; but we soon fiund out that the 
climate did not suit the plant, and there is now vct-y little cultivation (jf poppy in Japan. 

"Now, as regards pLirmosa, the cultixation of po[)[)y is absoUitel)' prohibited. The 
government of Formosa imports tlie crude opium required (uv making smoking opium. That 
is strictly under the control of the Government, and in this report we have presented full 
statistics relating to the number of consumers, the amnunt of opium consumed and all other 
possible subjects which appear to us to be of importance, having in view the line of 
investigation which has been suggested by the United States." 

The Chair decided that questions on matters of fact in connection with the reports 
presented should be deferred until sufficient time had elapsed for studying the Reports. 

The Commission adjourned at 4.30 p.m. 



Minutes of the Fourth Session 

8th February, 1909 

The PreSIDEXT took the Chair at 10.30 a.m. H.E. Tsunejiro Aliyaoka called 
attention to an ainbiguity in the Report on Japan: page 27. Under "Purchases and Sales," 
the quantities given are in Kilos, the decimal point being carried to three places. 

Dr. Tennev enquired if the Japanese Delegation intended to present any report dealing 
with the opium question in Corea. Monsieur Miyaolca, in reply, stated that Corea had 
been omitted from the Japanese Report by an oversight, but that enquiries were now being 
made, and the necessary information would be supplied later. 

Tlie President remarked that questions of the kind propounded by Dr. Tenney should 
be handed to the Delegation concerned in writing. 

i\Ir. T'ANG KUO-AN presented a Report on opium for China, and dealt seriatim with 
the subjects referred to under the different headings, eg., Cultivation of Opium; Production 
and Consumption; Morphia; Anti-Opium Remedies; Anti-Opium Measures. 

He ack-nowledged the shortcomings of the Meinorandum, but described the difficulties 
that had to be contended against by his Delegation in compiling it. Owing to the absence 
of any proper Government machinery, it was well-nigh impossible for them to obtain reliable 
statistics of the area of land under cultivation, and no attempt had been made to arrive at 
any conclusion in that respect. Mr. T'ang explained the discrepancies that appear between 
the estimates of Morse and Leech, and those based on Customs Reports. With regard to 
the figures reported by the Board of Revenue, he stated that about 25 per cent of the total 
quantity of opium produced in China escaped taxation, and that the Imperial Exchequer 
received not more than one-third of the revenue actually collected, the remaining two-thirds 
being retained by the different piovinces for local administrative pui'poses. Referring to the 
figures under " Consumption," he acknowledged that 50 million might be considered an 
under-estimate of the total adult male population of China, but that the actual number was 
immaterial : no manipulation of figures could alter the fact that more than 600,000 piculs of 
opium were consumed annually within the Empire up to the year 1906. 

Speaking of morphia, Mr. T'ang said that enormf)us quantities of the drug were being 
imported clandestinely into China, and he quoted figures from the Memorandum in support 
of his statement. He also indicated the necessity for immediate action to curtail the spread 
of so-called anti-opium remedies amongst the people, as most of these nostrums contained 
opium in some form or other. He reviewed the progress of the anti-opium campaign in the 
different provinces, and the results that had attended official and public action. He described 
the task before them as stupendous, and declared that the Chinese people were grappling 
earnestly with a problem greater than any that had ever confronted a nation in the history 
of the world. 



22 International Opium Commission 

Mr. T'ang considered that on the whole the situation in China with regard to the 
opium evil was distinctly encouraging, and he concluded b_\' expressing the hope that the 
movement initiated by China's late Rulers in their memorable Edict of the 20th September, 
1906, would be brought to a successful conclusion. 

In presenting a Report for Germany (including Kiaochow\ Dr. RoSSLEK said ; — 

"I am in the happy position to present a short report as we have not to face a serious 
opium problem, either in Germany or in our Far Eastern Colony. As regards the German 
Empire the poppy is grown for the sake of its seed whicli is used in bakeries, and for the 
production of oil ; but opium is not produced from it to an\' extent worth mentioning. No 
special laws exist regarding the cultivation and the manufacture of opium. The importation 
of opium is dut)' free, no taxes of any kind are levied thereon. The right of selling opium 
and its derivatives fjr medical purposes is confined to apothecaries; for other than medical 
purposes it may be sold by persons holding a license, but certain conditions, of course, have 
to be observed. The importations have been constantl}' increasing since 1901 and amounted 
to 68,700 kg. in 1905. The principal importations were from Turkey in Asia and France. 
.About one-fifth are re-exported, mainly to the United States of America. 

"As regards Kiaochow, the cultivation of the poppy has beeti prohibited since the 
territory came under German administration. The importation of prepared opium is 
likewise prohibited and the sale of the drug is kept under strict control. Keepers of divans, 
retail dealers and private smokers have to take out licenses. The importations are small and 
mainly for local consumption; in 1907 they amounted to 143 piculs. About 2.6 per cent of 
the population are opium smokers. The revenue derived from opium was about 1.3 per cent 
of the total revenue in 1906-7." 

The President announced that in accordance with Rule 15, the names of the follow- 
ing -Secretaries had been formally reported to the Chair:-- 

America: Mr. H. F. Hawley. 

Japan: Mr. KeizO Yokoyama. 

Persia: Mr. B. A. SOAIEKH. 

Prance: ATr. X.avier DE Laforcade. 

The Chief Commissioner of the Netherlands Delegation, Mr. A. A. DE JoNGH, presented 
a Report concerning the Opium question in Netherlands-India, and a Memorandum on the 
Opium Monopoly in that Colony, together with two small boxes containing a set of .samples 
illustrating the packing system employed. His statement is as follows : — 

" In presenting the report of the Netherlands Delegation, I beg to state that it gives 
summary information on the opium question in Netherlands-India, under the headings which 
were suggested by the American Government as a practical way of dealing with the subject. 

" We have not thought it advisable to bewilder the Commission with a mass of statistics, 
but we are ready to give such additional information as may be desired, and as is in our 
possession. 

"Of the five Appendices to our Report, No. Ill, which is the Opium Monopoly Ordin- 
ance for Java, is the most important one to the Commission. It contains the rules for our 
R6gie system, which may possibly serve as an example to other Powers who are desirous of 
putting the sale of opium under effective Government control. 

" It may be mentioned here that the President of the Philippine Opium Commission of 
1903, which studied all the opium systems in the Far East, told me that in his opinion our 
Java .system was the very best, both for the benefit of the people and in the interests of the 
Treasury. 

"To facilitate the study of our system, we beg to add to our report a separate 
Memorandum, in which are given more details than are to be found in the ordinance and 
some statistics showing the cost price of monopoly chandu, the net profits of the R^gie as 
compared with those under the farm system, and the decrease in the use of opium per head 
of the population from 1894 to 1908, being a period of fifteen years." 



Minutes oi- Proceedincjs 23 

The CoiTimission adjourned at 12.30 p.m. On ic-asscinbling- at 2 p.m., Monsieur 
MlVAOKA moved the following resolution : — 

''That as far as practicable notice of reports, questions or propositions to be submitted, and 
of speeches or remarks to be delivered, shall be given to the Chair in advance, in order that the 
latter may be in a position to announce before the adjournment of each session the order of 
business which is Hkely to engage the attention of the Commission at the following sitting." 

A short discussion followed. Sir Cecil Cletnenti Smith suggested that the words 
" speeches or remarks " should be left out of the resolution, and Monsieur Ratard concurred 
in thinking that it would be impossible to notify in ad\ance the nature of any speeches it 
might be necessar\' U> deliver. Dr. Hamilton Wright spoke in favour of the resolution, which, 
however, was lost on being put to the vote. 

A report on the opium question as it concerns Siam was subrnitted by the Right Hon. 
Phva .SakdisinIK, Chief Commissioner of the Siamese Delegation. He said that in Siam the 
manufacture and sale of opium was and had been for a long time under Government 
supervision. It was fonnerly administered by an opium farm, but since January, 1907, had 
been controlled directly by the Opium Regie. He stated that practically no opium was 
imported into Siam, except as supplies for the Government factory, and that the country 
itself produced no opium. The licit use of morphine and other derivatives was confined to 
medicinal purposes, and the illicit use of morphine, in the form of hypodennic injection, was 
rarely met with. The Right Hon. gentleman affirmed that the aim of his Government was to 
ultimately suppress the use of opium altogether ; but they intended to follow a conservati\e 
polic}-, and not to venture on experiments that might prove disastrous to the revenue of the 
State without helping towards the desired end. 

The Commission adjourned at 3 p.m. until Wednesday, loth February. 



[ Note. — The official stenographer, Mr. True, was talven seriously ill on the 8th FV-ljruary, and the Commission was 
without the services of a stenographer until the 15th February.] 



Minutes of the Fifth Session 

loth February. 1909 

On the Chair being taken by the President at 10.30 a.m., Mr. J. B. Brunvate rose to 
present a report on the opium and morphine question as ii concerns India and Burma. 
Reviewino' seriatim the various sections of the report, he elucidated, and occasionally 
amplified from personal knowledge, those points which he desired to bring more particularly 
to the notice of the Commission. 

Dealino- first with the question of inorphine, Mr. Brunyate stated that the morphia 
habit was of comparatively recent growth in India, and as soon as the attention of the 
Government had been attracted to the use of the drug for other than medicinal purposes steps 
were taken to hinder any further expansion. Its use was confined principally to the large 
centres of population, and it did not seem to grow in favour with such rapidity as cocaine, 
against which, it might be mentioned, prohibitory action had also been taken. The quantity 
of morphine which an\- one individual might legal!)- possess — and then only for medicinal 

purposes was now limited in India to 10, and in Burma to 5, grains. The possession of 

morphia by medical practitioners and druggists had also been regulated. 

Turnino- to opium, Mr. Brunyate, after a preliminary reference to the activity of recent 
Opium Adrninistration in India, began his analysis of the subject by an examination of the 
conditions of production, manufacture and trade. He distinguished between opium grown in 
territories under the direct control of the Government and that which is produced in those 
Native States which have continued to exercise the right of cultivating the poppy. In the 
former case, steps had been taken in the direction of reducing cultivation in anticipation of and 



24 International Opium Commission 

during the currency of the expected Agreement with China, and a more than proportionate- 
diminution of area had already been effected. In the latter case, the action of the Government 
is confined to regulating exports within the permitted limits. He alluded to the difficulty of 
finding remunerative crops in substitution for popp)' in the Malwa States and to the fact that 
the large stocks of opium in the hands of traders at the time that the Agreement became 
operative further enhanced the difficulty in dealing with the question of cultivation in that 
area, the existing supply being sufficient, without further production, to provide the exports 
for a large part of the ten-3'ear period. 

The purchase of the Bengal {i.e., Fatna and Benares) drug from the licensed cultivator,, 
and its subsequent manufacture, were in the hands of the Government, and trading interests 
did not arise until the sale of the drug for e.xport at Calcutta, or for consumption iii India to 
licensed vendors. In the case of Malwa opium, a succession of important commercial interests 
was involved in the passage of drug from the cultivator, until it reached the hands of the large 
export firms in Bomba)?, and was thence distributed to associated firms in the Far East. 

In giving the lecei I L figures for the quantit)' of opium e.xported from India to foreign 
countries, Mr. Brun\'ate pointed out that these were no longer an index to the future dimen- 
sions of the trade, as by the Agreement which became operative from the ist January, 1908 
between His Majesty's Government and China, the total volume of exports was limited to — 

61,900 chests in 1908. 
56,800 „ 1909. 

51,700 „ 1910. 

It had further been agreed that, if during these three years the Chinese Government duly 
carried out their arrangements for diminishing the production and consumption in China itself,. 
His Majesty's Government undertook to continue this annual diminution in the. same propor- 
tion after the period in question, the restriction of the imports of Turkish, Persian and other 
opium into China being separately arranged for by the Chinese Government and carried out 
simultaneously. Thus, at the end of ten years, when the Agreement would have produced its 
full intended effect, the permissible export of India opium to countries other than China 
would stand at a fixed maximum of 16,000 chests a \ear. 

This Agreement had been accepted by the Chinese Government in January 1908, with 
an expression of deep gratitude to His Majesty's Go\-ernment; and the Waiwupu, after a 
year's experience had recently communicated to His Majesty's Minister at Pekino- their con- 
tinued and entire satisfaction with the arrangement. 

Mr. Brunyate next dealt with the questions of the Excise Administration and the 
Consumption of Opium in India, first sketching the main pr(jvisions of the Opium Act of 1878 
by which, and the rules made thereunder, the use of the drug in India was now regulated. 
Summarising the general restrictions more or less uniformly applicable in all provinces, he 
mentioned that the sale oi smoking preparations was absolutely prohibited (except in Burma) 
as also the co)isumption of opium in an\' form in a licensed opium-shop. The private 
possession of opium by individuals was limited in the niajorit\' of provinces to 540 grains 
and in a few provinces to 900 grains, while no person (except in Burma) was allowed to 
possess .'smoking preparations of opium, even prepared by himself, in excess of 180 o-rains 
weight. 

After mentioning that the common method of using opium in India was by swallowino- 
the crude drug, Mr. Brunyate stated the broad facts connected with the distribution of the - 
habit in India, and the purposes for which opium was employed in addition to its use as an 
indulgence. He next subjected the statistics of recorded consumption of opium in each 
province for a series of years to analysis, and pointed out that a large part of the increase 
which had occurred in the last two or three years could be definitely accounted for by the 
smuggling of opium into Burma, where a policy of prohibition is in force in re"-ard to the 
Burman population. The total recorded annual consumption of British India, excludine 
Burma, now stood at the equivalent of about eight thousand chests of export opium. 

Mr. Brunyate then proceeded to describe more fully the stages through which the 
policy of prohibition adopted by the Government in Burma had passed, and its results. The 
experiment, which seemed to him an exceedingly interesting one, had now extended over 
fifteen years and its results, as exhibited in the statistics of recorded consumption, had been 
an immediate and heavy fall in consumption at the outset followed by a large and rapid increase 
up to a few years ago. Since then the figures had shown a definite tendency to proc^ressive 
decline. Smuggling, it was explained, had existed with little check in the beginntno- but 
revi.sed arrangements, including strict supervision over sales, and the creation of a .s'trone 
preventive establi.shment, had subsequently led to an increased re.sort to licit modes of supph' 



Minutes of PjiotiiEDiNGS 25 

These measures, however, had still left it possible for opium to be purchased by those con- 
sumers to whom the prohibitive policy does not apply (i.e., Indians and Chinese), and to be 
illegally retailed by them to the excluded Burman. During the last, few years this question 
had been seriously taken up. Measures had been adopted to ascertain the true consumption 
of individual consumers, and to limit their supplies to their own personal requirements. The 
effect of this was traceable in the decline of consumption since 1904-5. Reviewing the whole 
experiment, he believed that in Upper Burma the opium habit had been kept well in hand. 
In Lower Burma success appeared to be in sight. It remained, however, to be seen whether 
the further steps now being taken in the two Bengals, as well as in Burma, would effectively 
meet the difficulty arising from smuggling. It was necessarily difficult to produce precise 
statistical evidence as to the proportion of Burmans who were actually, though illegally, 
consumers of opium, but the jail statistics would serve to throw some light on the point. In 
the ten years preceding the introduction of the policy of prohibition, the average percentage of 
consumers among the jail population had been 20.39. I" the first eight years of prohibition 
the average percentage fell to 16.69, the general tendency being downward though there was 
a slight rise in the middle of the period. In the four years which followed the improvement 
of the original arrangements earl)- in 1902, the average fell to 12.8 per cent, and in 1905, the 
latest year for which he was able to produce the figures, it stood at 12.12. 

Continuing, Mr. Brunyate referred to the important revenue derived from the use and 
export of opium by the Native States in Central India and Rajputana, and by the 
Indian Government. The bulk of the revenue derived by Native States from opium was due to 
the assessment, at relatively high rates, of land capable of producing the poppy. There was 
also a large number of miscellaneous taxes, some of which, however, yielded only small 
amounts. The Indian Government derived a revenue of nearly ;^i,000,000 a year from the 
use of opium within India itself, from which there must be deducted such share of the cost of 
the general excise establishments as might be considered attributable to the administration of 
opium. The total revenue derived from exports during the last two or three years, before 
reductions began to be effected in co-operation with China, had been about 3^ millions 
sterling annually, of which a little under three millions might be regarded as due to the exports 
to China. The latter figure would be somewhat lower were a longer period taken in calculating 
the average. 

Mr. Brunyate concluded his explanatory statement by quoting the words in which His 
Excellency the Earl of Minto, Viceroy and Governor General of India, had publicly referred 
to the intended co-operation with China, on its announcement in connection with the 
discussion of the Budget Statement of the Indian Government in March 1907: — 

" At first sight I grant that China's proposals are very alarming as to their possible 
effects on the Indian revenues. But I am afraid I am unable to follow the" .... "sweeping 
assumption that India is about to be sacrificed for the pleasure of a few faddists. 
Neither do I think we are entitled to doubt the good faith of the Chinese Government as to 
the objects of their proposals. Papers which I have had recently before me indicate every 
intention on the part of China to reduce with a strong hand the consumption of opium and the 
growth of the poppy in her own territory. I am no opium faddist. I quite admit the 
hardship a proscription of opium would entail on those who use it in moderation, as many irt 
this country do, and I am well aware of the difficulties surrounding any attempt to reduce its. 
production. But there is no doubt throughout the whole civilized world a feeling of disgust 
at the demoralizing effect of the opium habit in excess. It is a feeling in which we cannot 
but share. We could not with any self respect refuse to assist China on the grounds of loss of 
revenue to India". ... "I admit that the task China has set herself may be greater than 
she can accomplish, and that we have a perfect right to require that in agreeing to the 
reduction of imports from India we should be satisfied of the results of China's efforts to reduce 
her own internal opium production. But, notwithstanding the prospect of a heavy loss in 
revenue, I hope we may accept". . , the . . . "view that, provided the transition state through 
which we must pass is spread over a sufficient number of years, we need apprehend no 
financial disaster." 

The Commission adjourned for the mid-day recess at 12.45 P-f"- 

On the members re-assembling at 2.15 p.m., Monsieur Ratard placed on the table a 
report relating to the use of opium and its derivatives in France. He quoted some figures, 
showing the net importation of the drug into that country and the average individual con- 
sumption, and pointed out that these were not of a nature to give the least cause of anxiety 
to his Government. Continuing, Monsieur Ratard described the steps taken by the French 



26 International Opium Commission 

Municipal Council, since the issue of the prohibitory Edicts, to reduce opium smoking in the 
French Concession at Shanghai. The closing of the divans, all of which are registered and 
under police supervision, was deemed impracticable as long as the sale of opium continued to 
be permitted. To mention one of several reasons— it was considered that the danger of 
conflagrations in the Concession would increase in proportion to the number of individual 
smokers who would be driven to use opium lamps in their own homes. Consequently, the 
plan adopted was to increase the Municipal taxes payable by each divan (according to the 
number of couches on the premises) up to the point when — no profit being possible — these 
establishments would close of their own accord. The amount of the tax had already been 
doubled twice during the past two years, the result bemg a decrease of 5 per cent in the 
number of licensed establishments, and of 28 per cent in the number of couches in actual use. 

Monsieur Ratakd spoke in French, and his remarks were rendered into English by 
Monsieur Brenier, who then proceeded to summarize briefly the data contained in a report 
presented by his Delegation on the opium question in French Indo-China. He said that the 
traffic in opium was a Government monopoly, and the importation, manufacture and sale of the 
drug were strictly controlled. Practically no opium was grown in French Indo-China except 
in those districts bordering on the Chinese frontier, and even there the production was 
sporadic and insignificant. Generally speaking, the soil and climatic conditions of the 
colony were unfavourable to poppy cultivation. Monsieur Brenier stated that the opium habit 
was confined almost entirely to the richer classes among both the Chinese and Annamese, 
and concluded his remarks by mentioning that the revenue derived from opium constituted 
about one-sixth of the Colonial budget. 

The French report, having been laid on the table, Senhor O. G. POTIER, the senior 
representative for Portugal, addressed the Chair as follows : — 

" Mr. President. — I have the honour to present my Memorandum concerning the opium 
question. I regret that this Memorandum is not quite complete : it covers mainly the opium 
trade of Macao. Up to the present, I have not received from my Government anv information 
and data concerning Portugal and her Colonies. As soon as they reach me, I shall have 
pleasure in presenting them in an additional Memorandum. 

" Beyond what is contained in the Memorandum, the Portuguese Delegation has no 
other remarks and important points to offer for the consideration of their honourable 
colleagues. 

" I beg leave to hand you a resume of our Memorandum, which is in the hands of the 
printer and will soon be circulated." 

The President expressed the hope that those reports not \et before the Commission 
would soon be forthcoming. 

The Delegations for Austria-Hungary, Persia, and Portugal respectively informed the 
Chair that their reports would be ready for presentation on Friday. 

Mr. DE JONCil moved the following resolution : — 

"That in Article 16 of the Rules regulating pmcedure the words ' 2.J0 to ^.jo p.m.' 
be substituted for the words '2.00 to j.oo p.m.' " 

As an amendment. Monsieur Ratard proposed that the alteration should read 2.30 to 
5.00 p.m. Mr. de Jongh withdrew his resolution in favour of Monsieur Ratard's amendment, 
which on being put to the vote was accepted by the Commission. 

The Delegations for China, Japan and the Netherlands promised to prepare replies to 
questions handed to them by Mr. R. Laidlaw, M.P. 

(N.B. — All questions and answers will be found at the end of the report of the country 
they concern^) 

At 3.30 p.m., the Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith suggested an adjournment 
until Friday morning (12th February) in order that delegates might have time to study the 
reports already in their possession. This proposal meeting with approval, the Commission 
adjourned. 



Minutes uk Procekuings 27 

Minutes of the Sixth Session 

1 2th February, 1909 

Thk President took his seat at 10.30 a.m. Dr. Karl Bernauer presented a report on 
opium and its use in Austria-Hungary, where the problem is not acute, and he was followed 
by Mr. M. D. Rizaeff, who read a brief Memorandum (prepared by the Secretary to the 
Persian Delegation, Mr. B. A. Somekh) dealing with the opium question as it concerns Persia, 
and declared his willingness to supply an\- further information in his power. 

On behalf of the Russian delegation and himself, .Signor Faraone proposed an 
amendment to No. 5 of the Rules of Procedure, vi.::. : 

"That after the words 'due cause shown' the following clause shall be added: 'and 
pending such presentation the work of the Commission shall continue.'" 

This resolution was adopted by the House, after which the discussion of the rL-port on 
China was declared to be in order. 

Sir Ai.EXANDER HosiE handed some questions (vide Vol. H: China Repoit) to the 
Chinese Delegates relative to their report, and spoke as follows: — 

" There is no Member of this Commission more in sympathy than I am with the desire 
and aim of the Government of China to eradicate the cultivation of the poppy and the 
consumption of opium in China, for it has been my lot to reside and travel for years in the 
chief opium-producing centres of the Empire, in Szechuan, Yiinnan, and Kueichow, and to 
have had personal contact with the wretchedness, poverty, misery, and evil which the abuse of 
opium has brought to the people of these three Western provinces. I trust, therefore, that in 
putting some questions in regard to statements made in the Memorandum on Opium presented 
to this Commission by the Chinese Delegates, and in calling attention to points that appear to 
the British Delegation to require elucidation, I shall be exonerated from the charge of carping 
criticism, and that it will be understood that my sole object is to arrive at facts which are 
intended to assist — not to embarras.s — China in carr)'ing out the gigantic task which she has 
set herself to accomplish. ■• 

" Mr. T'ang, in presenting the Memorandum, disarmed serious criticism b\' stating that 
it had been impossible to procure or present returns of the acreage under poppy, or of the 
number of smokers. Acreage was called for by the Imperial Decree of June 26th, 1907, and 
by Regulations approved by Imperial Decree on the 23rd of May, 1908, the provincial 
authorities were called upon to direct the local authorities to make returns within six months 
of the area of land under poppy, for transmission to the Ministry of Finance and the Ministr)' 
of the Interior; and by the same regulations the provincial authorities were instructed to obtain 
from their subordinates the number of opium smokers, before the end of the year, for 
transmission to the same Ministries for purposes of record. The wording of the Imperial 
Decree in regard to acreage is as follows: — ' It is also commanded that an annual return of 
the land under opium cultivation be made, by way of verification and to meet the desire of 
the Court to relieve the people of this evil.' Such returns have not been laid before this 
Commission, and the British t)elegation would ask the Chinese Delegates whether they arei in 
a position to state that Returns of Acreage and Smokers will be made for each province and 
duly published as official documents. Mr. T'ang might have informed the Commission wth 
equal truth that it was impossible to furnish an official reliable return of the production of 
opium in China ; but an attempt has been made to arrive at a rough estimate of production, 
and to draw a comparison between the output of 1908, and 1906, when the Imperial Decree 
was issued ; but this rough approximation of production loses much of its value as it is 
admitted in the Memorandum that, as regards the inland provinces — the greatest opium- 
producing districts in China, where the taxation is irregular and for the most part evaded, 
and where public or official returns are practically unknown — the estimate is merely 
patchwork. Attempts have also been made to arrive at the number of smokers, and their 
percentages of the population and of adult males; but, ba.sed as they are on figures admittedly 
unreliable, the result is necessarily of inconsiderable value. 

"Before, however, coming to production and consumption, I should like to draw the 
attention of the Commission to pages 5 and 6 of the Chinese Memorandum, where a table is 
given of the distribution of foreign opium, from which it is deduced that the only provinces 



28 International Opium Commission 

showing an increase in the consumption of foreign opium in 1908, as compared with 1906, 
are Kiangsi and Anhui. This, I think, is somewhat misleading, for as soon as opium has 
paid duty and Hkin at any port in China, and the balls have been labelled and certificated 
by the Customs, they may be carried by Chinese into any province in the Empire without 
again coming under the cognisance of the Imperial Maritime Customs; and to say, for 
example, that the net import of 16,996 piculs of foreign opium into the ports of Shanghai^ 
Chinkimzg, and Nanking was all consumed in the province of Kiangsu is altogether 
misleading. Certificated opium finds its way from one province to another by inland channels 
uncontrolled by the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

"Another point to which I would call attention is the opium revenue table on page 10 
of the Memorandum. What is the total revenue derived from Native opium? The duty 
and likin (or rather a tax collected in lieu of transit dues) given in the table represent 
merely the share of the taxation on native opium which falls to the Imperial Maritime 
Customs. The latter, in addition, collected and handed over to the Native Collectorates 
in 1906: — 

Haikuan Tls. 369,997 as Kaochuan and 

K'up'ing „ 641,864 „ Tung-shui 
and in 1907 

K'up'ing „ 827,232 as Tung-shui. 

"These are paltry sums compared with the actual sums collected, for we know that 
51,827 piculs of native opium arrived at Ichang from Western China in 1908, and we know 
that this opium was liable, in addition to other provincial taxation, before or on arrival at 
Ichang X.O a consolidated provincial duty of 115 K'up'ing taels a picul, or a total of K'up'ing 
Taels 5,960,105, a sum in excess of the total revenue derived from foreign opium during the 
year. It may here be noted that the native opium which found its way down river from 
Western China to Ichang by this one route exceeded the net import of all foreign opium into 
China in 1908 by 3,430 piculs. This tax of 115 K'up'ing taels is not levied on opium 
produced and consumed in the provinces of Szechuan, Yiinnan, and Kueichow or in Manchuria, 
where lighter taxation prevails, and I ask the Chinese Delegation if they are able to furnish 
the Commission with the total amount of the taxation of native opium in any recent year. 

"I come now to the question of opium production in China, a subject which has 
occupied many minds for many years. At page 15 of the Memorandum presented by the 
Chinese Delegation, some estimates for recent years are given — by Mr. Morse for 1905, Mr. 
Leech for 1907, the Board of Revenue for 1906, Customs Returns for 1906, and Customs 
Returns for 1908. I eliminate from these Mr. Leech's estimate which, with two exceptions, 
is the same as Mr. Morse's whereon it was based, and the estimate of the Board of Revenue, 
which is admitted to be altogether unsatisfactory and untrustworthy, and has been chal- 
lenged in an outspoken memorial by the Tartar General stationed at Ning-hsia in the 
province of Kansu; and I ask the Chinese Delegation when the Customs estimate for 1906 
was compiled. Was it compiled in 1907, or at the end of 1908 along with the estimate for 
that year? There is, I think, internal evidence to show that the latter was the case, and that 
both estimates were compiled at one and the same time. For the moment one instance will 
suffice. At page 18 the province of Anhui is dealt witii. The Commissioner of Customs at 
Wuhu, the only port open to foreign trade in that province, estimates the annual production 
of Anhui to be not less than 3,000 piculs at the present time, and he states that there has 
been a reduction in the area under poppy cultivation in soine districts of from 50 to 80 per 
cent. The compilers of the Memorandum then say that the estimate is consequently 
doubled for 1906. Such reasoning to my mind is perfectly illogical, for we have been 
informed that the area or acreage under poppy is an unknown quantity, and a conclusion 
based on the alleged reduction of an unknown area is of very little value. In other cases 
the estimate of production in 1908 is deduced by cutting down the estimated production of 
1906 by certain percentages. For example, it is stated that the production of Yunnan has 
been reduced since 1906 by over 50 per cent., and that, as Kueichow is under the same 
Viceroyalty, it is reduced by one-third. Again, although there is no connection between 
Yijnnan and the provinces of Szechuan, Shensi and Kansu, it is argued that because 
Yiinnan production has been curtailed by one-half the output of the other three provinces 
has each been reduced by one-third. It is really unnecessary to take up the time of this 
Commission with multiplying such cases, but it is well to point out that from deductions such 
as these the conclusion is drawn that there has been a curtailment of production in China to 
the extent of 37 per cent, in 1908 as compared with 1906. It may be so, and I sincerely hope 



Minutes of Proceedings 29 

it is ; but I am afraid that tlie figures on wliich such a conclusion is based would not satisfy 
any Western Statistical Society. 

" In the leaflet of telegraphic reports from the various provinces, which forms a supple- 
ment to the Memorandum, it is stated that the cultivation of the poppy has been entirely 
suppressed in Fengtien, the southern province of Manchuria. Since when.? Opium in 
Manchuria is a summer crop and it was cultivated in several places, especially near the 
Mongolian border, in 1908, so that it will be time enough to speak of the poppy having been 
suppressed in Fengtien when the time for sowing the crop comes round in 1909. Again, we 
are told in the leaflet that the cultivation of the poppy has been reduced by 60 per cent in 
the province of Shantung, and that it will be totally suppressed by the end of 1909. If you 
will turn to page 97 you will find a telegraphic report by the Governor of Shantung to His 
Excellency Tuan Fang, in which it is stated that the production of opium in Shantung in 1908 
was (i) for home consumption 95,679 catties and (ii) for export 52,557 catties — a total of 
148,236 catties or 1,482 piculs, whereas if you will refer to the table of production on page 15 
you will find that the Customs estimate of the production of the province for 1908 was 12,000 
piculs, a somewhat extraordinary discrepancy ; and it may be assumed that the measures 
necessary to abolish productions of 1,482 and 12,000 piculs would differ very materially. I do 
not wish to question the bona fides of the Governor of Shantung. He merely reports what was 
communicated to him by the Native Opium Consolidated Tax Bureau, and he gives the 
Statistics supplied by it. It is simply an instance illustrating the difficulties with which the 
High Provincial Authorities in China have to contend, and the laxity that prevails in accepting 
statements as facts. I might quote several other provinces through which I travelled in 1908, but 
I think I have said enough to show that the figures for production furnished by the Memoran- 
■dum are based on by no means accurate or reliable data. The burden of most of these recent 
telegraphic reports is that suppression will be effected in 1909; but Chekiang and Shensi state 
that they still require three years, and the Viceroy of Szechuan, who has to deal with the 
greatest opium-producing province in the Empire, reports that cultivation has ceased within 
over forty districts of the province and that the balance — some eighty more — will suppress 
<;ultivation within the prescribed limit. 

" So much for production. I come now to the question of consumption. Opium 
smokers have not yet been registered throughout the Empire and their number is unknown ; 
but an attempt has been made by the Chinese Delegation to arrive at a census of consumers 
by taking an estimated production of native opium, adding the foreign import, dividing 
smokers into two classes — light and heavy — and apportioning half of the estimated total 
amount of the drug between the two classes, each light smoker being given a daily allowance 
of one mace, and a heavier smoker 4 mace. This is a novel division of classes ; but I much 
prefer the result of careful enquiries made in many provinces of China, which is that the 
average daily consumption of a smoker is 2 mace of prepared opium, and taking what appears 
to me to be the excessive estimate of 613,917 piculs of raw opium consumed in 1906, and 
allowing each smoker his 2 mace, the number of smokers becomes not 13,455,699 but 
10,627,573 or about 2.65 of an uncounted population assumed to number 400,000,000. I do 
not admit, however, that the production of native opium in China in 1906 was 584,800 piculs 
as stated: the estimate is based on altogether insufficient data, and it might have been 
possible for the Chinese Delegates, knowing as the Chinese Government should Ao the provin- 
cial and Imperial revenue derived from nati\'e opium, and the rate of taxation, to arrive at 
some reliable approximation to the actual production, especially in view of the fact that 
Mr. T'ang stated, when presenting the Memorandum,that about 25 per cent of the total production 
in China escaped taxation. As matters stand the Customs estimates for 1906 and 1908 are so 
dependent one upon another that an under or over estimate in one year entirely vitiates the 
other. The percentages of smokers to the whole and to the adult population are undoubtedly 
important factors in this investigation, and there seems no good reason for deviating from the 
usual estimate of five persons forming a family. This would give ?ome 160,000,000 adults to 
the Empire, and, assuming for the sake of argument that there were 13,455,699 smokers (as 
stated in the Memorandum) in China in 1906, the percentage of smokers to adults would be 
8.4, and considerably less than 16 to adult males, for, while women are frequently alluded to 
as smokers in the reports contained in the Memorandum (and to my knowledge they are 
numerous in the Western provinces), they have not been taken into account when the per- 
centage was struck. If, as I believe, my figures are as reliable, if not more so, than those 
given in the Memorandum the percentage of smokers to adults would be 6.64, and, taking 
women into account, under 13 per cent, in the case of adult males. This, of course, is assum- 
ing that the Customs estimate of 1906 is correct. In the same way the Customs estimate of 
production for 1908, with light and heavy classed smokers, but with five persons to the family 



30 International Opium Commission 

(a more reasonable allowance than 8), would give the percentage of smokers to population as 
2.1, of smokers to adults 5.4, and in all probability less than 10 per cent, to adult males. If 
2 mace per day be taken as the average allowance of a smoker the percentages would be less ; 
but actual percentages will remain unknown quantities until China is able to produce reliable 
information regarding production, or better still the numbers of smokers registered under the 
regulation.s. Whether such information, if furnished, will be convincing, or whether differences 
of opinion as to production and consumption will remain, is immaterial to — and should not be 
allowed to obscure — the main issue, that opium in China is a great evil, and that the removal 
of the temptation is the only cure. 

" I repeat that I have made the.se remarks in no carping spirit. They have been offered 
to show that we are still much in the dark regarding the actual production, consumption and 
reduction of opium in China, and also in the hope that criticism and analysis at this stage ma\- 
do something to obviate the difficulty and possible controversy which ma\' occur if towards 
the end of 1910 the Chinese Government are not in a position to demonstrate, with some 
approach to precision, the actual progress that has been effected. Meanwhile, in spite of the 
absence of any well organised uniform scheme for accomplishing the task which China has set 
before her, there can be no doubt that fair progress has been made in several provinces. Much 
still remains to be done; but the Chinese Government, whose sincerity is be\ond question, 
have the sympathy of the British Delegation, and I trust of this Commission, in their efforts 
to eradicate the opium evil from the Empire." 

Mr. R. Laidlaw, M.P., having withdrawn the question put b\' him at the previous 
sitting to the Chinese delegation, the Chair announced with regret the absence through 
indisposition of Mr. T'ang Kuo-an, and surmised that the Chinese delegates might in con- 
sequence require time to answer any questions put to them. 

Continuing the discussion, the Right Hon. Sir C. Clementi .Smith rose to comment on 
a statement made in the Chinese report as to the clandestine traffic in opium between 
Hongkong and China. He stated that the amount of smuggling that took place had for 
years been exaggerated, and he denied that it existed to such an extent as might be inferred 
from the report under discussion. The movement of opium was very stricth' controlled hv 
the Hongkong Government, and illicit traffic on a large scale was impossible. 

.\fter Monsieur Ratard and Monsieur Brenier of the French Delegation had put 
questions (z'/rfi? Vol. H: China Report) to the Chinese Representative, further discussion of 
the Chinese Report was postponed. 

H.E. TSUNEJIRO Miyaoka informed Mr. R. Laidlaw, M.P., that replies to the questions 
handed to his Delegation during the previous session were in course of preparation ; and 
Mr. de Jongh also intimated that he had telegraphed to Netherlands- India for certain 
information requested by Mr. Laidlaw. 

Monsieur MiY.VOKA then moved the following resolution : — 

" That questions in respect of reports presented by the Delegations shall be submitted in 
writing, and that copies thereof shall be opportunely supplied to all the Delegations by the 
Secretary." 

Monsieur Ratard proposed to add the words "and answers" after the word " questions." 
Sir C. Clementi Smith asked that the resolution might be interpreted liberally, otherwise the 
scope of debate would be inconveniently limited. The resolution as amended was then 
accepted by the House. 

In reply to several enquiries, the Secretary explained that the Minutes would later be 
amplified and printed so as to form a fuller report of the proceedings of the Commission. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright asked the British Delegation for information concerning opium 
and laws controlling same in New Zealand and British .South .Africa (for reply vide Vol. II : 
British Report). 

Dr. Bernauer suggested that information should be laid before the Commission as to 
the use of opium in the different foreign Concessions and Settlements in China. 



MiNUTKS OK ProCKEDINCS jI 

Adopting a suggestion of Dr. Tenne>-, Monsieur Ra-]'ARD moved the following 
resolution : — 

" That the President be requested to apply on behalf of the Commission to the Senior 
Consul at Shanghai for information and data concerning opium in the International Settlement." 

This was agreed to by the Commission. 

Dr. Ha.milton Wright suggested the appointment of Committees (under Art. 7 of the 
Rules of Procedure) for dealing with specific portions (jf the various Reports with a view to 
the preparation of International Summaries. This suggestion was afterwards put by him into 
the form nf resolutions, as follows : — 

" That Committees, each consisting of three Delegates, be appointed to co-ordinate and 
report for the further consideradon of the Commission as a whole — 

I. — On Trade Statistics. 

-■ — On the quesdon of anti-opium remedies as dealt with in the different reports. 
3- — On the question of opium and its derivatives from a medical point of view. 
4- — On the question of the cultivation of poppy and production of crude opium. 
5. — On the Returns of Revenue as given in the different reports." 

Of these resolutions Xos. i, 4 and 5 were accepted, and Xos. 2 and 3 negatived after 
discussion. 

The Commission adjourned at 12.30 p.m. until the 15th February at 10 a.tn. 



Minutes of the Seventh Session 

15th February, 1909 

iHE President called the House to order at 10.30 a.m. and announced the names of 
the Delegates chosen to serve on the Committees, the formation of which was resolved by the 
House at the last sitting. 

The appointment of Mr. J. W. Brining as official stenographer to the Commission from 
the 13th February was confirmed. 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clement: Smith read a reply to a question put to the 
British Delegation at the previous sitting by Dr. Hamilton Wright concerning the imports and 
exports of morphine into the United Kingdom. Dr. Hamilton Wright said that his query 
had evidently been misunderstood. What he wanted to know was the final destination within 
the United Kingdom of net imports of crude opium. He would put the question in writing. 

A report on the production and use of opium in Italy was next read by Signor 
Faraone. He stated that there were in that country no special laws affecting opium, but strict 
regulations were in force for controlling the trade and sale of all remedies containing poison, 
any infraction thereof entailing heav\' penalties. 

The Chair then declared a discussion on the Netherlands Report to be in order. 

The German Delegation put questions as to the class of the population in Netherlands- 
India consuming opium, and the average daily dose per capita, and Mr. Laidlavv enquired 
what amount of revenue was derived from opium in Java during each of the last ten years. 
Dr. Tenney also asked what proportion of the revenue derived from opium was disbursed in 
preventing smuggling (Vide Vol. II., Netherlands-India Report.) 



32 International Opium Commission 

* 

H.E. Monsieur MiVAOKA, having read replies to questions put to him by the British 
Delegation at the previous sitting, Mr. Laidlaw asked whether the figures under the heading 
" Expenses of Opium Factory " comprised payments made on account of preventive service. 
H.E. Monsieur Miyaoka answered in the negative, stating that such expenses were included 
in the General Police and Customs Budget. 

Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN then read replies to questions put by the British Commissioners to 
the Chinese Delegation. Referring to Sir Alexander Hosie's statement {vide Minutes of Sixth 
Session) he said that the sympathy expressed by the British Delegates with the efforts of the 
Chinese Government to restrict the cultivation of the poppy and consumption of opium 
in China was most highly appreciated by himself and his colleagues. Based as Sir Alex- 
ander's opinion was on actual experience of life and travel for years in the Western Provinces 
of China, and from personal observation, his frank admission of the evils resulting from opium 
smoking would certainly carry great weight with those taking part in the Commission. 
He was quite sure that Sir Alexander's criticisms on their Report were made in no 
fault-finding spirit. What China needed most was more sympathy like that so 
gracefully expressed by Sir Alexander Hosie. He hoped that the labours of the Commission 
would result in resolutions condemning the use of opium and its derivatives, except for purely 
medicinal purposes. Such an expression of opinion would, he was sure, act as a fresh incentive 
to his countrymen and spur them on in the work of suppressing poppy cultivation, and 
eradicating the opium vice, which was threatening the welfare of 400,000,000 people and the 
very existence of the Chinese nation. 

Mr. T'ang also made the following statement, in reply to the observations of the Right 
Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith at the previous sitting reflecting on the accuracy of the 
particulars given in the China report as to the amount of smuggling between Hongkong 
and China: — 

"On page 4 of our Memorandum it is stated that previous to 1887 the quantity of 
foreign opium entering China each year by unauthorised channels amounted to about 20 000 
piculs." 

The Right Hon. Chief Commissioner for Great Britain thinks "the quantitj' has been 
much exaggerated. The figures given are those mentioned in Morse's Book ' The Trade and 
Administiation of the Chinese Empire,' page 342. Mr. Morse was a careful observer, and 
his book is considered to be a ^■ery fair and impartial chronicle of the Chinese matters discussed 
therein. Moreover, his estimate is, to a large extent, justified by comparing the quantity of 
opium entering the Province of Kwangtung through the ports of Swatow, Canton and Pakhoi 
for the six years previous to 1887 and the quantity of opium entering that province through 
the same three ports, with the addition of Kowloon and Lappa, for the six years following 
1887. The average annual importation into Kwangtung for the years 1881-6 was piculs 6,114 
and for the years 1888-93 was piculs 23,246 — a difference for each year of 17,132 piculs. These 
figures represent the amount of opium that paid duty and likin at the Custom House 
mentioned and do not take into consideration the amount of opium which managed to avoid 
the Customs. In the published Customs Records of 'Fines and Confiscations' for those years 
the number of seizures made show that attempts at smuggling were of frequent occurrence It 
should also be remembered that the smuggling of opium was not confined to the province of 
Canton alone; the Customs Records of 'Fines and Confiscations' prove that it was constantly 
taking place in nearly every Treaty port of China. 

" The statement in the Memorandum was not meant to apply solely to Hongkong as it 
was well known that opium was also smuggled in junks from Singapore, and by the crews of 
steamers trading with Singapore, Penang and the Indian ports. The Chinese Delegates 
consequently claim that the estimate of 20,000 piculs, as representing the annual amount of 
opium smuggled previous to the year 1887 is not an unreasonable figure, and that 5,000 piculs 
for the subsequent )'ears is also not an exaggerated estimate." 

Mr. T'ang regretted that his Delegation had overlooked the questions handed in by the 
Chief Commissioner for France, but the required particulars would be furnished as soon as possible 

The Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands asked permission to make the 
following statement: — 

"Now that the Delegates to the International Opium Commission have seen our 
report, with the Memorandum on the Regie system operative in Netherlands-India, and have 
heard the questions put and answers given thereon, we think it will be quite evident to them 
that our Government by its system is striving earnestly with the object of checking the 



Minutes of Procredin(;s 33 : 

consumption of opium gradually and continually by all available means. In accordance with 
this policy, the Delegates of the Netherlands have been authorised to declare as follows: — 

I. — That the Netherlands Government being convinced of the desirability of restricting 
the use of opium will never be prevented by financial considerations from taking 
such measures as will in its opinion genuinely effect a gradual decrease in 
consumption. 

2. — That the Netherlands Government would not object to such alterations in the R<fgie 
system as might be likely, in its opinion, to check the use of opium, or to the 
extension of the means of preventing smuggling by land and sea. 

3. — That in those provinces of Netherlands-India where the farm system still exists 
the substitution for it of the Regie s)stem is already under consideration." 

Dr. RosSLER called attention to a misprint in the report of the German Delegation. 
On the last page, under heading III Use of Opium: the words "average smokers use at last 
2 Hang" should read "average smokers use at least 0.2 Hang." 

Air. T'ANG, referring to previous statements relative to the percentage of opium 
smokers in China, gave some information which he had obtained concerning the percentage 
of smokers to the Chinese population in the Philippine Islands, He said that of the total 
number of Chinese residents in the Archipelago 23 per cent were registered officially as 
smokers. There would be in addition a certain number who would, from one reason or 
another, escape official notice; so that it was fair to assume that 25 per cent of the total 
Chinese residents were smokers. This would corroborate the estimates made by his Delega- 
tion as to the extent of the habit in China itself, the percentages quoted being much higher 
than those usual!}- given for China. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Brent, vacating the Chair (which was taken for a few minutes 
by Senhor Potier) made a personal and explanatory statement with reference to Mr. T'ang's 
observations. He said that, to prevent any misunderstanding, he thought it necessary to 
point out that all registered smokers in the Philippines were Chinese — natives not being allowed 
to take out licences. The majorit)- of the Chinese came from Amoy, where the smoking habit 
was, he understood, exceedingly prevalent. Further, nearly the whole of the Chinese popula- 
tion consisted of adult men, and the fact of there being very few women or children would 
help to account for the high percentage of smokers. 

These explanaloi)- remarks were supplemented by Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT, who said 
that the result of his investigations in the United States amongst the Chinese population 
showed that 20 per cent of the adult males were heavy smokers, and 20 per cent light 
smokers, making a total of 40 per cent using on an average i| mace a day of prepared 
opium. This estimate was, perhaps, too high, but he could state with a fair amount of 
certainty that 30 per cent of the adult male Chinese population were addicted to the habit. 

At 12.15 p.m. the House adjourned. 

On re-assembling at 2.30 p.m. the Austro-Hungarian Report came up for discussion. 
There were no questions, but Dr. RoSSLKR asked the Austro-Hungarian Delegate to obtain 
information with regard to the use and sale of opium in the Austro-Hungarian Concession 
at Tientsin. 

The Right Rev. Bi.shop Brent stated that his attention had been called by the French 
Delegation to certain errors appearing in the report issued by the "American Commission on 
Opium in the Philippines" — of which he was a Member — relative to the amount of 
revenue derived from opium in French Indo-China. Steps would be taken to rectify these 
mistakes. 

The Chair then announced that a discussion on the Reports presented by the German 
and the Persian Delegates would be in order. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright intimated that he would have certain questions to put with 
regard to these reports at the next meeting. 



34 International Opium Commission 

Following a remark made by the Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, the Chair 
considered that it would be in order for the Committees appointed to deal with specific portions 
of the reports to re-open a discussion on an_v subject dealt with by them, should they desire to 
elicit further information thereon. 

A suggestion by Dr. RoSSLER that the Committee appointed to report on the revenue 
statistics of opium should extend their investigations to tariffs, excise and other legislation 
governing the importation and distribution of opium and its derivatives, was favourably 
received. 

A discussion ensued as to the nature of the laws and conditions covering the opium 
trade, contained in the Treaties between the various countries represented on the Commission, 
the Chairman eventually suggesting that if expedient, each Delegation might obtain the 
desired information, or a Committee might be appointed to investigate the subject. 

Dr. RoSSLER then moved the following resolution : — 

"That a Committee on existing International Agreements covering the traffic in opium be 
appointed." 

This was accepted by the Commission after discussion. 

In answer to a question put by the Chair the American Delegation stated that their 
report would be in the hands of the Delegates on Friday next. It was also announced that 
the French Report would be ready on Friday; that proofs of the Report on India would be 
distributed on Wednesday; that the report on Canada would be forthcoming as soon as 
possible after the arrival of Mr. Mackenzie King; and that the Reports on Portugal and Siam 
would be read}' shortly. 

Dr. RoSSLER asked the Netherlands Delegation whether a report on opium in the 
Netherlands itself would be laid on the table. Mr. de Jongh, replying, said that no report on 
the Netherlands could be presented for the present, as he had understood that the object of 
the Commission was to deal with the opium question in the Far East only. He might say, 
speaking freely, that he had never heard of any poppy growing in the Netherlands, nor of the 
existence of an opium problem in that country. However, he would endeavour to obtain 
more positive information if desired. 

The President. — " It seems to the Chair that the House would be gratified if the Chief 
Commissioner for the Netherlands would obtain the necessary information, as he suggests." 

A discussion then ensued as to whether the scope of enquiry was intended originally to 
include other than Far Eastern countries. The Chief Commissioners for France and Portugal 
respectively stated that they understood that the investigations of the Commission would apply 
only to the Far East. Dr. Hamilton Wright declared that the United States Government had 
suggested the study of all phases of the opium question in each country represented on the 
Commission, and especially that such investigation should be carried out before the 
meeting of the International Commission, in order to facilitate the preliminary work of the 
Commission. 

The Chair ended what promised to develop into a lengthy debate b\' suggesting that 
each country represented might at least obtain such information regarding the conditions at 
home as would enlighten the Commission, and enable it to carry the work before them to a 
successful issue. 

The House adjourned at 3.45 p.m. until Thursday, the i8th February. 



Minutes of Proceedings 35 

Minutes of the Eighth Session 

1 8th February, 1909 

On taking the Chair at 10.30 a.m., the PRESIDENT announced the names of those 
Delegates whom he had selected to serve on the Committee on Treaties and International 
Agreements touching the opium traffic. 

On behalf of the House he welcomed Mr. Mackenzie King, Representative for Canada 
on the British Delegation. 

Mr. Brunvatk then notified the House that he had telegraphed to India on behalf of 
the British Delegation for statistics of the imports of morphine and other figures, but he did 
not anticipate that the reply would be of such a nature as to effect the substance of the 
information given in the Memorandum already laid on the table. 

A report on the opium question as it concerns Canada was next presented by Mr 
Mackenzie King, who desired the clemency of the Hou.se for the delay occasioned by his 
tardy arrival. 

The Chinese report again came up for discussion, but there were no questions asked. 

Monsieur CORNIIXON, on behalf of the Committee on Revenue Statistics, pointed out 
that a preliminary study of the Reports before them had shown the necessity for the adoption 
by the various delegations of common units of currency, weights and measures, in order that 
the Committee's work of preparing an International Summary might be facilitated, and he 
submitted the following proposition : — 

I.— That measures of superficies, quantity and weight shall be expressed in terms of 

the metric .system. 
2. — That all monies .shall be reduced to Engli.sh currency at a fixed exchange of 

25 francs to the £. 
3- — That all statistics furnished shall cover the years 1903 to 1907, inclusive. 

The.se suggestions met generally with the approval of the Commission, but the 
Committee was entrusted with the task of making whatever calculations they might involve. 

After some remarks by the Chief Delegates for Portugal and Germany on the subject 
of exchange, the Chair declared a discussion of the British report to be in order. 

Mr. T'ANc; Kuo-.\N asked whether, according to existing Agreements made between the 
Chinese and British Governments, the annual reduction by 5,100 chests of opium of the total 
Indian export meant that a corresponding reduction of the import of Indian opium into China 
would be assured, irrespective of the conditions of demand in China. 

Mr. Brunvate, replying on behalf of his Delegation, stated that the Agreement that 
Great Britain had entered into to reduce the annual export of opium from India meant 
exactly what it said, v?s., that Great Britain does agree to reduce exports from India by 
5,100 chests annually for the next ten years. It involved no economic proposition such as 
suggested by the Hon. Commissionner for China. 

Mr. T'ANG explained that there was some misunderstanding in the minds of the 
Chinese people, and his Delegation would be obliged if the Delegation for Great Britain would 
put their reply in writing, as his people were under the impression that the present arrange- 
ment meant a reduction of 5,100 chests on the total amount of opium annually imported 
into China ; if they were mistaken they would like to have that impression rectified. 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi .S.mith observed that if any misunderstanding on 
this point existed amongst the Chinese, surely the correction would more properly emanate 
from the recognised authorities of the Chinese Empire than from his Delegation. 



36 International Opium Commission 

Dr. Hamilton Wright and Dr. Tenney, having put several questions to the British 
Delegation with reference to the India report, {q.v.) the Persian Report came up for discussion. 

H.E. Monsieur MiYAOKA handed a question to the Persian D:ilegate concerning the 
import of Persian opium into Formosa. 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN moved the following resolution : — 

"That a Committee consisting of five Delegates be appointed to consider and report on 
the medical aspects of the opium question, including the best methods of curing the opium 
habit without recourse to the drug or any of its derivatives." 

There was some discussion as to whether this resolution was in order or not, as it 
appeared to be in a similar form to the one moved by Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT during the 
sixth Session, and negatived. 

The Chairman said that, as he understood it, the present proposition was in an entirely 
different form from the original one, although he stood open to correction ; that in the negatived 
resolution the scope of the enquiry was restricted to the consideration of the subject as dealt 
with in the reports presented by the different Delegations; whereas the present resolution had 
a much broader meaning. Whether the House desired or not to widen the scope of such 
enquiry was for it to decide. 

Mr. T'ANG begged leave to explain that when the negatived resolution was proposed, 
both the Chairman of the Chinese Delegation and he himself were absent; consequently they 
had had no opportunity of expressing their views on the subject. 

Continuing, he said : — 

" We consider that this question is only second in importance to the suppression of 
opium in China. We think it would be futile for us to attempt to stop the smoking habit while we 
continue to use the drug in other ways such as eating it in the form of pills, etc. Therefore, if 
this Commission is going to justify its existence, and is bent on accomplishing results which 
will be at all satisfactory, it is necessary in our opinion that this matter should be thoroughly 
discussed. To show with what importance the question is regarded by everyone, I beg to 
state that His Britannic Majesty's Minister in Peking has frequently asked our Government 
what benefit China would derive from restricting the cultivation of opium if the opium evil in 
other forms (by which he meant the use of anti-opium pills, etc.) was to be allowed to spread 
all over the Empire. 

" I therefore venture to beg this Honourable Commission to take the matter into 
careful consideration in order that it may not only fulfil its duty in part but in whole ; for 
I do not think it is the intention of the Government of my country, or of any other country 
represented here, that we should discuss matters connected with the cultivation of the poppy 
only. 

" On the contrary, I understand that we are here to investigate the question in every 
form and phase ; and this idea has also been expressed by every Anti-opium Society and by 
the people of all civilized countries. In bringing forward my resolution, therefore, I beg most 
earnestly to ask for the co-operation and support of this Commission." 

Dr. Tenney observed that he would like to endorse the views expressed by the Hon. 
Commissioner for China. He was of opinion that the Commission would be justly blamed if 
the Delegates were to separate without having presented their views on this matter. 
When the motion was put to the Commission on the previous occasion sufficient thought had 
not been given to it, and perhaps the vote taken then did not express the mature judgment of 
the House. If it were necessary to bring the motion before the House again, he would 
propose that a roll call be taken in recording the vote upon this question. 

Monsieur Ratard having suggested that a written copy of the resolution be handed to 
each Delegation in order that they might have time to consider same, and that the vote be 
taken in two or three days time. Dr. Tenney proposed that the further consideration of the 
resolution be the first business for the next session. This met with the approval of the House. 

The Commission adjourned at noon until the 19th February at 10.30 a.m. 



Minutes of Prockedin(;s 37 

Minutes of the Ninth Session 

19th February, 1909 

The Session opened at 10.30 a.m., the order oi" the day being the further consideration 
■of Mr. T'ANG Kuo-.\.n's resolution of the previous da)-, which ran as follows: — 

" That a Committee consisting of five Delegates be appointed to consider and report on the 
medical aspects of the opium question, including the best methods of curing the opium habit 
without recourse to the drug or any of its derivatives." 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, rising to continue the discussion, said 
that the action wiiich he took on behalf of the British Delegation in opposing the appointment 
of a Committee in the first instance was one not in the least directed against a practical 
enquiry on the important subject under discussion, but was based solely on the fact that he 
did not consider that the Commission included a sufficient number of men competent to deal 
with the question. He declared that no one in the Commission was more in sympathy with 
the object which Mr. T'ANG had in view than he and his colleagues, and he thought it would 
be agreed that the British Government had shown a desire to help China in dealing with the 
opium problem; but he considered that whatever assistance was to be given to China should 
at least take a practical form, and one that would be universally recognised as such. 

He emphasized the fact that the Commission was not appointed with a scientific basis. 
He thought he was right in stating that beyond Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT and the distinguished 
scientist on the Japanese Delegation there were none amongst them fitted to deal with such 
matters as anti-opium remedies, etc. ; and it was holding that view in the strongest possible 
way, and yet feeling at the same time that it was a subject of great urgency which had perhaps 
been left on one side too long, that the British Delegation desired that some steps should he 
taken. He referred to the fact, that although the Chinese Government had issued regulations 
in which it was distinctly laid down that anti-opium pills should not consist of opium or 
morphia, it was well known that pills containing a large proportion of the forbidden 
drugs were being sold broadcast in China. He thought that were steps taken to 
properly carry out the regulations referred to much of the evil afflicting China would be 
dissipated. He added that although the question of anti-opium remedies had not come 
before the Governments of the Eastern Colonies to any extent, they had, nevertheless, already 
recognised the necessity for restricting the use of opium in that connection. 

Continuing, the Right Hon. gentleman observed that the evils arising from the use of 
morphine had been most terrible in their effect. An Agreement which, after deplorable delay, 
was now in force, had, however, been recently made with China for prohibiting the movement 
of morphia, and he trusted it would have the effect which all persons interested in that ques- 
tion desired. He repeated the opinion of the British Delegation that the Commission was not 
formed in such a way as to admit the investigation in a practical manner of the medical 
phases of the opium question by any Committee that might be selected, but he thought that 
he might take the opportunity of suggesting to the different Delegates that the matter be 
brought directly and promptly under the notice of their respective Governments, who would 
alone be able to appoint competent Committees and to make enquiries likely to effect the object 
in view. It was not a question which could be settled locally, but one that should be dealt with 
by the great scientific Institutions of the Western and Eastern worlds. The appointment of 
the Committee suggested by Mr. T'ANG would hamper rather than promote any such investi- 
gation. He would, therefore, conclude by submitting to the Commission the following Amend- 
ment to the Resolution, and in the event of its adoption he would, at the proper time, ask that 
it might be included among the formal resolutions which would be ultimately drawn up by 
the Commission : — 

"That, having regard to the constitution of this Commission, which has not among its 
Members a sufficient number to form a Committee for the investigation from the scientific point 
of view of anti-opium remedies and of the properties and effects of opium and its products, the 
Commission desires that each Delegation shall recommend these branches of the subject to its 
own Government for such action as that Government may think necessary." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright, after thanking the Right Hon. Chief Commissioner for Great 
Britain for the complimentary reference to himself, pointed out that there was on the Chinese 
Delegation also a medical expert, trained in the West, who, speaking from a scientific point 
of view, was quite competent to judge on the subject under discussion. There were, therefore, 
three physicians in the Commission quite capable of undertaking an investigation, though he 



38 International Opium Commission 

took the Right Hon. Chief Commissioner of the British Delegation's remarks in regard to 
himself with all modesty. He pointed out that, when Her late Britannic Majesty's Royal 
Commission was appointed, the British Government had thought it sufficient to appoint only 
one medical expert to the Commission; that the report of that expert had coloured to a great 
degree the final judgment of the Royal Commission; that on the other hand that expert's 
report had not proved to be satisfactory to the great majority of medical men who had taken 
to examine it in detail; that it was time for a later opinion based on the facts which had 
newly come to light; and that, without calling into question the abilities of the medical expert 
on the Royal Commission, there were others quite as well able to examine the question. 
If one expert was enough for the Royal Commission, three should be sufficient for the 
International Commission. One of the express objects of the Commission should be to put 
this medical question on a modern footing. 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN begged permission to reply to a few of the remarks made b_\' the 
Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith. He stated that in the Regulations which China issued 
two years ago for the suppression of the opium habit, one of the questions dealt with was 
"Anti-Opium Medicines." Since that time China had been taking steps to control the sale 
of such medicines in the interior. For instance, at Chengtu, the capital of Szechwan, no 
opium medicines could be sold except b\' authority of the police, and in other places also 
the police were endeavouring to restrict the sale of opium medicines. But it was a deplorable 
fact that the bulk of these remedies were manufactured in, and found their wa\' into the 
interior from, the Treat)' Ports; China was consequent)}- quite powerless to prevent the spread 
of these nostrums without the co-operation of the Treaty Powers. That was one of the reasons 
which led him to draw up the resolution now under consideration. Another point he wished to 
bring to the attention of the Delegates. Supposing there were not, in the opinion of the 
British Delegation, a sufficient number of men on the Commission competent to deal with this 
question, they were not debarred, as far as he knew, by anything in the constitution or in the 
rules of the Commission from seeking advice and opinion from experts outside. 

Dr. RoSSLER supported Mr. T'ANC.'S resolution. He said: — "According to the 
correspondence exchanged between the Governments of the United States of America and 
the powers interested in the opium question, this Commission is expected to make a general 
and impartial investigation of the scientific and material conditions of the opium trade and 
the opium habit. I am afraid the report which we are going to submit to our Governments 
would be incomplete were the medical aspect of the opium question omitted. 

" The medical side of the opium question is the issue of the anti-opium campaign, 
and for this reason every Opium Commission which has, so far, been at work, has carefully 
investigated this side of the question. I may be allowed to refer to the Report of the Cevlon 
Commission, of the Straits Commission, and of the important Royal Commission on opium 
in India, all of which contain valuable information of this kind. 

" You all know that the medical views on this subject are not altogether unanimous. 
The more then would it be interesting to hear what the three physicians forming part of this 
Commission have to say on the subject. It is a matter of common knowledge that physicians 
at home have little or no experience as to the effects of opium smoking, there being no 
problem of this kind in Western countries. But the three physicians forming part of this 
Commission have gained experience in the Far East, and therefore I think we should give 
them an opportunity to state their opinion. For this reason I am in favour of the proposal 
of the Chinese Delegation." 

The Amendment moved by the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith was then put 
to the vote with the following result: — 

For the Amendment 7 

.''i.gain.st the Amendment 6 

The different Delegations voted as folkiws : — 

For Against 

Great Britain U. S. of America 

France Au.stria-Hungry 

Netherlands China 

Persia Germany 

Portugal Italy 

Russia Japan 

Siam 



MiNUTKS OK PkOCKKOINGS 



39 



H.E. Monsieur MlVAOKA replied tti questions which had been put to him at a previous 
Session by Mr. R. LaidlaW, M.P., and Mr. Brunvate read answers to questions submitted by 
the American and Chinese Delegations {vide Reports: Vt>l. II.) 

There being no further business before the Commission, the Pkks[1)Knt suggested that 
the presentation of Resolutions might begin on Monda\- ne.vt (22nd February.) There would 
be, possibly, further discussion on some of the Reports which had not been in the hands of 
the Delegates long enough for study. The discu.ssion of these Reports would be the order of 
the day on Monday morning. Following such discussion, it would, in the opinion of the 
Chair, be timely to present such Resolutions as the various Delegations might have in mind, 
covering the object for which the Commission was convened. He did not think it was 
necessary to await the reports of the different Committees before commencing the work of 
considering such resolutions as might be presented. 

He took that opportunity of welcoming, on behalf of the House, the appearance of (jne 
of the Associate Delegates for China, Mr. J. L. Chalmer.s, who had hitherto been prevented 
by illness from attending the meetings of the Commission. 

Mr. HE JONi'.H, Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands, suggested that any Res-olution 
to be submitted to the Commission should be distributed in writing beforehand, in order that 
the Delegates might have time to consider them. 

The Chair thought that this suggestion was in conformity with tiie rule which had 
hitherto besn followed, and that each Delegation ought to be provided with copies of the 
different resolutions by those proposing same. 

Monsieur Ratard. — " If you will permit me I will state the reasons for m\- having 
voted against Mr. T' ang's resolution. 

" I have here copies of the correspondence exchanged between the French and 
American Governments anent the programme of this Commission, on which was based the 
instructions given to our Delegation. The question was submitted to the Frencli Govern ment 
b\" H.E. the Ambassador of the United States at Paris on two occasions, 15th and 24th 
Jul\^ 1908. The communication of the 15th Jul}- enumerates the points to be dealt with by 
the Commission, and which the American Government suggests should be studied in advance 
b}- the Delegates of each country to be represented, as follows : — 

I. — Importation of opium in its crude state and of its derivatives and of opium 

prepared for smoking 'chaudii). 
2. — Internal consumption of raw opium. 
3. — Manufacture and use o{ chandu. 
4 — Manufacture of mtjrphine and other derivatives. 
5. — ^Use of the drug in its raw stale. 

6,._ Preparation and use of morphia and other derivati\es. 
7. — Extent, legal and illicit, of the culti\'ation of the popp)' (in .America); possibilit_\- of 

its cultivation. 
8. — Laws ("P'ederal) relating to the use of opium and of its derivati\es, 

" The ofificial reply of the French Government to H.E. the American Ambassador at 
Paris, dated 5th August, 1908, declares that, in conformity- with the desire expressed by 
the United States Government, the French Government will nominate onl)- Commissioners 
conversant with all questions concerning the opium trade, well informed with regard to 
French interests concerned thereby, and furnished with specific instructions. 

" The instructions given by the French Government to the Chief Commissioner for 
France, after repeating the points of the programme outlined above, and remarking that the 
opium question is one of considerable interest to French Indo-China, whose Budget might be 
affected by the findings of the Commission, recommend the French Delegates not to deviate 
in any way from their instructions. 

" The vote which the French Delegation cast just now is consequently fully justified b\- 
these remarks. No Delegation is more in sympathy with the efforts of the Chinese Govern- 
ment to get rid of the opium evil, and I associate my.self wholly with the sentiments expressed 
to this effect by Sir ALEXANDER HoSIE. The scientific and medical questions connected with 



40 International Opium Commission 

opium are of such importance tiiat I believe, like the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Cleaienti Smith,. 
that it would be extremely interesting and useful were they submitted to the highest scientific 
and medical authorities of those countries chiefly interested. It is, however, impossible for 
this Delegation to exceed in any way the instructions laid down for its guidance." 

H.E. Tsunejiro Mivaoka — ''With the permission of the Hon. gentlemen here assem- 
bled, 1 desire also to make an explanation of the vote which I had the honour to cast in the 
name of the Japanese Delegation. In a note which was addressed by H.E. Mr. O'Brien, 
Ambassador of the United States near the Imperial Court of Tokyo, under date May I2th, 
1908, to the then Minister of Foreign Affairs, H.E. Count Hayashi, he stated : — 

' The idea of the Government of the United States of America is that the Commissioners 
of each Government shall proceed independently and immediately .... with a view : — 

I. — To de\ise means to limit the use of opium in the possessions of that country. 

2. — To ascertain, should there exist among the nationals of that country in the Far 
East a traffic in opium, the best rneans of suppressing such traffic. 

3. — That the respective Delegates be in such a position that .... they will be 
prepared to co-operate and to offer, jointly or severally, definite suggestions of 
measures tending towards the gradual suppression of opium cultivation, as well 
as its traffic and use \\'ithin their Eastern Possessions, and which their respective 
Governments may be prepared to adopt. In this way the Members of the 
Chinese Government will be assisted in eradicating the evil from their Empire.' 

" This occurs in a note, as I stated, of the Ambassador of the United States dated May 
1 2th, 1908. The Imperial Government of Japan acceded to this proposal, implying that 
they were prepared to appoint a Commission which should devise some means of limiting the 
use of opium, the best means of suppressing the opium traffic, and the best means of 
gradually suppressing not only opium cultivation, but the use of opium. Knowing that all 
schemes and devices which have for their object the suppression of opium and the use of 
opium cannot be effectively discussed other than by men who have particular knowledge of 
the chemical properties of opium, and the effect which it has on the human constitution, the 
Imperial Government of Japan has deemed it proper to appoint an eminent chemist, 
Dr. Tahara, and an equally prominent man of medical science, Dr. Takaki, who, I may add, 
stands at the head of affairs connected with the control of opium in Formosa. When 
this Delegation, therefore, was appointed by the Government of Japan, it was understood that 
we should be expected to enter into the question of the suppression of the use of opium,, 
naturally involving the cure of the opium habit. The Japanese Delegation, therefore, felt 
constrained to vote against the Amendment submitted by the Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi 
Smith, in order that it might have an opportunity of casting its vote in favour of the 
original resolution presented by Mr. T'anc:." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright, in the name of the United States Delegation, stated that he 
agreed perfectly with what had fallen from the Chief Commissioner for France in regard to 
the meaning of the correspondence exchanged between their respective Governments. 

After Dr. Tennev had withdrawn a proposal that the Commission should hold a 
Session on Saturday morning, the House adjourned at 11.40 a.m., on the motion of Monsieur 
Miyaoka, until Monday morning (22nd February). 



Minutes of the Tenth Session 

22 nd February 1909 
The Commission assembled at 10.30 a.m. 

The Chair announced with regret that Signor Faraone, the Delegate representino- Italy 
was ill, and unable to attend. He also expressed his regret in that the name of the Secretary 
of the Persian Delegation, Mr. B. A. Somekh, had been omitted from the official list of 
representatives, but the Secretary of the Commission would take steps to ha-\e this mistake 
rectified. 



Minutes of Proceedings 41 

The Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands presented to the House the information 
which he had received by telegraph concerning opium in Holland {vide Netherlands Repoit ■ 
Vol. II). 

The British and Japanese Delegations read replies to questions received from the 
American and British Delegations respectively. Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN, for the Chinese Delega- 
tion, also replied to three questions put during the sixth Session by the British and French 
Delegations. A reply to some questions submitted b\- the American Delegation was made by 
the Persian Delegate and the Chinese Delegation asked the British Delegation for certain 
statistics relative to the number of opium smokers in Hongkong and the Straits Settlements 
(for questions and answers, vide Vol. II : Reports). 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN stated, that with reference to the last of his questions, his Delegation 
wished to take that opportunity of expressing their appreciation of the measures taken recently 
by the Hongkong authorities against the smuggling of opium into China, which, according to 
the Commissioner of Customs at Kowloon, had of late years greatly diminished. 

Two questions were then handed to the French Delegation by Mr. T'ANG with reference 
to the quantit} of opium imported into Kwangchowan. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith expressed his obligations to Mr. T'ANG 
for his remarks regarding the action of the Hongkong authorities. According to information in 
his possession the Hongkong Government was aware of all that happened to the opium which 
entered that port, and was quite satisfied that at the present time there was no smuggling" 
from Hongkong into Chinese territory. 

The printed reports for Portugal and for the United States were distributed, and the 
Chair announced that both these reports were before the House for consideration. 

The Chief Commissioner for France asked that if there were any further questions to 
be put to him concerning the French Report they might be presented soon. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright, having put a question to the British Delegation as to the 
amount of opium prepared for smoking shipped from Hongkong and the Straits Settlements 
to the Philippines, the Chair asked if any of the Committees were ready to submit Reports to 
the Commission. 

Dr. Tennev, on behalf of the Committee appointed to consider Treaties and 
International Agreements covering the traffic in opium, stated that a printed report could not 
be laid on the table that day, but that he would read the report. He also stated that the 
Committee had taken the liberty of adding to its name the words "and its derivatives." 

After the report had been read, the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith expressed 
the opinion that neither he nor his colleagues ever contemplated that the Committee would 
extract portions of certain Treaties and Agreements, and give an interpretation as to the 
exact meaning of those extracts. He for one would certainly not be bold enough to do 
anything of the kind, and he considered it an extremely dangerous proceeding to adopt, 
these matters being generally left to be interpreted and explained by the Governments 
concerned. 

It was finally decided to allow the Report to stand over until the various Delegations 
had had sufficient time to study it. 

There being no further questions asked on the Reports in hand, the President addressed 

the House as follows : — 

" In accordance with the statement of the Chair at the last Session, the prime 
object of this Commission has now been reached, and resolutions will naturally be in 
order. With the indulgence of the House, before proceeding to this business, the Chair 
would like to draw attention to certain principles and considerations of importance relative 
to our findings. It would appear expedient to quote what met with the approval of the 



42 International Opium Commission 

House at the outset of our proceedings, — ^a passage from the Report of the Second Inter- 
national Peace Conference relative to such Commissions and Conferences as the one we are 
now engaged in : — 

" In the discussions upon every question it is important to remember that the object of 
the Conference is Agreement, and not compulsion. If such Conferences are to be made 
occasions for trying to force nations into positions which they consider against their interests, the 
Powers cannot be expected to send representatives to them. It is important also that the 
agreements reached shall be genuine and not reluctant. Otherwise they will inevitably fail to 
receive approval when submitted for the ratification of the Powers represented. Comparison of 
views and frank and considerate e.xplanation and discussion may frequently resolve doubts, 
obviate difficulties, and lead to real agreement upon matters which at the outset have appeared 
insurmountable. It is not wise, however, to carry this process to the point of irritation. After 
reasonable discussion, if no agreement is reached, it is better to lay the subject aside, or refer it 
to some future Conference in the hope that intermediate consideration may dispose of the 
objections. Upon some questions where an agreement by only a part of the Powers represented 
would in itself be useful, such an agreement may be made, but it should always be with the most 
unreserved recognition that the other Powers withhold their concurrence with equal propriety 
and right." 

"I feel sure that this paragraph which I have aj^ain presented to the House, represents 
the mind of this entire assembly. 

" Further, with your indulgence, may I say that we are at a most critical moment. 
The Chair himself feels weighted with responsibility, a double responsibilit)', a responsibility 
that is personal, and a responsibility on behalf of this entire House, of which he is a most 
unworth\- leader, but nevertheless a leader most eager to fulfil the functions of his office. 
The results of this Commission are bound to be far-reaching, and of a two-fold character — 
direct and indirect. They will take shape eventually in some kind of formal action on the 
part of the various Governments represented, partly of a legislative and partl\- of a practical 
character that could not perhaps be justly called legislative; then, too, the results of our 
findings are going to be productive of sentiment, and am I not right in thinking that 
sentiment still rules the world ? As in the past, so in the future, and in the present, sentiment 
is bound to be the final arbiter in all great questions, and no legislative or practical action 
can avail unless public opinion, rightly informed, acts spontaneously, strongh- and naturally in 
the direction of formal, enacted law. So it is of two-fold importance that what we succeed in 
agreeing upon should be of a strong character, practical, and — I shall not say with a 
sentimental side to it, but — with a side which will tend to create wholesome sentiment where- 
ever our findings may reach. The world, I think I am not mistaken, is looking for somethino- 
definitive from this Commission, though when I say definitive I do not for a moment mean 
final. We are onl>- striving to take a great problem one step forward in the course of 
development and progress. I think that all of us would agree that our resolutions should 
represent the high-water mark, up to date, on this question, — and we all represent sovereign states 
— so that we must demean ourselves royally. With the recollection that our responsibility is 
ultimately not merely to our individual nations, but to the whole family of nations and to 
posterity, it would seem to the Chair, — and I speak now entirely in my official position, and 
dispassionately, from the evidence before me, — it would seem that the material in hand is 
quite sufficient to enable us to reach valuable conclusions. 

" It is of vital importance, as the paragraph which I have read to you states, that our 
findings should reach common ground as far as possible, but in all probab'ilitx- in reachino- that 
common ground we will have to traverse disputed territory. Whatever disputed territory may 
be traversed, we will move with profound respect for the convictions of those who differ from 
us, and in the presentation of conclusions that ma\' not be generally' acceptable we will 
observe the fullest courtesy. Am I not right in saying that friends can afford to be frank to 
one another arid that it is the privilege of friendship to differ without the bonds of friendship 
being severed ? That is true in the realm of social life in any given nationality, and I venture 
to think that the day has dawned when, in the family of nations, it is equally true 

"There are two things at stake in the findings of this Commission. In the first place 
the whole principle of international study of disputed questions is involved. We have reached 
a day in the history of nations when splendid magnanimity is shown by this or that nation 
which may have the full conviction that its present position is right on a given question but 
which is ready to call in neighbouring nations to consider it conjointly,1f the matter is in 
dispute. It is the desire of all mankind to promote such movements as will tend to the 
greatest amity between nation and nation. The principle of Commissions is still young, and 
it is for us to advance that principle in the public estimation, or to depreciate it. Furthermore 



Minutes of Proceedings 43 

in dealing with the question immediately before us, we have to consider that if we fail in 
worthy and practical resolutions, we shall do that which all of us would lament should the 
calamity happen, zv'^r., throw back this whole question into the hands of agitators and 
extremists. The result would be to confuse and befog the public mind, depriving it of that 
sentiment which, as I have said, is going to be one of the greatest factors not only in the 
solution of this question but of all great questions. 

" I feel that I have said enough. You share my sense of responsibility and together I 
believe we shall worthily fulfil our duty. 

" Permit me to thank the House at this juncture for the fine temper and the courteous 
spirit which has characterised it from the i:>eginning, and the Chair ventures to hope that this 
temper will not desert us at the critical stage, but that to the end we shall prove ourselves to 
be friendly representatives of a Royal famil\' of nations. 

" It is for the House to decide how the various resolutions will be presented. The 
Chair would suggest, — though with some diffidence, the reasons for which are obvious, — that 
we follow the procedure which we have observed in all business brought before the House. 
Should this method be agreeable the resolutions will be presented by the different Delega- 
tions in their alphabetical order, the various movers presenting their resolutions with such 
comments as ma\' be desirable. Discussions will take place when all the resolutions are in." 

It was decided that all resolutions should be presented by the different Delegations in 
alphabetical order, and that no time limit should be fixed for receiving resolutions. 

The House adjourned at 12.30 p.m. until 10.30 a.m. on 23rd February. 



Minutes of the Eleventh Session 

23rd February, 1909 

The President took the Chair at 10.30 a.m. 

After the Chief Commissioner of the British Delegation had read replies to questions 
asked by the American and Chinese Delegations during the last sitting. Dr. RdSSLER moved 
that the resolutions to be submitted to the Commission should first be discussed by a Com- 
mittee, in order that unnecessary debate might be avoided. The Right Hon. Sir CECIL 
Clementi Smith thought that the resolutions should go to a Committee after, and not before, 
they had been submitted to the Commission. This view was also expressed by the Chief 
Commissioner for France. 

On Dr. RoSSLER's proposition being put to the House it was lost by 6 votes to 5. 

The Chair then announced that resolutions would be taken in alphabetical order, i.e.^ in 
the order of the various Delegations as given on the official list. 

Dr. H.AMILTON Wright, rising to present the American resolutions, spoke as follows: — 

" Mr. President and Fellow Commissioners of the International Opium Commission, — The 
American Delegates, after due consideration of the historical aspects of the opium question, 
after a complete and careful study of the literature on the general question of opium abuse 
throughout the world, and more particularly after a specific study of the various reports laid 
before this Commission, have considered and drawn up a >eries of resolutions which we hope 
may receive, along with others of similar sense, the unanimous approval of the International 
Opium Commission. We have, in considering and drawing up these re.solutions, kept in mind 
the magnitude of the question we were instructed to review, and the relative values of the 
economic, moral, and international interests of the different Government represented in this 
Commission. 

"It may be remembered that in one of the early despatches which led to the calling of 
this Commission, our Secretary of State took the following ground ; That the Government of 
the United States had not actually engaged in the opium trade in the Far East; that it had 



44 International Opium Commission 

from early days discouraged the opium trade in the Far East through Treaties made with Far 
Eastern countries, and by statutes passed to mal<e those Treaties eifective, that it had by 
special laws endeavoured to prevent its citizens from pushing the trade on unprotected people. 
All this is a matter of record in our report. Our Secretary of State was of the opinion that, in 
view of the historical position of the United States, its Government was, perhaps, best position- 
ed to propose that there should be called together an International .Commission to study the 
scientific, moral, economic, political and all other sides of the opium question, and if possible 
for the Commission to suggest methods for its solution. 

" The American Delegates can assure this International Opium Commission that our 
Secretary of State in calling for this Commission, sympathized with, and expressed the 
sympathy of the' American people, for those countries which had become involved in a 
financial maze based on a too free production and traffic in opium. His mind and the mind 
of the American people was also stirred by a profound sympathy for all people who have 
become involved in, and thus rendered less effective in world affairs by, the abuse of opium. 
The American Delegation is here, and has studied the opium problem in all of its phases, in 
the same spirit and with the same sympathy in which the International Opium Commission 
was conceived and finally brought into being. We feel certain that the other Delegations to 
this International Commission have thought as deeply on the opium question as we have since 
we assembled at Shanghai : that you have thought as deepl}', and with more real knowledge 
of the facts, as have thought that large number of able men and women who have agitated this 
opium question during the last fifty years; that you have thought as seriously and deeply as 
those statesmen will be bound to think to whom this Commission must leave the final adjust- 
ment of the problem. 

"You are all, I am sure, in cordial agreement with the American Delegates that the opium 
problem is a difficult one, especially for China and India. We, as well as other Delegates, were 
gratified when, in opening the discussion on the Chinese report, Sir Alexander Hosie expressed 
his great appreciation of, and his sympathy for, the hardship that confronts the Chinese people 
and Government in dealing with their opium problem. Our Delegation would enlarge upon Sir 
Alexander Hosie'S fine spirit, by expressing our appreciation of, and our sympathy for, the 
great difficulties which, we know, confront the Governments of British India, Hongkong, the 
Straits Settlements, French Indo-China, Siam, Portugal and the Netherlands, in dealing with 
the serious financial problems which have supervened on their production, and manufacture, or 
their trade in or use of opium. We, however, are glad to be able to congratulate our German, 
Austrian and Italian colleagues that, through the wisdom of their governments and the self- 
restraint of their peoples, their opium problem is not of a nature to be alarming. We rejoice 
also that, the Government of French Indo-China is so surely and steadil}- resoh-ing its opium 
problem to final extinction. 

"Yet, in spite of the sympathy and interest which our Delegation have for the 
difficulties, financial and other, we have concluded that the traffic in opium for other than 
necessary uses ought not much longer to continue, or, there will yet loom between the East 
and West a problem that in its magnitude and potentialities for strife will outstrip the 
magnitude and forces of that long since, and happily settled, slavery question. The slavery 
question agitated the civilised world for a century. Xo more emotion was expended, no 
greater misconception of facts occurred, no greater stubbornness of opinion was shown in the 
initial stage of the solution of that problem, than has been shown in the initial stao-es of the 
solution of this opium question. Before the slavery question was finally settled it well-nio-h 
tore a continent in two. In the United States we were dominated for fifty years by discussions 
of the slavery question, which finally led to a horrid war, — and that in spite of the great 
example set us by the British Government in voluntarily freeing the slaves in her colonies, and 
in charging her Imperial budget with a sum which may be said to be fifteen times the sum 
involved in the Indian opium traffic, the opium farms of Hongkong, the Straits Settlements 
Federated Malay States and Ceylon. 

" During the last few years our people have watched with admiration a repetition of 
history. For they have seen the beginning of a determined, and they hope a final, effort by 
that same great nation to sacrifice a great revenue to the end that another widespread evil may 
cease. In watching this historical day, our people, besides cleaning its own house, have felt 
that the century old desire of China is about to be fulfilled. That we live in a new day in 
which, were he alive, the great Warren Hastings would, while enunciating the great fundamental 
principles which filled his mind, say somewhat differently in the matter of foreign commerce 
in opium. We believe that he would say, and would be endorsed by the decent opinion of 
mankind, that opium was not a necessary of life, that it was undesirable to increase the 
production of any such article, that opium was a pernicious article when regarded as an articl 



Minutes of Proceedings 45 

■of luxury, an article, 011 the other hand, which the wisdom of Governments should carefully 
restrain from consumption, internally, and let us add, abroad. The day we are in is a modern 
and more happy day than the day of Warren Hastings. It is a day in which moves 
the force of another great Indian and Imperial statesman, a great philosopher also — Lord 
Morley. Lord Morley is not afraid to say that he did not ' wish to speak in disparagement of 
the Royal Commission, but somehow or other its findings had failed to satisfy public opinion 
in this country, and to ease the consciences of those who had taken up the matter .... 
What was the value of medical views as to whether opium was a good thing or not, when we had 
the evidence of nations who knew opium at close quarters. That the Philippines Opium 
Commission in the passage of their report, which he hoped the House of Commons would take 
to heart, declared that the United States so recognized the use of opium as an evil for which 
no financial gain could compensate, that she would not allow her citizens to encourage it, 
€ven passively.' 

" Lord Morley could further express himself on three most important points: — 

" ' The first, concerning his insistence that China must fulfil her part of the agreement 
founded on her own proposals, if England is to do the same. He (Lord Morley) explained 
that from his point of view such insistence was intended, not as a threat to China, but rather 
as a help to her to hold fast to her obligation, and to go forward with its fulfilment. 

" ' The second point concerned the action of our Government in case China should fail 
to carry out her own proposals — was it to be understood that the present movement for the 
gradual extinction of the Indian opium export should, in that case, come to an end? Lord 
Morley did not see that that was implied. There were two broad grounds for the present move- 
ment; one, the proposals of the Chinese Government, the other the resolution of the House of 
Commons on the 30th Ma}-, 1906. If the first should fail, the second did not necessaril)' cease 
to be a ground of action. 

"'The third point concerned a possible plea on the part of China that the process of 
reduction might go no more swiftly than her own first proposals contemplated. Would Lord 
Morley be prepared to consider such a plea if deliberately put before him by the Chinese 
authorities? In reph* Lord Morley said that he could only refer to his statement on the 30th 
May, 1906, that any deliberate proposals from the Chinese Government on the subject of 
opium would meet with sympathetic consideration.' 

"Is Great Britain to halt? Our Delegation, our people do not believe it. Great 
Britain will not halt if we are to credit her public opinion, her press, her present eminent 
Secretary of State for Indian Affairs. Our people believe that Great Britain will defend 
herself against the criticism of all right-minded people by replacing her opium revenue, 
sacrificing it mayhap, and by sacrificing dual agreements, and obsolete treaties, as she 
sacrifices, and sends to the scrapheap an obsolete class of battleships that are of no further 
use to defend her extensive interests. We live in a day when such things may be done b\' 
our great Mother Country. We live in the day of such large minded Governors-General and 
Statesmen as Lord Minto who declares, ' That there is no doubt throughout the civilized 
world a feeling of disgust at the demoralising effect of the opium habit in excess. It is a 
feeling in which we cannot but share. We could not, with any self-respect, refuse to assist 
China on the ground of loss of revenue to India.' And here let me express my admiration 
for the Honourable Member of the Indian Government who sits in the British Delegation, for 
placing this statement of Lord Minto's in the record of this International Opium Commission. 

"It is the day of such great lawyers and statesmen as Mr. Elihu Root, who could bring 
to life this International Opium Commission. It is the day of such practical churchmen and 
philanthropists as Bishop Brent whose mind grasped the opportune moment for suggesting the 
calling of this Commission. It is a day when this troublesome opium question is no longer 
the concern of one or two Powers, who have direct interests in the traffic and illicit use 
of opium,— but a day when the great Powers of the world who have kept aloof from the 
problem may join with those others and, out of their experience, advise on this question. It is 
a day, let us hope, in which moves the old happy spirit that leaped at the discovery of opium 
as an anodyne for those irretrievable ills from which the human mind and frame may 
sometimes suffer. It is a day, we venture to hope, when opium shall by the voice of this 
International Opium Commission be relegated and consecrated to its proper use in relieving 
the really sick. The American Delegation trusts that it is a day when opium shall no longer 
be made to descend from its high place among the gifts of nature to pander to the desires or 
vices of mankind. 

"Personally, through this more recent and more through study of the opium question, 
I have seen that the abuse of opium is a sad business. It was with a feeling not far from 
shame that it fell to my lot to place before this Commission the unhappy state of the opium 



46 International Opium Commission 

question in the United States. I venture to place myself with those other gentlemen on the 
floor of this House who by their training are best able to judge of the mental and physical 
conditions that arise and ultimately call for the use of opium. We would agree that the need 
for opium often occurs. We know, as the great Sydenham said, that medicine would 
go limping had it not been for the discovery of the drug. We would agree, I think, that there 
is a constant temptation to the most enlightened members of the medical profession 
to the use of the opium to relieve mental and physical pain, a temptation to which the 
medical profession too often gives way; yet because I know these particular phases of the 
opium problem, all the more am I firmly convinced that opium in all of its forms is a 
drug to be honestly and simply used onl}' in those stresses and strains of mental and physical 
life that may be said to be extreme. 

"With these thoughts in our minds our Delegations has had to face an International 
Problem that earnest!)' calls for the study of questions of revenue, of treaties between various 
Powers on the question of opium, of dual agreements of the same nature for the control 
or reduction of the use of opium amongst tiiose peoples to whom it is a familiar and read}- 
remedy for all the minor ills that flesh and mind are heir to. There has at times been 
a temptation to look at the opium problem from the m(jral, the medical, the financial, or the 
historical point of view alone. But on the whole we may assert that we have resolved 
the opium problem in its most comprehensive sense; and that, if we had any thought that it 
was a problem of easy solution without the conjoint action of the different Governments here 
represented, we have been sobered. It is with strong convictions but in generous spirit 
that the American Opium Commission presents its resolutions with a hope that they may be 
acceptable to this Commission as a whijle, with a hope that there shall speedil\- be recorded 
the first great International step in the solution of this vexatious questions, so that the 
East and the West may be free without further conflict of opinion to proceed to discuss those 
other, but minor, problems that still agitate them." 

Dr. Wright, continuing, said that in introducing these resolutions their Delegation had 
no intention of being dogmatic. They were presented more in the shape of a skeleton, which it 
was hoped the wisdom and thought of the other Delegations would be able to clothe. They 
were couched, perhaps, in too precise language, but in drawing them up their Delegation 
thought it was better to have them as precise as possible, and to trust to the advice of other 
Delegations to soften them, or to give them a new direction, where needed. 

Dr. Wright then read the first of the American resolutions : 

That, whereas the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present recognise that opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations are, or should 
be, confined to legitimate medical practice. 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission a 
uniform effort should be made by the countries represented at once or in the near future to 
confine the use of opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparadons to legidmate medical 
practice in their respective territories : 

And be it further Resolved, tliat in the judgment of the Internadonal Opium Commission each 
Government represented is best able to determine for its own nationals, dependent or protected 
peoples, what shall be regarded as legitimate medical practice. 

Dr. Wright stated that his Delegation realised that the term legitimate medical practice did not 
mean the same in every country, and that what constituted legitimate medical practice in 
France, the United States, etc., would not be considered as such in India or China, where 
there were not a sufficient number of physicians ; so in the last paragraph, bearing on the first 
postulate, they had taken the view that each Government was capable of deciding itself what 
constituted legitimate medical practice in its (nvn territory. 

The second American resolution, as read by Dr. WRIGHT, ran as follows : 

That, whereas the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present recognise that, as the result of inadequate knowledge in the past of the 
baneful effects of the unguarded and indiscriminate use of opium, its alkaloids derivatives and 
preparations, there have arisen certain revenue problems which depend upon the producdon, 
sale and use of opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations : 

And further, whereas, in the judgment of the International Opium Commission these 
revenue problems remain and will require a certain time for solution : 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission no 
Government should, as a matter of principle or necessity, continue to depend upon the pro- 
duction of opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations for an essential part of its revenue : 



Minutes oi Proceedinc;s 



47 



And be it further Resolved, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission 
such revenue problems as exist are not of a nature to baffle the Governments confronted by 
them; and that they should be settled as soon as possible to the end that opium, its alkaloids, 
derivatives and preparations sh.ould be relegated to their proper use in legitimate medical 
practice. 

The second postulate, Dr. VVkigiu" said, was based on facts gleaned from the reports- 
Tlie\- recognised that the United St.ites had no financial interests in the opium question 
except in the Philippiiies, where the\- had lost 3 per cent of revenue 1j\' prohibition, and where 
they had had to add ctjnsiderably to the budtjet by preventive work, but at the same time 
they recognised that there weie larger problems affecting some of the countries represented 
on the Commission. Therefore they had resolved that " these revenue problems remain and 
will require a certain time for si^lution." 

Continuing, Dr. WRIGHT stated that they wanted to avoid going into details; they, of 
course, recognised that an export duty was a perfectly legitimate tax, but that formed a vei\' 
small part of the revenue deri\'ed from opimn by several of the countries represented there. 
The countr\- that would be most seriously affected by the withdrawal of revenue on opium 
was India. They had the assurance, however, of the representative of the Indian Government 
that that Government was not baffled b\- the problem. With reference to the wording of the 
last paragraph of the resolution, where it was stated that such revenue problems as exist 
'■ should be settled as soon as possible," the speaker regretted that the language used was so 
positive ; but his Delegation was perfectly willing to make any alteration that might be 
considered desirable. 

The third American I'esolution was to the following effect : — 

That, whereas, the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present state that opium smoking is prohibited to their nationals; further, that some 
of the Reports submitted state that opium smoking is prohibited to protected and dependent 
peoples of some of the Governments here represented: 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission, the 
principle of the total prohibition of the manufacture, distribution and use of smoking opium is 
the right principle to be applied to all people, both nationals and dependent or protected ; and 
that no system for the manufacture, distribution or use of smoking opium should continue to 
exist, except for the express purpose and no other of stamping out the evil of opium smoking in 
the shortest possible time. 

Dr. Wright thought that this resolution called for no comment, and iie continued to 
read the fourth resolution : — 

Thai, whereas, the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the Delega- 
tions present, record that each Government has strict laws which are aimed directly or indirectly 
to prevent the smuggling of opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations into their respective 
territories. 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission it is 
the duty of all countries which continue to produce opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and pre- 
parations, to prevent at ports of departure the shipment of opium, and of its alkaloids, derivatives 
and preparations, to any country which prohibits the entry of opium or of its alkaloids, 
derivatives and preparations. 

Dr. Wright explained that in drawing up this resolution the American Delegation had 
in mind their own problem in the Philippines. He then read the fifth resolution: — 

That, whereas, the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present, indicate that the use of morphia, its salts and derivatives, is iudissolubly 
bound up with the abuse of opium itself, and that their use accompanies, or sooner or later 
supervenes, on the use of opium itself: 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission, 
strict International Agreements are needed to control the trade in, and the present or possible 
future abuse of, morphia and its salts and derivadves, by the people of the Governments 
represented in the International Opium Commission. 

In drawing up this resolution, Dr. Wright said, his Delegation had no other country in 
mind but their own. They had, perhaps, the largest morphine problem to face of any 
country represented on the Commission, but here again the>- were willing to accept any 
reasonable amendment. 



48 International Opium Commission 

Dr. Wright then read the last two of the resolutions drawn up by his Delegation,, 
without further comment: 

That, whereas, the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present indicate that though each Government represented is best able by its. 
National Laws to control its own internal problem as regards the manufacture, importation or 
abuse of opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations, yet that no Government represented 
may by its National Laws wholly solve its own opium problem without the conjoint aid of all 
those Governments concerned in the production and manufacture of opium, its alkaloids, 
derivatives and preparations ; 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that in the judgment of the International Opium Commission, a. 
concerted effort should be made by each Government represented in the Commission to assist 
every other Government in the solution of its internal opium problem. 

That, whereas, the reports submitted to the International Opium Commission by the 
Delegations present, directly or indirectly recognise that the foregoing resolutions cannot be 
made effective except by the conjoint action of the Government concerned : 

Be it Resolved, therefore, that the Commission as a whole, record its sense in favour of the 
principle of an International Conference for the solution of the problem. 

H.E. Monsieur MiYAOKA enquired of the Chair if each Delegation would be at liberty 
to introduce any resolution at any time during the proceedings until the final \ote on all the 
resolutions was taken. The PRESIDENT said it was for the House to decide \\hether it were- 
preferable to take up the individual resolutions which had already been presented, or to- 
receive others that might be in hand, and to discuss them all seriatim. He understood that 
the Chinese and Netherlands Delegations were prepaied to submit resolutions to the House. 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-an stated that the Chinese resolutions were not quite ready^ for 
distribution. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith suggested that the House should proceed 
to consider the resolutions presented by the American Delegation, and his proposal was 
accepted. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright, having moved the adoption of the first American resolution, 
the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clemknti Smith addressed the House as follows : — 

" Mr. President, — The British Delegation considers that it would be more respectful to 
put in a formal way before this Commission the views that it holds as regards this resolution. 
With your permission, therefore, I will read our opinions which have been put in formal 
language: — 

"It has been the earnest wish of the British delegation that the labours of the Com- 
mission should result in the unanimous recommendation of measures which mio-ht have some 
practical effect in leading to the removal of those abuses which are found, though in varying 
degrees, to be connected with the use of opium. It is, therefore, with extreme reo-ret that we 
find ourselves unable to give the conveners of the Commission our entire support in all the 
proposals which they put forward. I ma\' sa}- at the outset that the form of their proposals 
would alone make it difficult for us to accept them. Misunderstanding and misapprehension 
we believe, can only result from a vote in favour of prohibition in the unqualified form in which 
it is presented in these resolutions. They will see in due course that we are prepared to go- 
with them on the practical issues connected with the question of opium smoking. I should 
however, be out of order in discussing the resolutions collectively. We have now to deal with 
the particular resolution before us, and I will state the reasons for our inability to support it 

"The resolution purports to reproduce, and the recommendation which it contains 
purports to follow directly from, the statements of policy which have been made by the 
diflferent participating countries in the reports submitted to the Commission. We object 
to the resolution in the first place because it unquestionably puts an erroneous 
construction on some of these reports, when it lays down in its preamble that 
they recognise that the use of opium should be confined to medical practice. It 
is true that certain countries concerned in this investigation are already attemptin"- to limit 
the use of opium to medicinal purposes, or have definitely arrived at the decision so to limit it 
This is the case, for example, with America and Canada where a foreign form of indulgence 
previously unnoticed and uncontrolled, was at length found to be gaining a hold on the white 
population. It is also true of China : where the practice of opium smoking has spread, uncon- 
trolled, until the Government of the country find that it is impairing the national strength' 



Minutes of Proceedings 



49 



where the character of the administrative machinery seems to offer no alternatives other than 
complete extirpation or unrestricted license ; and where there is strong public support behind a 
policy which, without that assistance, could only end in disastrous failure. 

" There are, however, other countries to whom the opium question presents itself under 
wholly different conditions. Either they have not accepted the view that the use of opium can 
or should be strictly confined to medical purposes, or, if they look forv>/ard to prohibition as the 
ultimate goal, they are still so far from its attainment that the proposition enunciated in the 
resolution could not be a practical guide to their action in the near future. By way of example 
I need only cite the case of India. You are all aware that regulation and not prohibition is the 
declared policy of the British Government in the uhole mainland of India, and that the report 
which we have laid before you clearl)' establishes this distinction, and indeed strongly 
emphasizes it by the special attention which it devotes to the study of experiments in prohibi- 
tion in Burma. Our examination of the conditions in India has not satisfied us that it would 
be justifiable, and has made it absolutely clear that it is altogether impracticable in the near 
future, to depart from this established policy. We cannot, therefore, accept the unqualified 
statement contained in the preamble to the resolution, or the recommendation which follows 
from it. 

"The opium habit has been known in India for centuries. You have only to look at 
the statistics of consumption to-day, and compare them with the lowest estimates of consump- 
tion in China, and remember how rapid has been the extension of the production and 
consumption of opium in the latter country, to see that the system of regulation built up in 
India is in fact, in a large measure, an efficient instrument in the prevention of abuse. You 
have onl}- to consider for a moment the relations between the ruling power and the subject 
populations of India to realise that despotic interference with a national habit, dating, as I have 
said, from a period long anterior to British rule, could only be justified if that habit had been 
the cause of extensive social degradation, of which we have no sufficient evidence, or by the 
assurance of strong and genuinely popular support from Indian public opinion. This general 
support would not be forthcoming to-day. Indeed you will yourselves have realised, from a 
study of our report and of the explanations with which it was introduced, that the present 
would be a singularly inopportune occasion for inaugurating so questionable a political 
experiment. I need not enlarge on the difficulties involved, but would remind you that 
they are not wholly, and in our opinion not even primarily, financial, except to this extent,. 
— that we should certainly advise that further sacrifices of revenue should not be con- 
templated until time had been allowed for the loss of the revenue from the export trade to 
be made good from the growth of ordinary taxation. 

" But, as I have said above, the task of prohibiting opium is in any case impracticable 
in the near future — with which alone we need concern ourselves. I would ask you to look at 
the map of India, and to recollect that the countries along our northern frontier are opium- 
producing states to an extent which, if not great at present, admits of expansion to meet an 
insistent and accessible demand — that in the heart of India we have a solid block of 200,000 
square miles of native state territory, with a correspondingly extended land frontier, where, 
among a population of over 17 millions, the production and transit of opium are not under 
direct control — and that still further south opium is in general use in the great state of 
Hyderabad, with an area of 80,000 square miles and a population of 1 1 millions, a State which 
possesses the right to resume the cultivation of the poppy at any time after twelve months' 
notice, and has only conditionally suspended the exercise of that right in order to obtain a 
higher revenue from an external source of supply which can be more readily taxed than 
scattered production within its own territories. 

" I am not raising speculative difficulties. We know from actual experience in 
regard to these same centres of production in the past what we must expect in the 
future. We know too from actual experience the evils and futility of a policy which 
can only be maintained by the employment of enormous preventive establishments 
to guard an extended inland barrier. But I may take a more familiar case — one in which we 
can point to a candid appreciation of our difficulties by an impartial outside authority, and a 
generous recognition of our efforts to overcome them. I refer to Burma. You have seen 
how in the far simpler case of Burma, where the religious sentiments of the people and 
the best opinion among therin are all on our side, and we are dealing with a single 
province isolated from the mainland of India, the problem of prohibition has resisted 
the efforts of the Government for a period of fifteen years, and can hardly yet be 
regarded as solved even by the system of minute individual scrutiny which has now been 
attempted. It is clear that even if the British Government were prepared to admit the equity 
of denying the use of opium to the peoples of India generally — to proscribe it as the source of 



50 International Opium Commission 

more extended social injury tiian alcohol and hemp drugs, the consumption of which they 
already regulate but do not prohibit — that decision could not be enforced except after a long 
period of preparation, during which, by perseverance with the present policy of regulation, the 
demand for opium as an indulgence had been gradually reduced and an effective public 
opinion against its use had been created. It would be difficult indeed to get as far as this, 
for the obstacles I have already mentioned will interpose themselves there as restriction 
becomes more irksome. 

" It is equally clear — and I take it to be the intention of the last paragraph of the 
resolution to recognise — that we cannot, either by excessive restrictions or by direct prohibition, 
withhold from the peoples of India a drug which is one of the main household remedies 
on which they rely. Even if we adopted the resolution in principle we should still, and 
for a long time to come, be compelled to put a most liberal construction on the term ' medical 
purposes '; and to entrust the distribution of the drug for such purposes to a subordinate 
agency, constantly exposed to strong temptation. This further opportunity for irregularity 
would go far to complete the undermining of a scheme of nominal prohibition. 

"We should not be dealing fairly with the Commission in slurring over these difficulties 
and objections. We cannot advise our Government to pledge itself to a principle for which it 
cannot be seriously urged that the information placed before the Commission supplies an}' new- 
foundation, and which would not lead directly and in the near future to any action other 
than that already implied by the existing policy of regulation. 

" We are at one, however, with every member of this Commission in desiring in ever)- 
practical way to prevent the abuse of the drug, and we believe that the acceptance of the fourth 
of the resolutions which we have placed on the table will tend towards this common end. 

" In conclusion I can onl\- add that we .shall be unable to support the resolution brought 
forward by the American Delegation." 

Dr. Wright. — "If the preamble to Re.solution No. i contained the words Legitimate 
medical practice or Government Regulation would that meet the objection of the Right Hon. 
Commissioner for Great Britain ?" 

Sir Ckcil Clementi Smith. — " I regret to say that we consider that this would not 
meet the difficulties which I have already indicated at some length in the paper which I have 
just read." 

Dr. RoSSLER suggested that the words " as far as practicable " might be inserted after the 
word "confine" in the second paragraph of the resolution. This, he thought, might meet the 
objections of the British Delegation. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " To put it perfectly plainly, and to be entireh- frank, 
the British Delegation is not able to accept the view that opium should be confined simply 
and solely to medical uses." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright agreed that one of the greatest difficulties which the British 
Indian Government would have to contend with was the definition of what constituted " legiti- 
mate medical practice," it being impossible to apply modern western medical ethics to a great 
country like India. 

After further discussion it was decided, on the motion of Monsieur Ratard, that the 
further consideration of the resolution should be postponed in order that the British and 
American Delegations might confer together. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright moved the adoption of the second American resolution. 
Speaking for his Delegation the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith said: 

" We are unable to accept the proposition implied in the preamble, that the revenue 
derived by certain countries from opium is primarily due to the unguarded and indiscriminate 
use of the drug. It is a commonplace of opium administration, and is abundantly clear from 
the reports themselves, that it is the most efficient systems of regulating the use of opium 
which yield the highest return in revenue. 

" Nor are we prepared to give to the revenue aspect of the opium problem the prominent 
position which this resolution assigns to it. I think our attitude in this matter will be 
sufficient!)' clear from the observations which I have already made on the first of these 
resolutions. 



Minutes of Proceedings ^i 

" Finally we can find no warrant for the sweeping statement in the last paragraph of 
the resolution that such revenue problems as exist are not of a nature to baffle the Govern- 
ments confronted by them. If any country finds the prohibition of the use of opium to be 
incumbent upon it, its revenue problem will no doubt be faced and ultimately successfully 
faced. But we have no justification for minimising the revenue difficulties involved, or indeed, 
in the judgment of this delegation for intruding at all into their fiscal domain. It is not only 
those countries in which the use of opium prevails which derive a substantial portion of their 
revenue from an excise on articles the consumption of which is associated with abuse." 

Monsieur Ratard. — " I should like to observe that as regards opium prohibition, fiscal 
considerations have very great weight in certain countries. But it must not be imagined that 
a growing revenue derived from opium means any relaxation of the policy of regulation. On 
the contrary the result would be reduced consumption. In such countries as Java, and French 
Indo-China, the fact that the tax on opium is regularly increased practically takes the drug out 
of the reach of the native population." 

Dr. RoSSLER suggested that the resolution under discussion should also for the present 
be withdrawn and reconstructed for further consideration. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright said that it would have been better in his opinion if the resolu- 
tion had been previously discussed by a Committee such as the Chief Commissioner for 
Germany had proposed, but as that could not be done he hoped that the various delegations 
would reserve their opinions on this resolution until later. For the present he withdrew the 
resolution. He then moved the adoption of the third of the American resolutions. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " I should like to sa\- in regard to this resolution that 
we accept in principle what is aimed at, and what we are prepared to do is to \'ote for a 
resolution which would recommend that each Delegation move its own Government to take 
measures for the gradual suppression of the practice of opium smoking in its own territories 
and possessions. We are of opinion that the practice of opium smoking is one which should 
be done away with. It is manifest to everybody, however, that you would require in different 
countries, where circumstances vary, different systems by which to carry out the object in view, 
and if it is acceptable to the Commission as a whole, then that principle is one which the 
British Delegation would be prepared to submit as an amendment to the resolution." 

Chief Commissioner for Japan. — " I rise to express the opinion of the Japanese 
Delegation that from experience gained in Formosa the Japanese Government consider 
that the best way of dealing with the opium habit, i.e., the most practical way, is by gradual 
abolition, so that men and women addicted to the use of opium may break off their habit with 
least inconvenience to themselves. From experience gained, the Japanese Government is of 
opinion that gradual suppression is the only practical solution. Therefore, I agree with the 
Right Hon. Chief Commissioner for Great Britain in suggesting an amendment to Resolution 
No. 3 based on the principle of gradual abolition. Of course, should the American Delegation 
see their way to change the nature of their resolution we should be only too glad to accept it." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright, speaking on behalf of his Delegation, said that he was willing 
to modify the resolution to meet the wishes of the other Delegations. 

The Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands. — " I may mention that this Delegation 
has a resolution to offer which embodies the views expressed by the last speakers." 

The Chair expressed the opinion that the last resolution might come under the same 
ruling as the two previous resolutions. This suggestion was accepted, and the resolution 
was withdrawn for modification. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright then moved the adoption of the fourth resolution. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith suggested that the words in the second paragraph of the 
resolution : " which continue to produce opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations " : 
.should be omitted. This would put the pressure not upon one country only but upon all 
countries. He also ventured to suggest to the United States Delegation that the paragraph 

in question should read " it is the duty of all countries to adopt rea.sonable 

measures to prevent, etc." 



52 International Opium Coaimission 

Dr. Hamilton Wright accepted these amendments, and the resolution in its altered 
form was adopted unanimously by the House. 

(Note. — ^The Portugese Delegation asked permission to reserve its vote on each and 
all of the resolutions.) 

Dr. Hamilton Wright moved the adoption of the fifth American resolution. 

The Chair drew the attention of the House to the fact that a similar resolution had 
been drawn up by the British Delegation. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — -"A father generally approves of his own children, and 
perhaps I may be pardoned for saying that though we quite follow the points referred to in 
the resolution under discussion, we should prefer, and it would be more in order if I moved it 
as an amendment, the wording of our own resolution, with the words "to China" and 
"other" omitted. It would then read as follows: — 

That the Commis.sion finds that the unrestricted manufacture, sale and distribution 
of morphine already constitute a grave danger [to China], and that the morphine habit is 
already known, and shows signs of spreading, among [other] peoples in the East and elsewhere : 
the Commission therefore desires to urge strongly on all Governments that it is highly important 
that drastic measures should be taken by each Government in its own territories and possessions 
to control the manufacture, sale and distribution of this drug, and also of such other derivatives 
of opium as may appear on scientific enquiry to be liable to similar abuse and productive of like 
ill effects. 

Dr. Hamilton Wrk^HT. — " We are quite willing to accept the resolution that has 
just been read in place of our own." 

Monsieur Ratard asked whether the words "the manufacture" were absolutely 
necessary. 

Sir Cecil Clemenli Smith thought that the words should be retained. 

H.E. Monsieur Miyaoka suggested that the words " among people in the East and else- 
where " should be omitted. 

This was agreed to, and the resolution as amended was adopted unanimously by the 
House when put to the vote. 

The Commission adjourned at 12.30 p.m. 

On re-assembling at 2.30 p.m.. Dr. Hamilton Wright moved the adoption of the 
sixth American resolution. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith.— "The first portion of this proposed resolution admits that 
each Government represented on this Commission is best able by its National Laws to control 
its own internal problem as regards the manufacture, importation and abuse of opium, yet lays 
down that no Government is wholly able by its laws to solve its opium problem without the 
assistance of other Governments. 

" I think I am not going in the least degree too far when I say that the United States 
of America has solved its own problem in a most effective way. At any rate I think that the 
Act of Congress recently introduced, or rather the substance of the Act which has been com- 
municated to this Commission, shows that the United States Government is entirely qualified 
to deal with the internal problem of their own country. 

" I do not wish to press the matter, — I only wish to take that case as an illustration of 
the argument which I wish to urge upon this Commission. It appears to me that we are 
interfering or proposing to interfere in a way which our instructions do not allow of in the 
matter of internal administration, and that alone, to my mind, makes it almost impossible for 
us to fall into line with the American Delegation. 

" With regard to certain words in the second portion of the clause I, must on]}- confess 
that I fail to see how you can have concerted effort made by each Government represented in 
the Commission. I do not wish to critici.se the language, but no doubt that language will be 
severely criticised by others. 



Minutes of Proceedincs 53 

"The principle which is aimed at in this resolution is a direct interference with the 
^internal administration of a country, which I do not think it within our power to deal with, 
and on that ground alone I think it would be imprudent to accept the resolution which has 
been introduced by the American Delegation." 

Dr. Wright. — " In the preamble I do not tbink that we wished to express that any 
Delegation has the right to interfere in the internal administration of a country; but, to take 
our own case, we are not able and will not be able to make the law effective unless we have 
■assistance. I think everybody recognizes that. We frankly acknowledge in this resolution 
that our Government cannot solve its opium problem by its own national law, and think that 
the other Governments ought to help us ; and I think the same remark applies to other 
■countries. We would be perfectly willing to drop the word each before Governnieitt if the 
British Government would vote for this resolution." 

Monsieur MivaOKA pointed out that the resolution under discussion was very similar 
to the one numbered "4" that had already been adopted by the House. 

Several speakers concurred with this view, and Dr. WRIGHT eventually withdrew the 
resolution, as the question that it was intended to deal with was sufficiently covered by the 
■two resolutions already adopted. He then moved the consideration of the seventh American 
resolution. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith said that the instructions issued to the 
British Delegation were specific, and he felt great difficulty in going beyond them. He thought 
that it would be presuming on their position were they to suggest the speedy calling of 
an International Conference. That was a matter that should be left to the Governments 
•concerned. Personally, he would not like to approach his Government telling them what they 
ought to do, and he felt that it was impossible to accept the resolution before them. 

Monsieur Ratard having suggested that the resolution should be considered at some 
future date. Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT withdrew the resolution on that understanding. 

On behalf of the American Delegation Dr. Tenney brought forward the following as 
a separate resolution : — 

Be it Resolved, that in the opinion of the International Opium Commission every nation 
which effectively prohibits the production of opium and its derivatives in that country, except for 
medical purposes, should be free to prohibit the importation into its territories of opium or its 
derivatives, except for medical purposes. 

Dr. Tenney said : " Mr. President. — It is a fortunate thing that the deliberations of this 
Commission have not been disturbed by the clashing of extreme and hysterical views on one 
side or the other of the opium question. We have met as sensible men to study the question 
in a sane and sober manner. The world knows and admits that opium and morphia constitute 
a danger that threatens the welfare of China, and no less that of other nations. 

" The various Government regulations which we have been studying, whether prohibitive 
except for medical purposes, or merely restrictive, are all founded upon the premise, disputed 
by none, that the use of opium or its derivatives constitutes a danger to every state represented 
here. Beyond question it is the general opinion of the world that the use of opium or mor- 
phia enfeebles the will, diminishes the efficiency, and injures the characters of the people, and 
measures have been taken accordingly. 

" Every nation represented at this Commission, with one exception, has a free hand to 
take such steps as it deems necessary to safeguard its people from the injury which results 
from the misuse of opium. But that one nation whose hands are not free is unfortunately the 
one which, in its own opinion as well as in that of all competent observers, has suffered most 
severely from the spread of the opium habit. 

" Speaking for myself, a long residence in China has caused me to feel a profound 
sympathy for the Chinese people. I am not blind to the faults of the Chinese social and 
political organization, as, I trust, I am not blind to certain faults of my own nation ; but I have 
real confidence in the general soundness of Chinese public opinion upon moral issues clearly 
brought before them. 



54 International Opium Commission 

■' Our colleagues of the Chinese Delegation have presented a report upon the present 
condition of the nation in regard to the production and misuse of opium in the Empire. That 
report has been in many respects unsatisfactory both to them and to us. It has been quite 
impossible for our fellow Commissioners of China, as they have frankly admitted, to furnish us 
with accurate statistics from all parts of the Empire. Instead of such statistics they have only 
been able to give us estimates, made, I believe, by fair-minded observers of various classes 
and nationalities. They have been unable to prove to us that the officials and people of the 
different provinces and sections of the Empire are all actuated by the same degree of 
earnestness and sincerity in carrying out the reform movement inaugurated by the Imperial 
Government two years ago. The Chinese report, carefully studied, also reveals the incom- 
pleteness of the control exercised by the Central Government over the provinces, a difficulty 
which every American can appreciate, owing to our own experience of the many difficulties in 
carrying on the federal system of government which has been adopted in the United States. 

"But while we admit the inadequac}- and incompleteness in exact statistical data of the 
report which the Chinese Delegation has presented to us, it is still possible to form certain 
definite conclusions from it. I think there can be no doubt in the mind of anyone who has 
carefully studied the Chinese report that these three facts are full_\- established : 

I. — The Imperial Government uf Cliina is thoroughly in earnest in the anti-opium 

reform movement. 
2. — There has been a remarkable growth of public sentiment in faxor of the eradication 

of opium. 
3. — There has been very decided and satisfactory progress made in carr)'ing out the 

Imperial Edict of 1906. With few exceptions the provincial authorities ha\e 

run ahead of the Edict and have reduced the poppy acreage much more rapidly 

than the original Edict called for. 

The comity of nations calls upon us to lend a helping hand to China in the gigantic 
task to which she has set herself. It is not easy to di\-ert the minds of four hundred million 
people from the thoughts and cares that ordinaril)- engross them, and centre their thoughts 
upon a great moral reform. Those who think that the Chinese are a phlegmatic race, not 
susceptible to the influence of enthusiasm and emotion, and not responsive to appeals 
to the moral sense, do not know the nation. The Chinese like other nations are capable 
of earnest endeavor and great sacrifice under the spur of an awakened conscience, and as is 
the case with all other peoples it is hard to keep them for a long period of time on the 
heights of moral heroism and self-sacrifice. 

There is a tide in th? affairs of men, 

Which taken at the flood, leads on to forliine ; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 

Is bound in shallows, and in miseries. 

This wise saying of our great poet applies to those periods of moral awakening that come to 
all nations. It will be easier for China to rouse herself to one mighty effort to throw off the 
bondage of the opium habit than to persist in a long programme me of gradual reform stretching 
over a term of years. 

" The existing Treaties prevent China from exercising her right as a Sovereign Power 
to act for the protection of her own people. The consciousness of this limitation acts as a 
paralysis upon the minds of Chinese reformers. Rightly or wrongly it turns into pessimists 
multitudes who would otherwise be working with enthusiasm for the regeneration of their 
country. This I know by abundant evidence. 

" Gentlemen, I wish to say clearly and deliberately that in our opinion it is a disgrace 
to modern civilization that such a condition should be allowed to continue. 

" This resolution is not to be interpreted as a fling against Great Britain on the part of 
the American Delegation. Nothing is further from our thoughts. Action by all the Treaty 
Powers is necessarily involved if China is to enjoy her rights as a Sovereign State in dealing 
with the opium question. We fully appreciate the fine spirit which has been shown by the 
British Delegates and we hope it may be further exhibited by their supporting cordially this 
resolution. Such action as that which we urge would give China a fair opportunity to show 
that she is in earnest, that she can help her.self ; and if she can help herself friendly nations 
ought to help her. If she proves unable to help herself, then the blame rests solely on her 
own shoulders. If it is, as we believe, a question of duty, then this help ought to be given 
without haggling or demanding any quid pro quo. No honorable man tries to exact payment 
for doing what honor demands of him, or refuses to do what is right because it may cost him 
something. I am sure that each of us wishes his own nation to conduct its foreign policy on 



Minutes ok PKOciiEDiNcs 



55 



the same principles that actuate the ideal man in his private relationships, and therefore we 
say that all the Governments of all the Treaty Powers should give China the " square deal " 
regardless of any possible temporary loss or inconvenience that it may cause them. Unques- 
tionably a moral tide is now rising in China. Let us help the Chinese ship of state to take it 
at its flood and reach the harbor of national strength and prosperity ! " 

Mr. T'.ANG Kuo-AX. — "The Chinese Delegation, whilst supporting the resolution just 
put forward by the American Delegation, intend to introduce a resolution similar in effect, 
although couched in different terms. We will, consequently, refrain from making any remarks 
now, but we wish to announce officially that we endorse every word that has just been uttered 
by Dr. Tennkv." 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — " Ma\- I ask Mr. Tang whether he is prepared that action 
should be taken on this resolution before us? I understood him to say that the Chinese 
Delegation intends tn submit a resolution which though differently worded, embodies the same 
idea." 

Mr. T'AXG KL'o-.an. — " As far as this resolution is concerned we are prepared to have it 
submitted to the Commission. Our own resolution is not of such a general character, but has 
special reference to China, and I do not think the two resolutions are likely to conflict with 
each other." 

Sir Cecil Clemen ti Smith. — "It would be exceedingly interesting to us to know 
whether the Chinese Delegation is speaking with the authority of its Government, or whether 
it is merely expressing the personal opinion of its Members upon Dr. Tenney'S resolution." 

Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN. — "The Chinese Delegation submit that they are responsible to 
their Government for their actions. I do not think that, being representatives of a Sovereign 
Power, we should be called upon by a Member of any Delegation to state whence our authority 
is derived." 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — "Then I will go at once to the root of the matter. As 
far as I understand, Mr. T'ANG, on behalf of the Chinese Delegation, supports this resolution 
which has been submitted to the Commission by Dr. Tenney. The effect, which, of course, 
would not escape Mr. T'ANG, is an entire abrogation of Treaties. Whether the Chinese 
Government are prepared to accept that situation I, of course, do not know, nor am I prepared 
to say whether an\' Government would accept that position but, speaking from general 
knowledge, I think it would be amazing to suppose that any Power would agree for one 
moment to the repudiation of Agreements solemnly entered into. It is only necessary to 
make a statement to that effect to show the absolute absurdity of the situation, and I trust 
that this International Opium Commission will not for one moment allow itself to agree 
to any form of words which will be interpreted as meaning that nations can lightl)- break 
Treaties solemnly entered into by them." 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-aN. — "We had intended postponing the discussion of this point until 
to-morrow, but since the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith has brought it up, may I be 
allowed to say that it is not the intention of the Chinese Delegation, nor the intention of our 
Government, to go back upon their Treaties or Agreements, nor is it our intention to do 
anything or to say anything which might appear discourteous to the British Delegation: that 
would be farthest from our minds. However, we state here, and we have the authority of 
our Government for stating, that the ten years' arrangement entered into between Great 
Britain and China was, at the time, thought by us to be all that was required. But China 
did not have in mind never to bring up the subject for discussion. While I repeat, therefore, 
that we have no desire whatever to go back on any agreement, still we would appreciate 
any effort on the part of the British Delegation to further assist us by curtailing the period 
of importation into China; and it is with this view in mind that we have ventured to support 
the resolution brought forward by Dr. Tenney. We do not come here to ask this as a matter 
of right We are conscious of having entered into a compact with Great Britain to suppress 
opium in ten years by regular annual reduction, but, notwithstanding this agreement, we 
believe that we are not precluded from requesting the Powers whose Representatives 
are here assembled, and especially the British Delegation, to take our case into further 



56 International Opium Commission 

sympathetic consideration ; and I may say that that is the spirit which has actuated us, and. 
I believe that which actuates our Government in Peking. We have no instructions to go- 
back on anything our Government has entered into ; still our Government would appreciate 
any furtiier concession which the British Government might see lit to make." 

Monsieur MiYAOKA. — "Mr. T'ANG has referred to the question of the ten years' 
agreement concluded between Great Britain and his Government, and if I properly understood 
him he stated that the Chinese Government was not quite satisfied with the arrangement?" 

Mr. T'ANG. — " I beg to explain further that at the time when the agreement was made 
between China and Great Britain our Government was satisfied for these reasons. They were 
satisfied to have a definite period of ten years, as that was far better than any indefinite 
period ; and they appreciated the generous spirit by which Great Britain agreed to reduce 
importation of opium into China. But, at the same time as it was a tentative step, there was 
a doubt in the mind of our Government as to the manner in which our people would assist in 
carrying it out. Therefore we thought that we would be on safe ground if we accepted the 
ten years' period. But certain circumstances have since arisen. Our people have responded 
beyond our expectations. The degree of success we have attained has astounded and sur- 
prised the world ; and our people are all clamouring for the suppression of the opium evil in 
China. I may say that since this Commission has opened its Sessions, we have received 
dozens of telegrams from different parts of our Empire, the gist of which has been to request 
us to ask the British Delegation to make further concessions by allowing us to reduce the 
period from ten years to a shorter period. We have not troubled this Commission by having 
all these telegrams read, because their purport is in every case the same. We think we are 
justified in asking Great Britain to meet us half-way, and therefore we come forward to-day,, 
sooner than we expected, to ask that the British Delegation may be good enough to entertain 
that proposal." 

Monsieur Miyaoka. — " It appears to me that this is hardly the proper time to discuss 
a question pending between the British and Chinese Governments." 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith.—" It is very important that there should be no mis- 
understanding in this Commission upon the situation as regards Great Britain and China.. 
I have been astounded at the words which have fallen from Mr. T'ANG. He has refused to 
tell us point blank whether the utterances delivered to-day have been in accordance with the 
instructions of his Government. He indicated that since China entered into the agreement 
with Great Britain the circumstances have altered ; and he takes upon himself the responsi- 
bility of absolutely denying the statement which has been made from Peking, delivered only 
in January, which was to the effect that China was entirely satisfied with the arrangement 
which had been come to, and did not wish it altered." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright.—" May I ask if that reply precluded the Chinese Delegation- 
from bringing up the question and getting an expression of opinion ? " 

Monsieur Miyaoka. — "It appears to me that we are drifting into an examination 
of a diplomatic question between China and Great Britain. My understanding of the work 
of this Commission is that it is to be one of investigation from a scientific and material point 
of view. 

" In a note dated November 15th, 1907, addressed by His Excellency Mr. O'Brien,. 
Ambassador of the United States in Tokyo, to His Excellency Count Hayashi, then 
H.I.J.M.'s Minister for Foreign Affairs, the proposal of the United States was thus described : 

' To conduct a joint and impartial investigation of the scientific and material con- 
ditions of the opium trade and opium habit in the Far East, which affect the possessions 
and direct interests of those Governments' {i.e., of the Governments of Japan, Great 
Britain, France, Germany, The Netherlands and China) 'in that part of the world.' 

"I am of opinion that the discussion which has been going on with reference to the ten 
years' arrangement is out of order." 

Dr. Tenney. — "I confess I have much .sympathy with the view which has just been 
expressed that the line of discussion which has been taken up is not appropriate to the words . 
of the resolution before you, and is entirely unnecessary. The resolution reads (Dr. Tenney 
here read the resolution again). 



Minutes of Proceedings 57 

" I confess I am surprised that this has not been cordially supported by the British 
Delegation and by every Delegation here. How can any right-minded man object to the 
principle which is embodied here ! Whether it affects any agreement between Great Britain 
and China or not has nothing to do with it. China may be able to effectively prohibit 
importation of opium in ten years or she may not, but whenever she is able to furnish proof 
that the production of opium has been effectivel)' prohibited, would it not be grossly unjust 
for any nation to insist in forcing the drug on her." 

Alonsieur i\IiVA(.)KA. — " I repeat that it appears to me as though we were entering into 
a diplomatic question. Not that I am opposeci to this principle, which may be eminently 
just in itself, as Dr. Tenney observes, but in view of the fact that it is one which has to be 
considered in the light of existing Treaty obligations, the question is whether this is the 
proper place in which to discuss it." 

Sir Cecil Clementi S^[ITI-I. — "Of course the British Delegation entirely concurs 
with the remarks of the Chief Commissioner for Japan. This is not the place for discussing 
diplomatic engagements, and we would not have drifted into such discussion had it not been that 
the mover, in addressing us on the resolution, stated that it only referred to China and the ten 
years' agreement. But, as has been said by the Chief Commissioner for Japan, this is not a 
subject which can be dealt with by this Commission, and I demur at once to the statement 
made that it will be unjust to call upon China to follow out engagements entered into by 
Treaty. If Treaties or Agreements are to be treated as waste paper by any one Power I 
might say that we could get rid of all Agreements at once." 

The Chief Commissioner for France stated that in his opinion it did not fall within the 
province of the Commission to examine questions which were of a diplomatic order between 
Great Britain and China. Consequently the French Delegation were of opinion that Dr. 
Tennev's proposal was outside the scope of discussion, and dangerous besides. 

Alonsieur AIlYAOKA. — " I beg to move that before a vote is taken on the adoption of 
the resolution before us a previous question be put as follows : — 

' Whether the consideration of the resolution presented by Dr. Tenney for the American 
Delegation is within the scope of submission to this International Commission.'" 

Dr. Tennev. — " I protest that this is a subterfuge." 

Monsieur MivauKa. — " I beg to ask the Chair whether Dr. Tenney is in order in 
stating that the question moved by the Japanese Delegation is a subterfuge ? " 

The President ruled Dr. Tenney out of order, and announced that the previous, 
question was before the House. 

Monsieur MiYAOKA. — "In order that there may be no misunderstanding, I propose that, 
in the voting, " Aye " shall mean that the resolution is within the scope, and " No " that it is 
beyond the scope of submission to this Commission." 

The result of the voting was as follows : — 

Aye. No. 

United States. Austria-Hungary. 

China. Netherlands. 

Germany. France. 

Great Britain. 

Japan. 

Persia. 

Portugal. 

Russia. 

(The Siamese Delegation abstained from voting). 



58 International Opium Commission 

The President. — "In the judgment of the House the resolution is not in order in 
that it is outside the scope of submission to this Commission." 

Tlie Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, on behalf of his Delegation, brought 
forward four resolutions, and moved the adoption of the first, as follows: — 

That the Commission recognises the unswerving sincerity of the Government of China in 
their efforts to eradicate the production and consumption of opium throughout the Empire ; the 
increasing body of public opinion among their own subjects by which those efforts are being 
supported ; and the real, though unequal, progress" already made in a lask which is one of the 
greatest magnitude. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — "May I ask first of all what the particular object of this 
resolution is ?" 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — "We think that this Commission should let it be known 
to the world the view we take of the attitude of China." 

The resolution on being i)ut to the vote was adopted unanimously. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith then presented the second resolution, which read : — 

That the representatives of China in this Commission are unfortunately not yet able to 
produce reliable statistical evidence of the actual extent of the diminution in the production of 
opium ; and the Commission also apprehends that in some respects this fundamental element of 
the problem of prohibition may present increasing difficulties: the Commission would accordingly 
strongly recommend that the different Governments interested should enter into negotiations with 
the Government of China with a view to the initiation of more systematic methods of dealing 
with the question of production. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " I think it will be patent to all from the excellent 
speech which was made by Mr. T'ANG when he laid the report of China before us that there 
has not been in the past two years, since the Imperial Edict was issued, a statistical return 
which would enable any Government to form a definite opinion as to what has taken place in 
regard to the carrying out of that Edict; and I think we shall all recognise that this is a matter 
of importance in dealing with this question, more especially as it effects agreements with other 
countries, and that there should be a system introduced into China which will ensure their being 
official statistics upon which everybody can rely. 

" The language of this resolution has been so framed, I trust, as not in any way to 
encroach upon the privileges which China enjoys as a sovereign Power. 

" I trust it will be an expression from this Commission of the real importance of 
accurate statistical information, and that we think it is a proper subject for our Governments 
to bring to the direct notice of the Chinese Government. Without these statistics it is hardly 
possible for us to follow China in the task she has undertaken — a task which has been described 
by Mr. T'ANG himself as a gigantic one. All that we have in our minds is that we think our 
respective Governments can very properly urge upon China to get this information before the 
ten years have elapsed, and it is with that view that the British Delegation submits this 
resolution for adoption by the House." 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — " As remarked by Sir ALEXANDER HOSIE, there would seem to 
be grave doubts whether the statistics in the Chinese report are of such a character as could 
be accepted by any Western Statistical Society. But if I am not greatly mistaken Mr. T'ANG 
clearly stated in explanation that in many cases the figures given were merely estimates, 
and did not claim to be statistical records. I hardly deem it proper, therefore, that we should 
pass judgment on the accuracy of these statistics. 

"This is an International body composed of Delegates from all parts of the world, 

from all continents except South America and Africa. That this Commission composed of 
Delegates from different countries having different traditions, different fonns of administration, 
and different degrees of accuracy in taking statistics, that they should all combine in passing 
judgment upon the statistics which have been presented by the Chinese Delegates seems 
hardly proper. I must refrain from instituting comparisons of the reports submitted by the 
different Delegations, but I have no hesitation in saying that the area of investigation covered 
by the Chinese report was immense. China had the largest problem to report upon, and 



Minutes of Proceedin(;s 



59 



in view of these facts I thiak that the Chinese Delegation is to be highly complimented on 
the work accomplished, and with your permission I tender them my hearty congratulations. 
It seems to me that it would hardly be correct to vote on a resolution which has the effect of 
passing judgment as to the value to be attached to the report of the Chinese Delegates." 

Mr. T'ANc. Kuo-AN. — "The Chinese Delegation beg to thank His E.xcellency the 
Chief Commissioner for Japan for the kind words he has just spoken with reference to the 
difficulties they had to contend against in preparing their Report. With reference to the 
resolution before us, we consider it is couched in most reasonable and just terms, 
and we appreciate the fair manner in which the British Delegation criticises our shortcomings. 
No one is more sensible than we ourselves of our defects in statistical matters, but I might 
submit to the consideration of this honourable House that not only in China, but in India and 
all other countries where proper methods of land survey do not exist, the same confusion would 
be experienced. No one knows better than the honourable Member of the British Delegation, 
Sir Alexander HosIE, the confusion which exists at present in China in regard to the system 
of land survej', and therefore we need not dilate on the fact that it was impossible for us to 
produce satisfactory statistics. At the same time we do not deplore the less this chaotic state 
of affairs, and whether the resolution passes the House or not it shall be the duty of the 
Chinese Delegation to draw the attention of the Central Government to our present inade- 
quate system for compiling of records, and it shall also be our duty to draw the attention of 
the Government to the fact that the lack of such proper statistics will give rise to a certain 
amount of difficulty when we come to adjust matters with Great Britain." 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " May I rise at once to express my high appreciation 
of what lias fallen from Mr. T'ang. I think from what he has said that the resolution is not at 
all necessarx'. We are quite satisfied with the assurance he has given to us that his Delegation 
will do as proposed, and, as it is a statement which will be duly noted in the Minutes, I would 
ask permission to withdraw the resolution." 

(Resolution withdrawn). 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " As regards the next resolution, you will be aware 
that it is only putting into proper language the resolution which has been already adopted by 
this International Commission. 

The resolution is : — 

That as this Commission is not constituted in such manner as to undertake the investiga- 
tion from a scientific point of view of anti-opium remedies and of the properties and effects of 
opium and its products, and deems such investigation to be of the highest importance, the 
Commission desires that each delegation shall recommend this branch of the subject to its own 
Government for such action as that Government may think necessary." 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — "The discussion which took place on the 19th instant on the 
resolution which was presented on the i8th instant by the Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi 
Smith, — the discussion and the vote taken on that resolution disclosed the fact that a wide 
divergence of views existed regarding the work which is to engage the attention of this 
Commission. The proposal to submit the question to an investigation from a medical point 
of view having being rejected, it now remains for us to determine what shall be done, and it 
seerns to me that nothing now remains but to urge the importance of having the question 
examined from a scientific standpoint by our respective Governments. I therefore beg to 
second this alternative resolution which I hope will be unanimously carried." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — " Our Delegation would be quite willing to vote for this 
resolution providing some other word could be found for ' scientific' We think that as it stands, 
considering that we have two eminent scientists on the Japanese Delegation who are concerned 
with the opium problem, the language might be modified in some way. We still think that 
the work of the Commission should have included scientific investigation, although we are 
willing to abide by the decision arrived at on the 19th February." 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — "Might I point out to Dr. Wright that what we say 
here is that this Commission is not constituted in such a manner as to undertake the 
investigation of this important subject. We have already heard from the French Delegation 
that they are precluded by their instructions from dealing with this matter from a scientific 



6o International Opium Co.mmission 

point of view. Monsieur Ratard read his instructions which showed quite clearly that he 
is prevented from entering into an examination of the problem from a medical point of view. 
We are in exactly the same position. We have absolutely no instructions for dealing with 
the matter in that way. We do not for one moment imply that there are no medical men on 
this Commission qualified to report upon this phase of the question. What we say is that the 
Commission as a Commission is unable to deal with the question, and it is from that point of 
view that we have drawn up the resolution in the form in which it is now submitted." 

Dr. RoSSLEK. — " I wish to make an amendment to this proposal. I move that the 
resolution shall be altered to read as follows: — 

'That this Commission deems an investigation from the scientific point of view of anti-opium 
remedies, and of the properties and effects of opium and its products to be of the highest 
importance : the Commission therefore desires that each Delegation shall recommend this branch 
of the subject to its own Government for such action as that Government may think necessary.'" 

Monsieur Miyaoka. — "This Delegation which has two scientific men as its Members 
is prepared to admit that the Commission, as a whole, is not so constituted as to make an 
International scientific investigation possible. I am therefore prepared to vote on the original 
resolution. But if reference to the constitution of this Commission is to be expunged, and it 
is to be merely stated that this Commission deems scientific investigation to be of the highest 
importance, it may perhaps be better." 

The Amendment was put to the vote, with the following result: — 

Ayes. Noes. 

Austria-Hungary. France. 

China. Great Britain. 

Germany. The Netherlands. 

Japan. Persia. 

Portugal. 

Russia. 

Siam. 

(The United States Delegation abstained from voting). 

After a suggestion by Dr. WRIGHT that the word undertake should be substituted by 
permit had been accepted by the mover, the original resolution was voted on with the followino- 
result: — 

Ayes. Abstain. 

France. United States. 

Great Britain. Austria-Hungary. 

Japan. China. 

The Netherlands. Germany. 

Persia. 

Portugal. 

Russia. 

Siam. 

The resolution was declared carried nem. diss. 

The following resolution originally put forward by the British Delegation, was with- 
drawn for re-consideration: — 

That the Commission finds that the use of opium in any form otherwise than for medical 
purposes is held by almost every participating country to be a matter for prohibition or for careful 
regulation ; and that each system of regulation now in force aims, as opportunity offers at 
progressively increasmg stringency. In view of the widely varying conditions prevailing in 'the 
different countries the Commission is unable to pronounce that any one system of regulation is 
decisively superior to others ; but it would urge on the attention of the different Governments 
concerned the desirability of a re-examination of their systems of regulation in the light of the 
experience of other countries dealing with the same problem. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi Smith.—" I beg to move an adjournment until 
2.30 p.m. to-morrow. This will allow us time to hold the informal conference which has been 
proposed between my own and the American Delegation." 

The motion was adopted, and the Commission adjourned at 4.40 p.m. 



Minutes of Procekdincs 6i 

Minutes of the Twelfth Session 

24th February, 1909 

The House was called tu order at J.30 p.m. The Chief Commissioner for Japan 
submitted a further reply to the question presented \)y Mr. R. Laii)LA\\', M.I'., during the fifth 
Session. 

The Chairman announced that the Delegate for Russia found it impossible at the 
moment to present a report about the opium question as regards his country, but that it would 
be forthcoming later. On this there was some discussion as to the printing of the Minutes 
and the Reports. The PRESIDENT enquired whether it would not be possible to have them 
printed in Shanghai, and the SECRETARY was requested to obtain particulars as to cost, etc. 

Mr. T'ANt; Kuo-ax asked the Japanese Delegation to inform him what was the 
amount of Import Diit}- on Morphia entering the leased territories of Kuantung. An answer 
was promised for the next Session. 

In reply to a question from the Chief Commissioner of the Netherlands, the Portuguese 
Delegation declared that no further information in connection with the opium question in 
Timor, beyond what had been already presented in the Report on Macao, could be obtained 
from the Portuguese Government. 

The Chair stated that the business immediately before the House was the result of the 
Conference between the British and the American Delegations. 

The Right Hon. Sir CECIL CLEiMENTi SMITH. — "The Conference suggested by our 
Colleague the Chief Commissioner for France took place this morning, when we had a thorough 
exchange of views on the various points dealt with in the resolutions which have been already 
submitted to the Committee. I need not delay bringing before the Commission the results of 
our Conference, but will at once state what are the resolutions which the American Delegation 
and the British Delegation beg to submit for the favourable consideration of the Commission : 

I. — That in view of the action taken by the Government of China in suppressing the prac- 
tice of opium smoking, and by other Governments to the same end, this Commission recom- 
mends that each delegation concerned move its own Government to take measures for the gradual 
suppression of the practice of opium smoking in its own territories and possessions, with due 
regard to the varying circumstances of each country concerned. 

2. — That the Commission finds that the use of opium in any form otherwise than for 
medical purposes is held by almost every participating country to be a matter for prohibition or 
for careful regulation ; and that each country in the administration of its system of regulation 
purports to be aiming, as opportunity offers, at progressively increasing stringency. In this 
connection the Commission recognizes the wide variations between the conditions prevailing in 
the different countries, but it would urge on the attendon of the different Governments 
concerned the desirability of a re-examination of their systems of regulation in the light of the 
experience of other countries dealing with the same problem." 

Continuing, Sir CECIL Clementi Smith said "Should these resolutions meet with the 
approval of the Commission, I understand that the American Delegation will withdraw their 
first and second original resolutions, and in order that I may bring this matter before the House 
for discussion I beg to move the formal adoption of the first of the resolutions that I have read." 

Mr. DE JonGH. — "The Delegation for the Netherlands quite agrees with the first 
resolution as it now stands, but would state that they intend to put forward another resolution 
with a wider scope later on." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — " I wish to put on record that the principle adopted by our 
Government is the principle of total prohibition, otherwise I vote for the resolution." 

The President. " The Chair would say there is no reservation whatsoever, but in 

giving their affirmative vote the American Delegation make the statement that they have 
adopted and cling to the principle of prohibition for all that appertains to the United States 
of America." 



62 International Opium Commission 

The resolution was then put to the vote and adopted unanimously, the Portuguese 
Delegation alone reserving its vote. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith moved the adoption of the second resolution. 

Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN. — " I would like to enquire what was in the minds of the British 
and American Delegations when putting in the word almost? It appears to me that every 
nation participating in this Commission holds the view that the use of opium is a matter for 
either prohibition, or careful regulation, and therefore I do not quite see the necessity for the 
word almost. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — " Might I explain to the Chinese Delegate that at any 
rate there are two countries represented in this room which, as far as we understand, do not 
go as far as this resolution recommends, i.e., prohibition or careful regulation, and we have 
therefore thought it safer to put in the word almost. My friend Mr. POTIER had already 
reserved his vote on this matter, which indicates that Portugal is not prepared to go as far as 
recommended by the resolution." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — " This resolution was drawn up on data presented to us in. 
the various reports and that alone, and in accepting it we understood that there was no mental 
reservation in regard to any point in the resolution itself." 

The resolution was then read by the Secretary, and put to the vote. It was adopted, 
unanimously : the Portuguese Delegation reserving its vote as before. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — "The American Delegation withdraws from final discussion, 
before this Commission its Resolutions Nos. i, 2, 6 and 7." 

Monsieur MiYAOKA. — " May I ask Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT in what stage Resolution. 
No. 3 now stands ? " 

Dr. Haahlton Wright. — " That also is withdrawn." 

The Chair. — "There are before the House the resolutions put forward by the 
Netherlands and the Chinese Delegations. The first for consideration will be those by the 
Netherlands Delegation." 

Mr. he Jongh. — "Mr. President: this morning the various Commissioners received in 
writing copies of our resolutions, but may I observe that after discussions between the Delegation 
of Great Britain and America, which I had the honour to attend this morning, I think it better 
to make some alteration in Resolution 1 as submitted in writing. These alterations have to be 
made in order to avoid the words opium regie. I intended to recommend that system because 
I think it is the best .system, but I know there is some objection from the British Delegation, 
and to meet their opinion I think I can do no better than to make these alterations. Our 
first resolution now reads as follows : — 

I. — Whereas, the total eradication of the use of opium within a few years is to be considered 

a high but at present an unattainable ideal, 
in order to check the use of opium much may be expected from taking systematic 

measures which are gradual in their effect, 
a careful practising of such measures requires the management of the opium business 

to be carried on in such a way that no person concerned in the management be 

interested in the amount of sale. 

Be it Resolved : — 

To recommend to the Governments of the countries where other systems prevail : 

(a.) that it be decided in principle that the opium business in its entirety shall be managed 
in such a way that no person concerned in the management be interested in the 
amount of sale, and that the establishment of such a way of managing shall not be 
put off longer than the circumstances require; 



Minutes of Proceedings 63 

(d.) that disregarding the fact whether or no such a method has already been put in force, 
the following measures shall be taken at once for the purpose of restricting the use 
of opium : — 

(i) to make it clear to the European and native officials, who are able to influence 
the consumption, that Government is in earnest to check the same; 

(ii) not to allow anybody who makes use of opium to enter upon any office in the 

Government Civil Service, or in the Army and Navy ; 
(iii) to impress pupils at school and grown-up people ever and anon with the evils 
resulting from the use of opium; in short to instruct national opinion to the 
purpose by every suitable means; in order to develop this anti-opium tendency, 
the aid should be called in of private Societies intending to promote the moral 
concerns of special sections of the population, should their objects and methods 
be found satisfactory ; 

(iv) to prohibit the sale of opium to children; 

(v) to set forth publicly and to offer for sale at cost price any anti-opium medicine, 
in case a medicine should be discovered which contained neither morphia 
nor any other unwholesome ingredient ; 

(vi) to maintain the forbidden areas — if existing — in the present compass and if 
feasible to increase them; 

(vii) to exclude special sections of the population from the use of the drug; 

(viii) to decrease the number of places of sale and divans, and to diminish the hours 
during which they may remain open ; 

(ix) To enhance the retail price of opium." 

Mr. de JONGPI proceeded to explain the reasons which had led his Delegation to 
bring forward this resolution. He particularly emphasized the necessity for devising 
measures which should prevent any person concerned in the management of a monopoly 
<5r farm from being interested in any degree in the sale of opium. 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN. — " In the first sentence of the preamble it is stated that the 
total eradication of the use of opium within a few years is a high but unattainable ideal. 
The Chinese Delegation does not think the word unattainable is proper in this connection. 
With regard to China we must say that the eradication of the use of opium within a few years 
is not unattainable. There are two sets of opinions with regard to this question. On one side 
there is such high authority as Sir ALEXANDER HOSIE, who expressed his firmest conviction 
when he said that China will not be able to accomplish this within ten years. We respect 
his opinion and we say that there is no opinion in China at present which can 
command a higher respect. At the same time we do not forget there is another opinion — the 
opinion of those who are supposed to know the conditions of China, — and that opinion is that 
China can accomplish the total suppression of the opium evil within a few years. We have 
therefore to judge between these two sets of opinions, both equally commanding respect and 
worthy of our belief. But I wish to bring to the attention of this Commission that the 
situation at present in China is most unique. The sentiment of the people has been stirred 
as it has never been stirred before during two thousand odd years of history ; and as the 
Chairman has stated that sentiment rules the world so it rules China to-day, and we firmly 
believe that, where a people are convinced that a certain moral reform ought to be carried out, 
sentiment can overcome almost insurmountable difficulties. I daresay that two years ago, if 
the question had been put to Sir ALEXANDER HOSIE as to what China could accomplish in two 
years, he would hardly have dared to prophesy she could accomplish what she has done; and 
therefore considering what we have done during the last two years, what is there to prevent our 
accomplishing even more in the two or three years to come ? The awakening sentiment in 
China is something astounding. The people heretofore have been slow to realise what 
concerns the welfare of the Empire. Now, to give an example of what we can do I have to 
state that we have recently received a telegram announcing that the opium divans that existed 
in Chengtu (China Report: page 18) have all been closed. In view of this fact I do not think 
we are justified in being too pessimistic, and, even supposing there was good ground to doubt 
the ability of China to fulfil her promises, I think we should give her the benefit of the doubt 
until she has proved her inability to accomplish what she has set out to do." 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — " May I ask the Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands 
whether the resolution now presented by him is intended as an amendment to the first of 
those just adopted ?" 



64 International Owum Commission 

Mr. DE JONGIT. — " No, it is not meant as an amendment but as a resolution with a 
wider scope. Afterwards, periiaps, it would be possible to mould the two resolutions together. 
I think it should be the task of the Committee after all the resolutions have been adopted, to 
try and put them into such shape as will be acceptable, and I have no objection to changing 
my proposal — if necessary. It is not against the other resolution, but is meant to go in 
conjunction with it." 

Mimsieur MiyaoKa. — " If that is the intention of the Netherlands Delegation I must 
c<jnfess that I find difficulty in reconciling the two for this reason, that, according to the 
resolution which has just been adopted regarding the gradual suppression of opium smoking 
in the territories of the Governments concerned, it is recommended that this Commission 
shall move its Government to take proper measures — in other words, to take measures which in 
their own judgment seem proper, after taking into consideration the various circumstances of 
each country concerned. But Resolution No. i of the Netherlands Delegation seems to lay 
down rules which each Government should follow, and I find it difficult to reconcile the 
principles upon which these two resolutions are based." 

Sir Cecil Clementi S.MITH. — " I desire to associate myself entirely with the remarks 
of the Chief Commissioner for Japan, and if he will allow me to say so I think he has struck a 
very serious defect in the proposal brought before the House by the Netherlands Delegation. 

" The two are, as he says, incompatible, and on that ground alone we shall be unable 
to fall in with the Netherlands Delegation. But there are other grounds. The Netherlands 
Delegate wishes us, for instance, to lay down that no one connected with the opium business 
should be interested in the amount of sale. Now, if he will pardon me for referring to what 
took place at the Conference this morning, there is some misapprehension in his mind which 
tends towards supposing that it is absolutely impossible to be connected with the sale of opium 
without being interested in the price of it. In the Report of the States Commission which I 
mentioned this morning there is ample evidence to show that such is not necessarily the case.. 
My friend the Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands also recommends to us in his resolution 
various measures which every civilised Government has already taken. Surely in 1909 it 
cannot be necessary to tell a Government not to appoint anyone who makes use of opium to 
any position in the Army or Navy. Then as to what is to be done in the schools : that 
everybody recognises as most important. Then again, the sale of opium to children : this has 
already been carried out, I should think, by every civilised countr}-. 

"With regard to the proposal to enhance the retail price of opium, is it not perfectly 
clear that if you enhance the price of opium beyond a certain point, the inevitable result is evil 
and not good ? I trust, therefore, that on reconsideration m_\' friend will not press these on the 
Commission, because to decline them will indicate that we are not in earnest in the steps 
that we have taken in this important matter. There is not a single civilised Government 
but is trying to do its best, and to pass such resolutions would indicate that Governments are 
not doing their best, and it is on that ground that not only shall I not support the motion but 
trust it will be thrown out by the Commission." 

Mr. DE JONGH, replying, said that he was still of opinion that some of the measures 
recommended in his resolution had not been generally adopted, and he was convinced that 
the enhancement of the retail price of opium would have a good result. He was quite willing 
to leave it to the House as to the form in which the resolution should be worded, but they 
wanted the world to know the practical work accomplished by his Government in Netherlands- 
India. 

Dr. RoSSLER. — " In view of the objections which have been lodged, I would like to- 

propose that the resolution be withdrawn for the present and presented again — say perhaps 

to-morrow in some form which would meet with the approval of the Delegations." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright.—" May I state that I think our Delegation are in thorough 
sympathy with many of the suggestions made in this resolution. As far as the United States 
is concerned they have been put in operation by our national laws, and it seems to me that the 
details here expressed might be embodied as a general principle and left to the Governments 
concerned to put them into operation. I think this would be more acceptable, and I propose 
that the resolution be embodied in the records of the Commission as expressin"- the views- 
of the Netherlands Delegation. It need not then be passed in the form of a resolution." 



Minutes of Proceedings 65 

This proposal met with the approval of the House, and the resolution, as such, was 
withdrawn. 

The President observed that by being incorporated in the Minutes, the recommenda- 
tions put forward by the Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands would be of value, and 
could be acted on by any individual Government. 

Mr. DE Jongh moved the adoption of the second Netherlands resolution, which read 
as follows: — 

2. — Wliereas, smuggling of opium counteracts the various measures taken by different Govern- 
ments for the purpose of checking the use of opium, 
the smuggling causes a great loss of Revenue to the Treasury, 
moreover it necessitates large expenses for the purpose of preventing the evil, 
it has a demoralising effect both on private people mixing up with that trade and on Custom 

House and Police Officers, 
experience has taught that the smuggling of opium, because of its great value in a small 
volume, is difficult to check by the means practised up to the present time by the various 
Governments individually, 
therefore the eradicating of the evil of smuggling should be striven after by action of the 

various Governments in common accord; 
such International action is possible only after the opium business everywhere has been 
taken under Government control; 
Be it Resolved: — 

to recommend to the various Governments, after having established such a system that 
nobody concerned in its management is interested in the amount of sale, to enter into diplomatic 
deliberations to the purpose that henceforth the wholesale trade in opium be allowed only 
between the Governments of opium-producing and opium-consuming countries and be forbidden 
to any private person. 

The President. — " In the understanding of the Chair that is already covered by the 
first resolution adopted by this House, viz., the fourth of the American resolutions. Will 
the Secretary please read that resolution." 

The Secretary having read the resolution, the Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands 
expressed the opinion that it did not cover everything contained in their resolution, which 
he again read. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright thought that as far as his Government was concerned the 
measures recommended in the resolution under discussion might mean a change in the 
Constitution. 

Monsieur MiyaOKA. — "May I observe that this second resolution is also at variance 
with the principles on which the other resolutions are based. The other series of resolutions 
which we have voted on, and which have been accepted by the Commission, lay down some 
fundamental principles, the execution of which is left entirely to the Governments concerned. 
In this resolution it is recommended that the Governments shall act in a specific manner. If 
the Netherlands Delegation has no objection, I respectfully beg to suggest that the same course 
be followed with this as with the first resolution, viz., that it be incorporated in the Minutes." 

The House approved of this proposal. 

Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN. — " Mr. President and Gentlemen of the International Opium 
Commission — I beg to submit herewith, in behalf of the Commissioners for China, their 
resolutions on the subject which has brought together this Commission. It is a fact too well 
known to need comment that China, greatly to her misfortune, is more deeply interested in 
the outcome of this Commission than any other Power. With most of you the opium habit is 
one of many problems which are before your country, and not perhaps among the most 
important. With us, on the other hand, it is one of the most acute moral and economic 
questions which as a nation we have to face. 

" I wish to make clear in the very beginning that we realise that at last it is a question 
the solution of which depends on us and on us alone. However much help we may have from 
others, the largest part remains to us. We must work out our own salvation. Our Government — 



66 International Opium Commission 

Imperial, provincial, and local — is aware of this, and the people, from the highest to the lowest, 

with a clearness which we could hardly have expected in the present condition of general 

education, have definitely arrived at the same conviction. I would not have you think, Sir, 

that China comes to this Commission in a spirit of impotence, crying to the world to rid her 

of a foe with which she had not the moral strength and courage to do battle. We understand 

the enormous difficulties ; we have counted the cost; we are determined to rid ourselves of this 

curse. And yet, however fully we realise our own responsibility, and whatever proportion 

of the task of eliminating from our midst the improper use of opium is ours and ours alone, we 

should be blind indeed did we not take new courage and inspiration from this gathering and 

from the action of your respective Governments which has made this Commission possible, for 

there can be no doubt that international action aud co-operation are essential to a successful 

dealing with the question. And with China in particular the question is so large and has such 

wide ramifications that our own efforts, however earnest and determined, have their complete 

success conditioned upon the co-operation of other nations. We are especially glad to meet 

here the representatives of Great Britain, which, next to China, is perhaps most interested in 

this problem. Since the days of Lord Shaftesbury, that name which illumined the pathway 

for so many world-wide schemes of philanthropy and reform, the delicate and difficult task 

of the abolition of the opium traffic has commanded the time, thought, and practical efforts 

of some of your greatest men. More and more will China claim, by right of her large 

indebtedness to them, a part in the glory of such names as Lord Morley, Sir Joseph Pease, 

Alexander, Broomhall, and Taylor. The labour of such as these culminated last year in that 

splendid action of Parliament reaffirming its conviction that the Indo-Chinese opium trade is 

morally indefensible, and requesting His Majesty's Government to take such steps as may be 

necessary for bringing it to a speedy close — an action where every consideration of prudence 

and convenience are buried beneath the moral aspect of the question. I doubt whether 

parliamentary action of any Government has ever reached a higher moral elevation. It lifts 

perforce all subsequent discussion of the subject into the clear air of this attitude. The 

manifest sympathy with which the proposals of the Government of China during the past two 

years for the regulation of the traffic have met with from the British Government has been one 

of the greatest encouragements to China in dealing with this question. The calling of this 

Commission by the President of the United States is but one of the many marks of disinterested 

friendship on the part of that Government. Moreover, the earnest and effective way in which 

the American Government is dealing with this question in her own borders not only offers a 

model to China, but insures her sympathy with us in our attempt at the solution of the same 

problem on an infinitely larger scale. Let me express also my appreciation of the presence of 

the delegates from Germany. It is from Germany pre-eminently, with her spirit of scientific 

exactness and research, that we have the most authoritative revelations of the effects of opium 

upon the human system. We know that the friendship of Germany for Cliina puts the results 

of your incomparable laboratories and learned investigators at our disposal. And to Japan, 

our nearest neighbour and closest of kin, who has so successfull\' turned back the wave of 

disaster which has wellnigh overwhelmed us, who has even succeeded in regulating the traffic 

in Formosa, where it had a strong hold, to you I turn with especial confidence in A'our 

co-operation. To France and Russia, also, that duumvirate which has been the mainstay of 

peace in Europe for nearly a quarter of a century, we desire to express our feelings of 

appreciation for their sympathy in our struggle for reform. Time fails me to name each of 

those Powers which have expressed a willingness to co-operate with us in dealing with the 

opium question. I should, however, not only be recreant to my duty but should misrepresent 

my colleagues and my country if I did not pause to express China's deep gratitude for this 

unselfish interest. I wish to express also our gratification at the unanimous and spontaneous 

recognition on the part of other countries of the sincerity of China's intention in her recent 

efforts to exterminate this evil. 

" In dealing with a question with so many and such far-reaching relationships, motives 
may easily be misinterpreted, and the fact that there has been no disposition whatever to do 
this augurs well for the successful outcome of the efforts of this Commission. There were not 
a few, to be sure, Chinese as well as foreigners, who at first doubted the ability of China to 
grapple successfully with this evil in her own borders. This, however, should not occasion 
surprise. The curse was so widespread, the difficulty of breaking the opium habit is so great, 
the clandestine use of the drug is so easy, and the difficulties so baffling and enormous, that it 
is not strange if anyone should have conceived success to be impossible. To these doubts, 
however, the national sentiment against opium has proven an effective answer. Of the 
strength, genuineness, and widespread dissemination of this sentiment there can be no question. 
The determined action taken by the Throne in September 1906, and the loyal co-operation 



Minutes of Proceedin(;s 67 

and energetic measures of such Viceroys as Their Excellencies Tuan Fang, Hsi Liang, Yang 
Shih-hsiang, and Hsii Shih-chang are indicative of the official attitude; but more encouraging 
than the determination of the Imperial or provincial authorities has been the response on the 
part of the people. 

" Heretofore the arousing of public sentiment on any question has seemed almost an 
impossible thing in China. Foreign wars have been conducted and peace concluded without 
arousing any considerable interest from the people in large sections of the Empire. Reforms 
have interested a few, but onl}- a few; or some section, but only a section. This is the first 
question which can be said to have aroused intense interest from one end of the country to 
another. All classes of people — officials, scholars, gentry, farmers, and the humblest labourers 
have united in the determination to see the land freed from this curse. It is in this aroused 
public sentiment that our greatest hope of ultimate success lies. Many have wondered 
how we should deal with the grave fiscal question which will be incurred by the loss of the 
large revenue from opium. Were not the people so thoroughly determined, this difficulty 
might easily block the \va\' of the reform ; but with public sentiment as it is at present, any 
taxes which might be suggested to or by the Honourable Commission as being necessary to 
make up any deficiency of revenue will be gladly submitted to if it is connected in their 
minds with freedom from opium. Every day of further study into the question on the part 
of the Chinese Commissioners — and we have not failed to face unflinchingly the difficulties — 
has more deeply convinced us that China can speedily and completely stamp out this evil if 
she has the co-operation of the other civilised Powers. 

" I have said ' speedily,' Mr. President, with intention, because the experience of the 
past two years convinces us that under the present circumstances speed in the extermination, 
instead of increasing the difficulties, will minimise them. Public opinion is now at a high 
pitch ; the determination of the people is roused to a high degree. It is a well-known fact 
that such an intensity is difficult to maintain over an extended period. The public mind 
cannot be kept centred for a long period of years upon a single reform. When a people is 
ready to abolish an evil, it should be done as soon as possible. Delay increases difficulties 
immeasurabl}-. It has often been said, and rightly, that legislative regulation should not go 
too far ahead of public opinion ; it ma\' with equal truth be urged that it should not lag too 
far behind. Neither must the actions of the Government be different from the wishes of the 
people, for an}' such difference will have the effect of augmenting the difficulties of control, 
and the loss of control might entail serious discontent and disturbance, which, again, might 
bring about international interference and complications. 

" I shall not yield to the temptation to describe the effects of opium in China. The 
leaders of the Chinese people look upon it as a dangerous foe to our very existence as a 
nation. Every instinct of self-preservation cries out against it. The past few years have 
brought some strange and notable apologists for opium — some strange and notable apologists 
for China as an opium-using country. Would that we Chinese, who are best in position to 
know the facts, could follow them with conviction ! Would that we could dispel the sternness 
of the facts with this softness of speech ! 

" But go with me, gentlemen of this Commission, over that broad and once fair stretch 
of Western China, where the ravages of the curse have been most evident —the provinces 
of Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow Kansu, and Shensi, — an area comprising a large proportion 
of the eighteen provinces. Visit the dismal and wretched hovels, which, were it not for 
opium, would be happy homes ; see the emaciated, depraved multitude of victims to this vice - 
observe the abject poverty, — and notice for the cause of it all the wide fields once covered 
with waving gold of ripening grain now given over to the cultivation of the poppy. Read 
what Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce says on Kansu : ' One blot, and that no small one, lies on the 
people of Western Kansu. It is that men and women are, to a fearful extent, habitual and 
confirmed opium smokers.' Monseigneur Otto, Catholic Bishop of Kansu, who has spent thirty 
years of his life in China, reckons six men out of every eight of the population as confirmed in 
the habit. 

" The economic burden imposed upon China by the use of opium has now become 
almost unbearable. As is shown in our report, a conservative estimate of the annual production 
of native opium for 1906 is 584,800 piculs ; this we may value at Tls. 220,000,000. To this 
must be added for imported opium Tls. 30,000,000, taking the value of the importation for 
1905 ; this gives us a total expenditure in cash on the part of the Chinese for opium of Tls. 
250,000,000. The land now given over to the production of opium, were it planted with 
wheat or other more useful crops, would yield an annual return of, let us say, at least Tls. 
150,000,000. This sum, added to the loss of Tls. 250,000,000 mentioned above, means that 
the cultivation of opium costs the nation Tls. 400,000,000 a year. To estimate the loss to the 



68 International Opium Commission 

country in the earning capacity of the victims of the opium habit is more difficult. Our 
investigations have convinced us that there are 25 million men in China addicted to the use of 
opium. This number, unfortunately, includes many from among the more highly productive 
classes ; but if we suppose their average earning capacity, were they not addicted to the habit 
of opium, to be one-fifth a tael a day, and that this is reduced one-quarter by their use of 
opium, we have here a daily loss to the nation of Tls. 1,250,000, or an annual loss of Tls. 
456,250,000. If there is added to this the items which I have mentioned above, we have 
a total annual loss to China of Tls. 856,250,000. It is needless for me to call your attention 
to how ill-prepared we are as a people at the present stage of our industrial development 
to bear such a burden as this. No account is here taken of the capital loss involved. 

"This economic loss affects not only China but all of the leading nations of the world. 
We live in the era of improved transportation, which means an era of increased foreign trade. 
Within the past 28 years the world's foreign trade has grown from Gold $2^ per capita to 
Gold $14. While China's trade has been backward, she has not failed to feel the impulse of this 
world movement. In 1867, when the Chinese Customs statistics assumed their present shape 
and furnished the first data for comparison with the present, the value of China's imports was 
less than 69^ million taels; in 1905 it was over 447,000,000 taels, an increase of more than 
sixfold; and yet the foreign trade of China is still lamentably small. The imports of China /^r 
capita are about 2s. ^d., while those of Japan are 15J. lod. — nearly seven times as much, and 
of the United States about 30 times as much per capita. There is no part of the world in 
which there is a field for such an enormous extension of foreign trade as is presented to-day in 
China. In fact, who can estimate the influence upon the trade of the world when China comes to 
her own commercially and industrially? If the world sold to each Chinese as much as it does 
to each Japanese, it would receive 3 billion taels annuall}- from China. 

"There has been a conspiracy of causes to hamper trade of China. Our lack of adequate 
means of transportation, the influence of the likin tax, the comparatively small number of 
open ports, and other causes, might be mentioned; but it is interesting to note that already 
these factors are gradually passing away, leaving, however, two powerful hindrances to the 
growth of our foreign trade, namely, the productive inefficiency and the poverty of the Chinese 
people — two factors which for the present purpose we may count as one, factors which are 
enormously aggravated by the opium evil. The conditions surrounding China's foreign trade 
to-day and that of 50 years ago are essentially different: then the Chinese demanded little from 
abroad except opium and silver. The problem was not so much to find what the West wanted 
from China, as what China wanted from the West. Even cotton goods, which to-day form 
44 per cent, of China's imports, were scarcely demanded at all by the Chinese people, and the 
trade in kerosene oil, flour, and matches, whose use has spread into almost everv home of the 
Empire, was practically non-existent. To-day the demand for foreign goods has reached the 
utmost limits of the Empire, and with improved transportation might have an almost boundless 
expansion, had the Chinese either money or goods to give in return. The balance of trade is, 
however, a sad commentary upon our productive inefficienc)-. The excess of imports over 
exports during 1903 was 31 per cent, a fair average of the past few years if we except 1904 
and 1905, when it reached the alarming figures of 43 per cent, and 95 per cent, respectively. 
The range and extent of China's wants have grown enormously; the severest drain upon her 
ability to satisfy those wants is the opium habit. 

"Now, Sir, place in the columns of China's foreign trade what is being lost to the nation 
from the use of opium — only this, and nothing more. We then offer to the world a commercial 
prize worthy of the most strenuous endeavours of all nations. When one faces the possibilities 
of China's future trade, how insignificant does the value of the opium traffic seem. When this 
trade formed 46 per cent, of China's imports, as it did in 1867, there might have been plausible, 
though false, arguments in favour of protecting it; but to-day, when it forms only 71^ per cent, no 
such arguments can be urged. No greater commercial folly can be imagined than that of foster- 
ing what is at present yyi, per cent, of China's foreign trade at the expense of the almost 
infinite expansion of that trade. In fact, there can be no doubt about it, the opium traffic is 
economically, as well as morally, indefensible. Of course, there are special interests which must 
suffer from any such change as will come from the abolition of opium, and we may expect from 
those who are blind to anything larger than the loss of their immediate gain every effort to 
cloud the issue; but as we look at it in the mass there can be no doubt of the facts: opium is an 
economic loss to the world too great to be further endured. Moreover, there is another fatal 
influence which opium has upon trade which cannot be put into the columns of statistics. Rightly 
conceived, commerce is a blessing, not a curse. Queen Elizabeth well put this in her first message 
to the Emperor of China, when she said, ' By intercourse and traffic no loss, but rather most 
exceeding benefits, will redound to the princes and subjects of both kingdoms, and thus help and 



Minutes of Proceedings 69 

•enrich one another.' And she sent forth her ships, as she beautifully said, 'For the greater 
increase of love and commerce.' But inject into trade that which makes commerce a curse 
-instead of a blessing, which makes it spread poverty instead of wealth in its wake, and you 
have not only placed an inhibition upon trade itself, but have furnished a fruitful cause of mis- 
understanding and prejudice. 

" When we consider, therefore, how vitally and directly the trade of each one of the 
great commercial Powers is affected by the results of our battle with this great curse, we feel 
the more justified in expecting a large degree of international co-operation. 

" The opium evil is in another sense a question of international import. For several 
decades the great Powers of the world have rightly been concerned as to the progress of reform in 
China. The history of the diplomacy of the past few years reveals how deeply the statesmen 
of the world feel the menace of an enfeebled or decadent China, and with wliat hopefulness 
they look towards China as a vigorous, modern State. This solicitude on the part of other 
nations is not unnatural; the relationship between nations has become so close that the cause 
of reform in China is of world-wide importance, and the cause of reform in China is indissolu- 
bly connected with this question of opium. As has been well stated by a foreign observer, 
' Whenever any progressive wave of opinion has burst upon China, the abolition of the opium 
habit has been in the forepoint.' To fail therefore to take full advantage of the present anti- 
opium sentiment throughout the Chinese Empire, directing it and enabling it to culminate in 
some successful achievement, is the most effective possible blow to the retorm and progressive 
element in China, a blow from which there can be no speedy recovery. 

" And still, again, this is an international issue, because China's relationship with the 
rest of the world is vitally affected by it, and by relationship here I mean the larger and even 
more important relationship than that of foreign trade. There has been for not a few years 
in China a body of men who have deprecated their country's isolation, because they saw clearly 
its lamentable consequences. This small body of men within the past five years has multiplied 
more than a thousandfold. At last we see China upon the threshold of a new life and a new 
relationship with the rest of the world. And yet no one who has looked much into the matter 
can doubt that the opium habit and the opium traffic stand as a great menace to China's 
-coming into this new relationship of friendship and understanding with the rest of the world. 
By every argument, therefore, which has been used to induce China to discard the old policy 
of exclusion, by every act of kindness by which our integrity has been preserved and our very 
national existence maintained during the perilous period of the past 50 years, we may invoke 
the co-operation of the otlier civilised Powers in our determination to free ourselves from the 
curse of opium. 

" And, Sir, I may confess that it is not only as a barrier to keep us from entering into 
the brotherhood of the modern and progressive nations that we deprecate this curse, but also 
as a thing which will prevent our being worthy of this brotherhood. For while we were slow 
to realise our isolation and its lamentable cost, now that we do realise it I hope that I may be 
pardoned for saying that our endeavours to prove ourselves worthy of our new place have not 
been inconsiderable. A great student of world conditions has recently declared in London that 
"* China has made greater progress in the last five years than any other country of the world.' 
Another publicist has said that China has changed more in the past three years than in the 
preceding three thousand. Even if these statements may be open to the charge of some 
exaggeration, no one acquainted with the magnitude of the task which three years ago pre- 
sented itself to us — a mass of 400 millions of people — -to move, millenniums of entrenched 
social customs to change, an ignorance of the life upon which we were entering almost 
■colossal, a lamentable lack of equipped leadership, — no one acquainted with these things, I 
say, can be insensible to the fact that the achievements which have been wrought, although 
very imperfect in themselves, are proof of a deep and widespread desire on the part of the 
people of China to have her take her place among the modern States. The change in our 
educational examination system, the modern college rising on every hand from the ashes of 
the long-cherished .system, our young men going literally by the thousands to the ends of the 
-earth to gain knowledge, our princes and high officials on tours of investigation in Europe and 
America, our beginnings in railway construction, mining and modern manufactures, and our 
plans for a constitutional government, can have but one interpretation. We are committed to 
the path of progress and reform. The day of exclusion and isolation is, we trust, in the past. 
We have progressives and conservatives, to be sure ; but our conservatives of to-day would 
have been considered radicals 15 years ago. From east to west, from north to .south, 
throughout all of our borders, we are making ready for the new life and its new responsibilities. 
For may I be pardoned if I confess that we have an ambition not to be altogether unworthy 
of our new station. This ambition is an inheritance from our fathers. We cannot deny a 



70 International Opium Commission 

degree of pride in the part wliich the China of their day played in the civilisation of Eastern. 
Asia. In those days of poor transportation and comparative national isolation the influence 
of every land was much restricted in its scope, and yet the laws, literature, and institutions of 
China cast their spell over Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Assam, Siam, Cochin- 
China, and were felt even in Burma and India. This I say with no spirit of idle boasting;. 
I am too .sensible of how unworthy we of the present China have accepted the high obligations 
of the past, how we have dimmed the glory of our inheritance; but I mention it to explain, 
how great is our aspiration now to play a high part in the brotherhood of nations, a higher 
part in the brotherhood of nations, a higher part than can be played by men of enfeebled 
bodies, enslaved will, broken pride, and weakened moral character. 

" China looks, therefore, to the fullest co-operation of all of the civilised Powers in her 
attempt to throttle the opium evil. It trusts that such restrictions of the existing treaties as. 
may be found to hamper her efforts in dealing with this question may not be used to this end. 

" And, finally, Mr. President, may I say that China joins the other Great Powers in 
looking upon the opium habit as a great moral issue and approves heartily of making the 
moral influence of opium a special feature of the Commission's inquiry. I make no apology 
for having dwelt upon the economic and other results of the opium traffic: such results, 
must demand the most careful consideration ; but we are not insensible of the fact that 
it is by none of these considerations primarily that the question is ultimately to be settled,, 
nor is it by this standard that our actions as a Commission will be judged. Our con- 
siderations offer no place on the one hand for shallow sentiment or emotionalism, 
neither on the other hand any for opportunism. We shall agree that it is not right to speak 
of moral issues as coming under the denomination of sentiment. No investigation will 
command confidence which fails to take full account of the influence of opium, not only upon 
the resources of the country, but also of its baneful effects upon the bodies, minds and most of 
all the character of men; and it is in dealing with it as a moral issue that there lies the fullest 
hope of our success. It is as such that it has aroused the attention of the Chinese people. Read 
the Chinese press, hear the speeches at the anti-opium meetings, study the present anti-opium, 
movement where you will, and you will see that its appeal is a moral and patriotic appeal. The 
agitation seems to prophesy a mighty revival in national righteousness, reaching into every 
avenue — political, social, and commercial. With all of the shortcomings of China's old 
educational system it had this to commend it, that it insisted upon a thorough study of the 
ethics of Confucius and Mencius, and the result is a large fund of moral sentiment. This is 
our greatest force in entering into this contest, and outside of China also one is conscious of 
that mighty force, greater than tlie world's combined navies and armies, greater than the 
power of all the world's gold and silver — the Christain conscience. With these forces behind 
us we may enter with confidence into what may be rightly called one of the greatest moral 
crusades of the twentieth century, for whatever laws the nations of the world may decide to 
adopt towards each other, we may not forget that there is a law higher than all human laws, 
a law greater than all economic laws, a law that transcends even the law of nature, and that is 
the eternal law of Heaven, which, through Confucius, says, 'Do not unto others what thou 
wouldst not have others do unto you,' and which, through Jesus Christ, savs, 'Thou shalt love 
th\' neighbour as thyself.' " 

The resolutions submitted by the Chinese Delegation for the consideration of the 
International Opium Commission were as follows : — 

I. — That the Commission recognising the earnest desire of the Government and people of 
China to eradicate the production and consumption of opium throughout the Empire and 
acknowledging that certain progress has already been made in this direction, agrees to recommend 
that, in order to assist China to solve the great task she is attempting as expeditiously and as 
effectively as possible, all the Delegates who are assembled in this Commission should urge their 
respective Governments to promise their co-operation and readiness to reduce the importation of 
opium into China pari passu with the reducdon of the cultivation of the poppy within her own 
borders. 

2. — That the International Opium Commission strongly urges all Governments possessing 
Concessions or Settlements in China, which have not yet taken effective action toward the 
closing of opium divans and opium-shops in the said Concessions and Settlements, to take steps 
to that end on the lines already adopted by several Governments. 

3. — That the International Opium Commission strongly urges all Governments possessing 
Concessions or Settlements in China to take the necessary steps to prohibit the sale in the said 
Concessions or Settlements of any form of anti-opium medicine containing either opium or 
morphia or any of their derivatives, except on qualified medical advice. 



Minutes oI' Proceedincs 7i 

4- — That the International Opium Commission rei;o_^Miizes the immense harm now being 
done to the people of China by the use of morphia for injecting purposes and recommends to 
the various Governments taking part in this Commission the urgent need oi' the immediate 
enactment of laws prohibiting the importation of, and sale of, morphia and its derivatives, or 
hypodermic syringes, by any of their subjects or citizens in China, except the sale to duly 
qualified medical practitioners for medical purposes only. The Commission also recommends 
that the laws enacted shall provide for the adequate punishment of such subjects or citizens 
contravening their stipulations, and that it be distinctly understood that the unauthorised 
possession of morphia and its derivatives or hypodermic syringes, is to be considered prima 
facie evidence of guilt. 

On the motion of Dr. Tennev ithe discussion of the Chinese resoltitions wa.s deferred 
until the next sitting of the House. 

Sir AleX-A-NDER HOSIE having presented the report of the Committee appointed to 
investigate into the question of poppy cultivation and the production of opium, the Commis- 
sion rose at 5 p.m., the ne.xt Session being fixed for ro.30 a.m. on the 25th February. 



Minutes of the Thirteenth Session 

25th February, 1909 

The business of the Commission commenced at 10.30 a.m. The PRESIDENT read a 
letter which he had received from the Delegate for Italy, who regretted that he was still unable 
through illness to attend. A communication was also read from Mr. Charles B. Towns, who 
had placed a formula for the cure of victims of the opium habit in the hands of the President. 

Dr. Tenney read the summary of a report submitted by the Committee on existing 
National Agreements covering the Opium Traffic, The Chief Commissioner for Portugal 
pointed out that the Agreement between Portugal and China for controlling the opium trade 
at Macao was not included in the Committee's report, and the Chair directed that this omission 
should be rectified. 

The Chinese resolutions then came up for discussion. 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clement: Smith. — "We listened, I need hardly say, 
with very great interest and, I might add, admiration to the particulars delivered to us 
yesterday by Mr. T'aNG, and I trust I may be allowed to say a few words in connection with 
the first of the resolutions before us : — 

" I am obliged, after the line which we have already taken on this subject, with the 
approval of a large majority of the House, to take exception to this resolution on the point of 
order : and in strictness, that being our intention I ought, perhaps, to refrain from saying 
more. But I believe that in the special circumstances of this renewed appeal, I shall have 
your permission and the indulgence of the House in adding some further observations, which I 
hope will soften the possible appearance of harshness in our refusal to join in a discussion 
which has now been raised on two occasions. 

" Our position is simply this : that it is impossible for the British delegates, unless 
specifically instructed in that sense, to discuss with representatives of China a matter 
which has been the subject of diplomatic negotiations between the two countries, and 
still less permissible for us to acquiesce by our continued presence here in such discussion by 
third parties. No such instructions have been communicated to us, nor could there, in our 
judgment, be any reasonable expectation in any quarter that such instructions would be 
given, seeing that of the thirteen Powers represented here only two are directly and practically 
concerned in the matter with which this resolution really deals. 

" I trust, therefore, that in spite of our adherence to a position from which it would be 
presumption for us to depart, the Chinese delegates will remain satisfied that we have not 
withdrawn, at this late stage of the proceedings of the Commission, from the sympathetic 
standpoint which we assumed at the outset and have sought to maintain throughout : and will 



72 International Opium Commission 

remember that this is the standpoint of our own Government from whom, in the inception ^ 
of her great task, China obtained an immediate and spontaneous assurance of support, and 
afterwards, in its execution, an active practical co-operation which have counted and will count 
for infinitely more than any irresponsible pronouncement to which we might commit ourselves- 
in this place." 

Monsieur IMiyaoka. — " With the perrriission and indulgence of the Commission,. 
I beg to express the sense of sincere satisfaction with which this Delegation has heard the 
most sympathetic statement from the British Delegation. I am sure that the Chinese 
Delegation has the entire sympathy of the various Delegations here present in the gigantic 
task which she has undertaken, and no statement of profound sympathy is more welcome 
than that from the British Delegation. I therefore beg to express the sincere satisfaction 
with which this Delegation has heard the declaration of the Right Hon. Sir CECIL Clementi 
Smith." 

Mr. T'ANG. — " After the kind words which have fallen from the Right Hon. Ciiief 
Commissioner for Great Britain, the Chinese Delegation does not insist upon putting the first 
resolution to the vote of this House ; nevertheless we wish to have it put on record that 
it is the desire of the Government and people of China to have the abolition of 
the opium evil effected as quickly as possible. It was hoped that in view of the 
universal sympathy manifested for China, — in view of the almost universal recognition 
of our earnestness and progress in this moral reform, — that the British Delegation might see 
their way to recommend to their Government a speedier measure for the abolition of the opium 
evil, thereby placing China under a still greater debt of obligation to Great Britain. Hitherto- 
the complaint has been that China was unwilling to take up the matter of opium reform — that 
she was too fond of the revenue derived, and that she would not assume the leadership in. 
starting this opium campaign ; but having now assumed the leadership and striven her utmost 
to carry out this reform, we think that we were justified in hoping that Great Britain would 
not only follow us but maybe surpass the lead that China has assumed. It was with these 
hopes that we put forward this resolution, but we are now prepared to withdraw it under the 
assurance which has been expressed by the Right Hon. Commissioner for Great Britain." 

Mr. T'ANG moved the adoption of the second Chinese resolution. 

Monsieur Ratard rose, on behalf of the French Delegation, to enquire if the Chinese 
Government had issued orders for the closing of opium-sko/'s, and not only of divans. He 
had to inform the Chinese Delegation that in Kuangchowwan his Government had a contract 
with the opium farmers which would last until the end of the year 191 1 : until that date it was 
impossible for his Government to accept any suggestion to break such contract. He suo-o-ested 
that the words opium-shops should be deleted, and the words as soon as they viay deem it 
advisable inserted after the words to that end. 

Monsieur MlYAGK.-v. — " In connection with the resolution which is now before u.s, I beg 
to make a statement in reference to Antung, regarding a passage which occurs in Mr. Leech's 
report contained in the British Parliamentary paper, China No. i. In that report it is 
stated that there are any number of Japanese divans in Antung. I am very o-lad to be able 
to give categorical assurance in the presence of the various Delegations here present that every 
one of the opium divans, with which an\' Japanese subject had an\' connection whatever, has 
been strictly forbidden and closed." 

Mr. T'ANG. — " In support of our Resolution No. 2, may I be allowed to make some 
remarks. Before doing so, however, I would like to answer the question put by the French 
Delegation as to whether we have closed all opium-shops as well as opium divans. The words 
opium-shops appear by mistake in the resolution and should be struck out. Our Government 
is well aware that so long as the opium habit has not been given up, the closing of opium- 
.shops will be impossible, and that the closing of opium-shops must be effected concurrently 
with the abandonment of the opium habit. What was in the mind of the Chinese Delegation 
when drawing up Resolution No. 2 was to request those Governments which had opium divans- 
in their Concessions to take speedy steps to close them, and perhaps with the permission 
of this House we may be permitted to advance one or two arguments in favour of our proposal. 
I think on a previous occasion the French Delegation was good enough to give two reasons as 
propounded by the French Municipality in Shanghai, for the temporary continuance of opium 



Minutes of Proceedings 73 

divans in the French Concession. 1 think that these reasons were not taken into serious 
consideration by this House. You will remember that these reasons were, firstly, that the 
closing of opium divans would force the people to smoke in their own houses^ and that, as a 
consequence of such step, the number of opium lamps would be greatly augmented, and the 
danger of fires increased thereby. According to the statistics of insurance companies which 
we have taken the trouble to obtain, we find that the number of fires caused by the ignition 
of opium lamps is practically nil. It is well known that opium smokers use a very slow 
burning and entirely uninflammable oil, and therefore the danger of fire from opium lamps 
is more imaginary than real. I need not take up any more time of this House by further 
statements to repudiate the pertinency of the arguments brought forward. I might, however, 
with the permission of the French Delegation, draw attention to the fact that in their Report, 
page 4, they state that on June iQth, 1907, a Government proclamation was issued forbidding 
the opening of opium divans throughout the territory of Annam and Tonkin, and laying 
down that no new divans should be authorised in Cochin-China and Cambodia. If there were 
valid reasons for forbidding the opening of opium divans in Tonkin it appears to me that 
the same reasons might apply to the French Concessions in China, unless our friends the 
French Delegation can adduce evidence showing the difference of conditions in Cochin-China 
and Tonkin from those prevailing in Shanghai. It appears to the Chinese Delegation that in 
considering a moral issue of this kind we ought to look facts squarely in the face, and not 
delude ourselves in any way; that in deciding a matter of such momentous importance, we 
should not allow ourselves to clog the issue by private interests. I might add that the 
existence and the continuance of opium divans in the French Settlement is exerting a very 
discouraging effect upon certain sections of our people; that the news of the fact is being 
conveyed by the Chinese Press to the farthest corner of our Empire. The fact that all other 
Governments have ordered the closing of public divans in their Concessions, whilst the French 
Government has reasons for continuing them for a further period is, I repeat, exerting a very 
discouraging affect, and we, therefore, beg their sympathetic co-operation. We appeal to their 
sense of international justice and fair play, and hope that our appeal will not be in vain." 

Monsieur Ratard said that it was very difficult to give a complete reply to Mr. T'AKG'S 
statement. He wished to declare, however, that as soon as the Anti-Opium movement began 
in China, immediate steps had been taken by the French Municipal Council to prevent the 
issue of any new licences in the Concession. Moreover, the tax had been doubled, the effect 
being to diminish the number of couches by 30 per cent during the first year. They were 
determined not to tolerate the opening of more dens, in .spite of the fact that more were being 
opened, if rumour was correct, in the Chinese city. They would completely suppress opium 
divans in the French Concession. They had engaged to do it, but they wished to be assured 
that China herself was in earnest. They were ready to take all measures which might aid 
China in eradicating opium, but they wished to do it thoroughly. He moved the adoption of 
the resolution as amended by him. 

The vote resulted as follows : — 

For the amendment. Against. 

France. America. 

Great Britain. China. 

Persia. Germany. 

Portugal. Japan. 

Russia. Siam. 
Netherlands. 

The Austro- Hungarian Delegation reserved its vote. 

Monsieur MlYAOKA. — " I understand that the reservation of a vote is permissible only 
with the concurrence of the Commission as a whole." 

The Chairman. " As the Chair understands it, a reasonable time for consideration 

should be given, and then if the vote is not recorded, the Chair would have to rule that the 
Delegate abstained from voting— but a reasonable time ought to be given, and, unless ordered 
otherwise in the present instance, the Chair would rule that this procedure should be 
observed." 



74 International Opium Commission 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — " I would beg to remind the Chinese Delegation that we are at a 
critical moment. There is danger that their resolution will be rejected by the Commission on 
the ground of a tie vote arising under the reserve. Considering that several of the Delega- 
tions here present would not like to place themselves in the position of opposing some 
particular Government which has a particular Concession, I believe that the whole difficulty 
would be obviated if the Chinese Delegation could see their way to accede to the amendment 
proposed by Monsieur Ratard." 

Mr. T'ANG. — ■" I beg to propose an amendment to the amendment of the French 
Delegation, and that is, instead of the words as soon as they may deem it advisable the 
words as soon as possible be substituted." 

The Chief Commissioner for France.^" I am sorry that I cannot agree to the 
imperative tone of the words as soon as possible. I would also like to voice my strong 
objections to the sentence used by Mr. T'ANG relating io private interests. I consider it an 
insult to my Government, and would ask of the Chair whether such remark is in order? " 

The President. — "Mr. T'ang is not in order; he will perhaps explain the remark 
objected to." 

Mr. T'ANG stated that he did not mean the words private interests to apply to 
private individuals. 

The President. — " The Chair considers that a reasonable time has been allowed the 
Delegate for Austria-Hungary to record his vote." 

Dr. RoSSLER. — " I would beg to remind the House that in one of the earlier Sessions 
it was agreed that every proposal and amendment should be handed to each Delegation in 
writing for the reason that not all are able to follow alterations made in the course of debate, 
and I think this a reasonable method. I do not know my honourable friend's reason for 
withholding his vote, but I think that it is onl)' fair that he should be allowed to do so. The 
Chief Commissioner for Portugal has reserved his vote on every single occasion." 

Dr. Hamilton Wright. — "I would ask the Chinese Delegation, to reconsider the 
language in the last clause of the resolution. It is only a verbal distinction, and I do not 
think the Chinese Delegation have any intention of using an imperative term." 

Replying, Mr. T'ANG said that if it was the desire of the majority of the House, the 
Chinese Delegation was prepared to fall in with Monsieur Ratard's suggestion, but he would 
like the word possible to take the place of advisable. 

Monsieur Ratard having agreed to this slight change, the resolution as amended by 
him was again put to the vote and adopted unanimously. 

Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN, moving the adoption of the third Chinese resolution, said : " lu 
submitting this resolution I do not think that the Chinese Delegation need make a long 
speech. The evils arising from so-called anti-opium medicines are so well recognised that it 
wfould seem almost a waste of time to speak of them at length before this House. E\er\'one 
who has observed the conditions in China knows what a danger anti-opium pills and medicines 
constitute in this Empire. Every writer who has written on the opium evil mentions anti- 
opium medicines as a greater danger than the opium habit itself, and as I stated on a previous 
occasion. Sir John Jordan has on more than one occasion remarked to our Foreign Office that 
it would be quite futile for China to make efforts to stop the consumption of opium smoking 
and to allow the habit of morphia eating to continue and spread over the Empire ; and he 
strongly urged upon our Government to see that the evil is eradicated concurrently with the 
abolition of the smoking habit. It would, therefore, seem superfluous for us to appeal to the 
co-operation of the various Delegations here in this respect. I might add, however, that while 
it is a deplorable fact that our Chinese people are the most interested in the manufacture and 
sale of these harmful medicines, the nationals of other countries also have a share in the trade. 
For instance, in the International Settlements in Shanghai we find British, French, Austrian 
and Japanese druggists, and others, selling these so-called anti-opium medicines. We have 



Minutes of Proceedings 75 

had many of these samples analysed, and, with one notable exception, all of the samples 
analysed contained either opium or morphia. I may say also, and I crave the pardon of my 
Japanese friends for drawing attention to this fact, that a sample of pill manufactured by a 
Japanese firm commands the largest sale in China, and it goes to all corners of our Empire, 
owing to the enterprising spirit of the manufacturer. But we are most gratified to know that 
Japan is more than willing to assist China to drive these harmful drugs out of the market; 
that all China has need to do is to draw the attention of the Japanese authorities, who will at 
all times be prepared to lend their fullest co-operation. We therefore feel confident that this 
resolution will meet with the sympathy and support of this House and I need not further take 
up time by explanator\- remarks." 

;\Ionsieur MiYAOKA. — " In presenting this statement in reference to this resolution 
it is necessary for me to say distinctly that the resolution as put forward has the profoundest 
sympathy of the Japanese Delegation. I regret, however, that the question of anti- 
opium medicines, manufactured by Japanese subjects and sold b)- Japanese merchants 
in China, was not brought to the attention of the Japanese Government before. In 
August, 1908, this Delegation was organised in Japan as a Commission to make 
investigations into the question of opium, morphia and other derivatives, as far as 
Japan was concerned. As I stated in presenting our report to you, we followed the line 
of investigation which was presented and laid before us by the Government of the United 
States. In the course of our investigations we found that there were unofificial rumours, 
statements from unofficial sources — travellers and others — that so-called anti-opium pills, 
manufactured presumably in Japan, or manufactured in Shanghai and elsewhere by Japanese 
subjects from morphia or other drugs imported into Japan, were finding a large sale. It was 
a matter of profound regret and astonishment to us that such a state of affairs remained 
unknown. This Commission as then organised in toto was very much hampered in its 
\\ork, as one of its ablest members was stationed in Formosa. The work of the Com- 
mission was therefore naturally unavoidably delayed, but a thorough investigation of 
the archives of the Department for Foreign Affairs showed us that no official report has 
been received from the Japanese officials in the towns in China. They were therefore 
instructed to report. About the time that we were preparing to leave Japan for this 
Commission, reports were being received in the Foreign Office giving the details as requested. 
Before leaving Japan we made arrangements that all samples which might arrive were to be 
promptly forwarded to the H\-gienic Laboratory for Home Affairs, to be carefully examined 
by chemists who are employed in that laboratory under the direction of Dr. Tahara, and that 
all the reports from the Consular Officers in China should be forwarded to us. We have thus 
had the opportunit}' of seeing all the reports, and have the satisfaction of knowing that these 
so-called anti-opium pills have been subjected to careful analysis at the Tokyo laboratory. 
We were most anxious as to when we might be able to present the result of such analysis, and 
Dr. Tahara has telegraphed to his subordinates in the Tokyo laboratory for the results. We 
have received an answer to the effect that they were nearly through with the work, but that 
they were not quite ready to forward to him the results of their analysis. From this )'ou will 
see that, as soon as this subject was brought to the attention of the Japanese Government, 
thev have promptly taken action to make a thorough investigation, and you need no assurance 
from me that the Japanese Government will do everything in its power to prohibit the 
sale and distribution of drugs detrimental to health in China. I would not like to place 
myself as in any way objecting to the most reasonable resolution put forward by China, 
but the point to which I beg to draw the attention of the Chinese Delegation is the 
fact that no communication has been made to the Japanese officials, who are well able to 
deal with the matter. Under such circumstances I have great doubts whether this is the 
proper procedure that should be followed, and I therefore hope that the Chinese Delegation 
will not press for a vote on this resolution." 

Monsieur Ratard. — "I would like to ask the Chinese Delegation what they consider 
to be 'qualified medical advice'? Is anyone who represents himself to be a doctor in China 
a qualified medical adviser? Another matter I want to draw the attention of the Chinese 
Delegation to is that the sale of some of the products referred to is not prohibited by our 
Treaties. It would be much better for China to arrange diplomatically with regard to these 
products, as has been done in the case of morphia." 

Mr. T'ANG. — "As a general rule we do not consider our Chinese doctors as qualified 
medical practitioners except those who have taken a medical course in some recognised 



76 International Opium Commission 

medical institution either abroad or in Cliina, but those who usually set themselves up as 
doctors we do not regard as coming under the category of medical practitioners. The 
Honourable Chief Commissioner for France referred to the action that has already been taken 
with regard to Morphia. In reply, I beg to state that as regards morphia we have very 
stringent laws, in fact I may say that decapitation is the penalty for anyone cauglit openly 
selling morphia for illegitimate purposes. But there are no laws in China, nor, as far as 
we are aware, in foreign countries, against so-called anti-opium medicines. Of course it 
is a well-known fact that in the settlements in Shanghai these medicines are not 
sold under the head of poisons. No druggist thinks of putting a label on his box or 
bottle naming the ingredients of his medicines, or labelling them as poisons. It therefore 
goes out in the form of medicine which does not come under the operation of the law, 
and in order to check the spread of these drugs the Chinese Delegation is of opinion 
that separate legislation ought to be taken whereby these harmful drugs may be 
eliminated from the market. It is a well-known fact that hardly a boat goes into the interior 
of China but carries more or less of these packages of so-called medicines, and our country is 
being flooded with the poison. It is most important for China, if we are to put an effective 
stop to opium and its derivatives, that we should take into consideration the question of 
anti-opium medicines, and for this reason we have ventured to bring this resolution forward 
for the favourable consideration of this House." 

Monsieur MiYAOKA. — "The remarks which have just been offered by Mr. T'ANG seem 
to me to emphasize rather than to negative the suggestion that this is a proper subject on 
which the Chinese Government should approach the Governments concerned through the 
ordinar\' diplomatic channels. It seems entirely out of place for this Commission to be 
voting upon a matter which would easily be adjusted by ordinary diplomatic process." 

Dr. Wright. — ■■' I quite agree with what both the French Delegation and the Japanese 
Delegation have suggested, viz., that this is a subject for diplomatic negotiations, but I think 
it could be carried through more quickly if this Commission as a whole called the attention 
of the various Governments by this resolution to the facts of the case." 

Monsieur MiYAOKA. — " I would beg to add that my remark does not imply that I am 
not going to call the attention of the Imperial Japanese Government to the matter. On the 
contrary, I am going to make the strongest recommendation to the Imperial Government; only 
my point is that, in my opinion, this is hardly a proper subject on which to take the vote of 
the Commission. I would respectfully suggest to the Chinese Delegation that a similar recom- 
mendation be made to the Government in Peking, suggesting this as a proper subject for 
diplomatic negotiations, and as far as Japan is concerned we are more than willing to make 
the most sympathetic allusion to this phase of the question, for ue have in this Delegation 
one gentleman who is charged with the difficult problem of suppressing the evil in Formosa, 
who is fully aware that no measures for the suppression of the opium habit is productive of 
results unless this phase of the question be properly attended to." 

Monsieur Ratard. — "We cannot interfere with legitimate trade in foreign concessions. 
It would not be so easy to control the sale of anti-opium medicines as the Chinese Delegation 
think. We are heartily with them, however, and we would like very much to see measures 
taken for preventing the unrestrained sale of such remedies. I beg to move as an amendment 
the following resolution : — 

'That the International Opium Commission recommends strongly that each Delegation move 
its Government to enter into negotiations with the Chinese Government, with a view to effective 
and prompt measures being taken in the various foreign concessions and settlements in China 
for the prohibition of the trade and manufacture of such anti-opium medicines as contain opium 
or its derivatives.'" 

Mr. T'ANG. — ■" I need hardly say how gratified we are with the remarks that have been 
made by the Chief Commissioner for Japan, but with all due respect perhaps we might be 
allowed to remind him that the attitude he has taken in this matter has only reference to his 
own country, and that is why it is the desire of the Chinese nation, as represented by our 
Delegation here, to secure, if possible, a unanimous expression from this House condemning 
the anti-opium medicines as sold in the foreign settlements and in China — to secure, I say, if 
possible, a general expression of disapproval from this House and the general assurance that 
each Delegation will urge upon its respective Government the necessity of taking measures to 



Minutf:s uf Proceedings 



77 



.prevent the manufactufe and sale of these injurious medicines in their Settlements and 
Concessions in China. In other words, since each civilised country has its own laws and 
statutes against the sale of poisons and all medicines containing poisons, we do not 
think we are asking too much if we request each civilised power to make its laws 
effective in its respective Concessions and Settlements in China, that is to say, to transfer the 
operation of its laws as existing in its own country over to China, where the Powers enjoy 
■extra-territorial rights for their subjects. Of course China will do her part in preventing her 
people from participating in this illegal traffic, but it appears to us that unless we have the 
practical co-operation of all the civilised Powers who are represented in the various Concessions 
in China, the task of eliminating the anti-opium evil will be too much for us to overcome, and 
'Ultimate success will be very doubtful, if not impossible." 

Dr. Wright. — " I wish to move that the question be put to the vote." 

The resolution as amended by Monsieur Ratard was adopted unanimously on being 
put to the vote. 

Mr. T'ANG moved the adoption of the fourth of the Chinese resolutions. After a 
■desultory discussion with regard to the wording, it was decided to defer the consideration of 
the resolution until after the mid-day recess. 

Before adjourning, the Chair reverted to the objection which had been taken by the 
Chief Commissioner for German}' to his ruling in connection with the reserved vote 
■of the Austro-Hungarian Delegation. Hitherto in the reservation of a vote the House 
had not been put in the predicament of having its business suspended indefinitely, and 
under such circumstances the Chair did not consider that it would be right to allow the 
reservation. Technically, the objection raised by the Chief Commissioner for Germany was a 
sound one. 

The Commission adjourned at 12.40 p.m. 

On re-assembling at 2.30 p.m., the President declared that the business before the 
House was the further discussion of the fourth Chinese resolution. 

Mr. T'ANG KUG-AN announced that during the interval he had held a consultation 
with Dr. RoSSLER and Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT, and that by their suggestion he now wished 
to move the following in the place of his original resolution : — 

That the International Opium Commission recommends that each Delegation move its 
Government to apply its pharmacy laws to its subjects in the Consular districts, Concessions and 
Settlements in China. 

Monsieur Ratard stated that he would have no hesitation in accepting the resolution 
as altered. 

The resolution was then put to the vote and adopted unanimously. 

On the suggestion of Dr. Hamilton Wright it was decided to appoint a Committfee of 
three to superintend the printing of the proceedings of the Commission, after the close o the 
sittings. The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith also moved the appointment of a 
Committee for revising the resolutions that had been adopted. It would be necessary to 
modify the language in certain instances, and to finally pass the resolutions at the next 
meeting. 

The Chair selected Dr. Wright, Mr. Brunyate and Mr. T'ANG KUO-AN as the 
Committee of Revision and Sir ALEXANDER HOSIE, Monsieur Brenier and Mr. T'ANG 
Kuo-AN as the Printing Committee. At Mr. T'ang'S request, Mr. J. L. CHALMERS, Associate 
Delegate for China, was permitted to act for him on the latter Committee. 



78 International Opium Commission 

Monsieur Ratard, on behalf of the French Delegation, made the following; 
statement: — 

"Although neither French Indo-China nor France are opium-producing countries, andi 
although the use of opium is practically unknown in France, and has scarcely any ill-effects, 
on the native population of her colonies, the French Delegation desires to announce before- 
the closing of this International Opium Commission that — 

(a) As concerns French Indo-China, the Government will continue strictly to- 
observe the measures described in the Report presented to the Commission,, 
which have already had the effect of considerabl)' reducing the importation, 
of raw opium and the consumption of c/iandu : 
(d) As concerns Kuangchowwan, ^vhere the French Government is tied by a 
contract with the present farm until the end of the year 191 1, the French 
Delegation consider it to be their duty towards their Chinese colleagues on. 
the Commission to announce that it is the firm intention of the Governor- 
General of Indo-China to apply to the whole territory of Kuangchowwan 
similar measures to those which may have been effectively adopted by 
China at the time when the contract with the opium farm expires." 

The President. — "The Chair would remind the House that there are still some 
reports to be presented, which presumably will not be ready in time. There is still the report 
on Trade Statistics, report on Revenue Statistics, Tariffs, etc., and also one from the Committee 
on Ways and Means." 

Mr. Laidlaw. — " On behalf of the Committee for Trade Statistics, I am sorry to say 
we are not quite ready. There has been a great deal of work involved in translation of 
figures into one common language and we don't expect the report will be ready until Saturday 
morning." 

Dr. Wright. — " May I suggest that in that case the different reports be incorporated; 
in the proceedings." 

A discussion then took place respecting the assessment of any expenditure over and' 
above funds in hand, after which Dr. Tenney moved an adjournment of the House until' 
Saturday morning. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith expressed tlie hope that the last meeting of the- 
Commission might take place the following day. 

It was eventually decided to adjourn until the following day at 2.30 p.m. 

Dr. Tenney said that he would like to tell the Delegates that he had seen demonstra- 
tions given by Mr. Towns in connection with his cure for opium smoking, which had 
previously been referred to, and that in his judgment, and in the judo-ment of men 
more competent than himself, those demonstrations were highly satisfactory'. It seemed to 
him a matter well worth looking into. 

Dr. Hamilton Wright supported the last speaker. He said that he had always 
opposed from a professional point of view any serious consideration of Mr. Towns' remedy 
until it had been made public, but now that it had been made public he had no hesitation 
in expressing the opinion that the remedy was an excellent one, and had successfully 
accomplished the cure of many patients. He concluded his remarks by inviting the experts 
on the Commission to meet him for the purpose of making observations in their private 
capacity. 

Monsieur Ratard having read extracts from two letters which he had received from 
French officials resident in Szechwan, relative to the continued cultivation of the poppy in, 
that province, the House adjourned at 4.30 p.m. 



Minutes of Proceedings 7^ 

Minutes of the Fourteenth Session 

26th February, 1909 
The President took the Chair at 2.30 p.m. 
The Chief Commissioner for Portugal, Senhor Potikr, addressed the House :— 

"Duly authorized by my Government, I have the honour to make the following 
Declaration : — 

" Considering that this is a Commission of study, the Portuguese Government 
wishes to careful!)- examine the text, conditions and basis of the proposals presented by 
the various delegates, as well as the reports and information furnished by the local 
Authorities of the colonies interested, with regard to the means how to render effective 
the desirable measures to be adopted, and therefore reserves its vote until after the 
Minutes of the International Commission and the documents referring to the subject 
have been perused, when its decision will be communicated to all the Powers 
represented in the Commission." 

The Chief Commissioner for the Netherlands, ?ilr. A. A. DE JoNGH, laid on the table 
the following statement embodying the two resolutions offered for consideration at a previous 
Session : — 

The Delegation for the Netherlands brings forward two resolutions, the first of which 
reads as follows (for text vide Minutes of the Twelfth Session). 

" In explaining the reasons for presenting this resolution, the Chief Commissioner for 
the Netherlands draws the attention of the House to the first two sections of the preamble, 
where it is said that ' the total eradication of the use of opium within a few years is to be 
-considered as a high, but at present an unattainable ideal,' and further that 'in order to 
check the use of opium much may be expected from taking systematic measures which are 
gradual m their effect,' and goes on as follows: 'judging by experience gained in Nether- 
lands-India our Delegation is of opinion that the best way of reaching that object is the 
■establishment of an opium system, managed by officials who are not in the least interested 
in the amount of sale. As appears from Appendix III to the Memorandum on the Opium 
Regie in Netherlands-India, presented together with our report, under that system in a period 
of fifteen years the average annual consumption of chandti per head of the population in Java 
shows a decrease from 0.042 tahil to 0.025 tahil, which means a little over 40 per cent. 
I wish to state that this decrease took place gradually, and that therefore there is good reason 
to expect that it will prove to be a constant one and will go on progressively. 

" The Netherlands Delegation on this ground, being proud of the Java Regie system, 
and also deeply convinced of its useful effect in other regards, has taken the liberty to present 
the above-mentioned memorandum for the purpose of putting forward the principles on which 
the system is based, and with the hope that the study of it may stimulate other Governments 
to practise it in their own territories or possessions, as soon as circumstances make it possible 
-to do away with the prevailing systems of farming or of free retail trade in opium. 

"As for the second part of the same resolution, I beg to draw the attention of the 
House to the circumstance that the resolutions heretofore accepted deal with the prevalence 
-of smuggling, the checking of the morphine evil, the study of the medical side of the opium 
■question, the re-examination of the prevailing opium revenue systems, a courteous statement 
in order to compliment the Government of China for what has been done in the last two years 
for checking the use of opium in that Empire, and lastly, a recommendation to our Govern- 
ments to take measures for the gradual suppression of the practice of opium smoking. 

" As yet not a single resolution has been moved to suggest definite measures on the 
subject which, in the diplomatic correspondence on the matter, has been put forward as the 
main object of our Commission, viz., to devise means to limit the use of opium. By throwing 
back this task on the shoulders of the various Governments, our Commission does not do what 
is expected from it. Therefore it might greatly contribute to a practical result if a resolution 
were put forward recommending some definite measures to the effect above mentioned. As 
such measures may be considered, those which have been enumerated under the numbers I to 
IX of our proposed resolution, which have in part been practised in Java for many years and 
have, in part, been lately taken into consideration, in order to show to the world which is 



8o International Opium Commission 

waiting for practical results, that our Commission has not forgotten to give some practical^ 
hints for a satisfactory solution of the opium question, the Netherlands Delegation thinks it 
useful that the second part of this resolution be adopted. 

" I do not think it necessary to say much about each of these measures, as all of them 
speak sufficiently for themselves. However, I am prepared to give any additional information, 
that may be asked for." 

The second resolution runs as follows (for text vide Minutes of the Twelfth Session). 

" Experience has taught that the smuggling of opium (which for the reasons mention- 
ed in the preamble is in itself a great evil), cannot be extirpated as long as opium remains an 
ordinary article of trade, and so goes through the hands of pri\-ate wholesale dealers and of 
smugglers who buy it from them. 

" Therefore it is most urgent that the trade in opium be w ithdrawn from those 
persons, and be limited to the Governments of opium-producing and opium-consuming 
countries. This measure may do an immense deal of good for the solution of the Opium 
problem, and therefore, in our opinion, should be recommended on this occasion to the 
Governments concerned, even though realisation of its principle \\\\\ be possible in the future- 
only." 

Monsieur Miyaoka read a repl_\- to the question asked by the Chinese Delegation 
during the Twelfth Session, regarding the rate of import duty on morphia imported into 
Kuan tun g. 

Mr. R. Laidlaw, m.p., presented the Report of the Committee on Trade Statistics. 

Monsieur MlVAOKA. — "As there is no business just for the moment, I may, perhaps- 
avail myself of this occasion to make a reply to a question which was private!)- submitted to 
me by Dr. Tenney. I take this course becau.se I believe the information will be of interest 
to the Commission as a whole. Dr. Tenney did not put it in the form of a question formally 
submitted before the International Opium Commission, but as a report to the effect that a 
large quantity of morphia is being re-exported from the port of Kobe to Korea, Manchuria 
and China proper; that there were large quantities of morphia which came in from abroad 
which were not landed, — at least no steps were taken regarding the usual formalities at the 
Custom House, — but that it was re-shipped from Kobe (implying that the morphia in question 
was for transhipment from one ship to another, or that it was landed temporarily at the 
Customs sheds, and placed on board out-going ships), and that the amount thus dealt with 
in Kobe was a very large amount. 

"I have made enquiries on the subject, and am now informed that durino- the year 
1908 there was one transhipment of morphine which corresponded with the circumstances 
just given. That was onl\- one case, and the quantity was 15-lbs. That was the only 
occasion on which re-shipment was made. Dr. Tenney further wished for information 
regarding the Provisions of the Japane.se Law under which such a step is possible. Art. 38 
of the Customs Law (No. 61) of Japan, promulgated in March 1899, reads as follows: 

'The provisions relating to exportation apply mutatis mutandis in all respects, 
to the re-exportation of goods. But this rule does not apply to the re-shipment of 
goods which have been temporar\- landed.' 

Thus, all goods coming from abroad, but which have been only temporarily landed for 
the purpo.se of re-exportation, will be exempt from the provisions relating to re-exportation, 
and I am now informed that the only case of" morphine was this one package containing 15-lb.' 
which was exported to Chemulpo. To show you that no re-shipment or transhipment at Kobe 
is possible without the knowledge of the Customs officials, it is sufficient, I think, to point out 
to you the Provisions of Art. 12 of the same Law to which I have referred Art' !-> provides 
that : 

' Vessels carrying foreign goods cannot, excepting in cases where the permission 
of the Superintendent of the Customs has been obtained, put on board or discharge cargo 
until after the production of the Manifest. But this rule does not apply to pa.sserjo-ers' 
hand-baggage and postal matter.' ' " 

So you will see that unless the Manifest is presented to the Customs, no vessel can unload' 
any goods coming from abroad." 



Minutes of Proceedings 8i 

Mr. Brunyate, on behalf of the Committee of Revision, presented the resolutions as 
adopted, for final endorsement by the Commission. 

[See after Minutes of Fourteenth Session.] 

The Right Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith moved the iinal adoption of the 
resolutions. This proposal was carried unanimously. 

Sii Cecil Clementi Smith. — "I hope I am not wrong in intervening at this point 
but the question naturally arises: What validity by any action of this Commission should be 
given to the resolutions which we have now adopted ? I venture to think that the proper 
course for us to adopt is to move that the President, on behalf of the Commission, do sign 
the resolutions as having been passed by the Commission. It seems to me that it would be 
more properly done thus than by getting signatures from all the members of the Commission, 
and I beg to move accordingly in that sense." 

This proposition also met with unanimous approval. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith. — "We have now passed the formal resolutions which 
this Commission has arrived at after a somewhat long period of deliberation, but there is one 
resolution more — maybe more than one — which we should wish to move before separating: — 

' That a cordial vote of thanks be offered to the Right Reverend Bishop Brent for the 
dignity, impartiality, and ability with which he has discharged the duties of President of the 
International Opium Commission." (Genera/ applause.) 

Sir Cecil Clememt Smith. — " May I rise to say that that vote is passed with 
acclammation ?" 

The President. — "My honourable Colleagues: If, perchance, you deem that you 
have grounds to justify an expression of thanks to your President, he for his part has still 
more abundant justification for voicing his sense of appreciation to you. The spirit of 
co-operation and sympathy which has characterized this distinguished body from the moment 
I took the chair until now has never abated, and has robbed a responsibility of many anxieties 
and converted it into sheer privilege and honour. It is not difficult to rule, as has been my 
lot, over an assembly of men who, by virtue of their normal habit of life, contribute to order 
wherever they may be and in whatever business they may engage. That representatives of 
thirteen nations could so readily mould themselves into a family in the brief period of a month 
augurs well for the future. 

"I congratulate this House not only that in the findings reached, all the resolutions put 
to vote were adopted nemine contradicente, but also that four out of the nine call for action on 
the part of one nation in behalf of the interests of another. The tide of sympathetic 
relationship between the ends of the earth is not yet at the flood, but as the history of the 
International Opium Commission proclaims anew, it is rising. There is the utmost frankness 
in the expression of conviction regarding national rights in the International relations of our 
day, and nations were never clearer as to what constitutes their rights, but there is also 
increasing considerateness for the well-being of sister nations and a gratifying readiness to 
make local sacrifices for the universal good. No nation, as no individual, is asked even by the 
loftiest altruistic code to love his neighbour better than, but only as, himself. We are 
progressing toward this coveted goal. 

"The conclusion of our work as an International Commission has been reached. The 
reports of the various countries represented have been laid before the House and discussed 
with ability and thoroughness. After careful examination Committees have reported on 
Trade Statistics; the Growth of the Poppy and production of Opium; Revenue Statistics, 
Tariffs, Excise, etc; Treaties and International Agreements. 

"In our resolutions based upon the evidence in hand we have touched various phases of 
the subject, though we do not pretend to have exhausted them. A complimentary resolution 
expressing sympathy with China in her task has been adopted; drastic measures for the 
suppression of the morphine habit and the gradual suppression of opium smoking, are advocated 
as a principle; three resolutions are aimed at correcting the abuse of opium and its derivatives 
in foreign Concessions and Settlements in China; in countries where opium is not prohibited 
icr other than medical purposes a revision of the existing systems of regulation is recommended 



82 International Opium Commission 

to the Governments concerned; each Delegation is urged to advise its own Government to 
investigate scientifically for itself the matter of anti-opium remedies, and the effect of opium 
and its products; International co-operation is advocated to prevent the smuggling of opium 
into countries where a prohibitory law prevails. 

"In two instances the Commission judged itself unable to consider questions brought 
forward on the ground that they were beyond its province of action; the first one being that 
of the scientific investigation of anti-opium remedies and of the properties and effects of opium 
and its products, which, however, was reached in another form as just indicated; and the 
second, that of a resolution which involved existing International Treaties and Agreements. 

"There is one phase of the subject which the casual reader of the resolutions might 
suppose we have not duly considered — the moral aspect. But we who have had this weighty 
problem under advisement know that such has not been the case. It has from time to time 
been on the lips of the various speakers and always, I incline to think, before the mind's eye of 
the whole assembly. All of us alike value character as the one indispensable possession of 
human life, and it is our undivided desire to take such measures as will safeguard the moral 
freedom of the young and undefiled, and make for the restoration of those who have lost their 
heritage through the evils connected with opium. I assert with confidence our sympathy has 
never flagged. 

" But sympathy in its earlier stages differs from its later embodiment. In its youth it 
spends much of its force in kindly emotion ; in its matured form it moves with balanced nerves 
and purposeful tread directly toward measures of succour and relief Indeed science considered 
in its practical bearings is a developed form of sympathy. Our immediate function has been 
to deal with the matter before us with a view to practical aid. We were, so to speak, the 
physician who has come to the bedside of the sick man, not to tell him he is sick but rather to 
consider how he may be made whole. The man in the street cannot understand what good 
the biologist in his laboratory is doing to the community, though all the while he is defending 
people from disease. Koch or Kitasato studying germs are at the same moment precluding 
the possibility of the widow's tears and the orphan's desolation. 

" Similarly, we have been working at the root of the matter. Behind the raw statistics 
and cold sentences of our deliberative language and of most of our resolutions stand the 
pitiable army of moral slaves, in whose behalf we have been labouring in order that they may 
gain the greatest of all gifts — moral freedom. We have not wasted effort in heaping epithets 
upon a patent evil. The calling a bad thing by a bad name with little or no argument is a 
powerful means of impressing the public with the conviction that they must rid themselves of 
it. Indeed, it is necessary to rob an evil of its good or tolerable reputation in order to destroy 
it. But the evil of the abuse of opium is too well-established to require of us any fresh execra- 
tions. Just as slavery reached a point when among its opponents it was no longer a mere 
question of morals or an academic theory but ' an actual perplexing problem continually 
appearing in every direction and in various forms,' so has it come to be with the evil before us, 
and we have, we trust, not wholly failed in carrying the problem a stage nearer its final solution. 
Much still remains to be done by our respective Governments and the nations which we 
represent. As we move out to meet our responsibility the appeal of one of the world's more 
recent heroes comes to us — ' Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith let us 
to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it.' " 

Monsieur Miyaoka moved a vote of thanks to the Secretaries in the following 
terms : — 

" With your permission and the indulgence of the members of the International Com- 
mission I beg to give expression to the sense of high appreciation in which we hold the 
services rendered by the Secretaries. It is unnecessary for me to commend to your attention 
the care, and the diligence, and the energy which they have brought to bear on the execution 
of their onerous duties. Owing to local circumstances beyond our control, these officers were 
compelled to rely for assistance upon a staff which, in proportion to the volume of work 
involved, must be pronounced to be inadequately small. In looking back upon the work 
which they have already accomplished and in looking upon what is now being done and what 
still remains to be done, we cannot be blind to the enthusiasm with which they and the mem- 
bers of their staff are applying themselves to their task. 

"In this connection I may also be permitted to remark that the call of various 
Delegations upon the good offices of the Secretaries have been both frequent and numerous. 
Those appeals to their assistance have been invariably responded to not only with the utmost 
courtesy on their part, but with that good-natured willingness which has commanded the 
admiration of all. I feel, therefore, confident that I am correctly interpreting the general 



Minutes ok Proceedings 83 

sentiment, when I venture to move that an expression of cordial thanks of the International 
Opium Commission may be tendered to the Secretaries and their staff, and that the fact may 
be recorded in the Minutes of our proceedings." 

The Chair declared the vote carried by acclamation. 

An informal discussion took place as to the advisability of making public the resolu- 
tions adopted by the Commission. Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN expressed, on behalf of his 
Delegation, a desire that the results arri\ed at should be communicated to the Press as soon 
as possible. He said that the whole of China was looking towards Shanghai, anxious to know 
the conclusions of the Commission, and he thought that, unless the House was of an entirely 
contrary opinion, some consideration might be shown to both the Press and the people 
of China. His Delegation were taking immediate steps to acquaint the Chinese Government 
with the substance of the resolutions that had been passed. 

The President thought that the matter might well be left to the Press Committee, 
who would take into consideration what Mr. T'ANG had said. 

Monsieur Ratard was of opinion that the resolutions should not be published until 
they had been submitted to, and had been approved of, by the various Governments represented. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith and Monsieur Miyaoka concurred with Monsieur 
Ratard's remarks. They thought that it would be an unusual and improper course to 
publish the resolutions before the Governments they represented had had an opportunity 
of perusing them. 

It was finally decided that publication of the resolutions should be deferred until 
authorised by the Government of each or of any country concerned. 

The Chair having expressed the thanks of the Commission to the Chinese Delegation 
for their hospitality in arranging for the accommodation of the Commission during it sittings, 
announced that the business of the House was concluded, and he declared that the Inter- 
national Opium Commission stood adjourned sine die. 

The proceedings terminated at 4.40 p.m. 

(Signed) Fred. W. Carey 
(Signed) Xavier de Laforcade 
Hon. Secretaries to the Intejnational Opium Commission. 

Shanghai, 22nd March, 1909. 



84 International Opium Commission 

The following are the Resolutions as adopted, in their revised form : — 
BE IT RESOLVED : 

1- Zbat the International Opium Commission recognises the unswerving sincerity of the 

Government of China in their efforts to eradicate the production and consumption of Opium throughout 

/ the Empire; the increasing body of pubUc opinion among their own subjects by which these efforts 

/ are being supported; and the real, though unequal, progress already made in a task which is one of the 

greatest magnitude. 

2. "JCbat in view of the action taken by the Government of China in suppressing the practice 
of Opium smoking, and by other Governments to the same end, the International Opium Commission 

/ recommends that each Delegation concerned move its own Government to take measures for the gradual 

suppression of the practice of Opium smoking in its own territories and possessions, with due regard to 
the varying circumstances of each country concerned. 

3. Ubat the International Opium Commission finds that the use of Opium in any form 
otherwise than for medical purposes is held by almost every participating country to be a matter for 
prohibition or for careful regulation ; and that each country in the administration of its system of regulation 
purports to be aiming, as opportunity offers, at progressively increasing stringency. In recording these 
conclusions the International Opium Commission recognises the wide variations between the conditions 
prevailing in the different countries, but it would urge on the attention of the Governments concerned 
the desirability of a re-examination of their systems of regulation in the light of the experience of other 
countries dealing with the same problem. 

4. "Jlbat the International Opium Commission finds that each Government represented has 
strict laws which are aimed directly or indirectly to prevent the smuggling of Opium, its alkaloids, 

./ derivatives and preparations into their respective territories; in the judgment of the International Opium 
Commission it is also the duty of all countries to adopt reasonable measures to prevent at ports of 
departure the Shipment of Opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations, to any country which 
prohibits the entry of any Opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations. 

5. 'Cbat the International Opium Commission finds that the unrestricted manufacture, sale and 
distribution of Morphine already constitute a grave danger, and that the Morphine habit shows signs 

/of spreading : the International Opium Commission, therefore, desires to urge strongly on all Governments 
that it is highly important that drastic measures should be taken by each Government in its own 
territories and possessions to control the manufacture, sale and distribution of this drug, and also of such 
other derivatives of Opium as may appear on scientific enquiry to be liable to similar abuse and productive 
of like ill effects. 

6. 'Cbat as the International Opium Commission is not constituted in such a manner as to 
permit the investigation from a scientific point of view of Anti-Opium remedies and of the properties 

\ and effects of Opium and its products, but deems such investigation to be of the highest importance, 

I / the International Opium Commission desires that each Delegation shall recommend this branch of the 
subject to its own Government for such action as that Government may think necessary. 

7. XTbat the International Opium Commission strongly urges all Governments possessing Con- 
/ cessions or Settlements in China, which have not yet taken effective action toward the closing of Opium 

Y divans in the said Concessions and Settlements, to take steps to that end, as soon as they may deem it 

possible, on the lines already adopted by several Governments. 

8. Xlbat the International Opium Commission recommends strongly that each Delegation move 
its Government to enter into negotiations with the Chinese Government with a view to effective and 
prompt measures being taken in the various foreign Concessions and Settlements in China for the prohi- 
bition of the trade and manufacture of such Anti-Opium remedies as contain Opium or its derivatives. 

9. TTbat the International Opium Commission recommends that each Delegation move its 
Government to apply its pharmacy laws to its subjects in the Consular districts. Concessions and Settle- 
ments in China. 

[Note. — The Portuguese Tielegation reserced its vote on these resolutions in every instance. 
With regard to the vote of the Italian T>elegation, attention is called to the following correspondence.] 



CORRESrONDENCE 8$ 

Shanghai, igth March, 1909. 

To Signor R. FARAONE, 

Delegate for Italy to the Inteinational Opium Commission. 

Dear Mr. Faraone, 

In accordance with the desire expressed by the President in his letter to you of the 
25th February, I now beg to send you for perusal a copy of the Minutes, and shall be glad if 
you will record your vote where necessary. I may draw your attention to the following : — 

Page 57: nth Session: Previous question moved by Mr. Miyaoka, during the discus- 
sion on Dr. Tenney's Resolution ; 

Page 60 : Dr. Rossler's Amendment to the third of the Resolutions put forward by the 
British Delegation ; 

Page 60 : The third of the British Resolutions ; 

Page 73 : 12th Session : Monsieur Ratard's Amendment to the Second of the Resolutions 
submitted by the Chinese Delegation. 

I am also enclosing a copy of the Resolutions as they were finally adopted by the 
•Commission. 

With your permission, I propose to insert this letter and your reply at the end of the 
■Minutes for the 14th Session. 

I remain, etc. 

(Signed) FRED. W. CAREY, 

Mou. Secretary to the International Opium. Commission. 



Shanghai, isth March, 1909. 

To THE SECRETARY of the 

International Opium Commission. 

Dear Mr. Carey, 

In reply to your letter of to-day's date, I beg to record my vote on the Resolutions 
adopted by the International Opium Commission, as follows : — 

nth Session (page 57): Mr. Miyaoka's 'previous question': No; 
nth Session (page 60): Dr. Rossler's Amendment: Aye; 
nth Session (page 60): Original Resolution: Aye. 

In explanation of my vote here, I may say that, it having been decided by a majority 
that the Commission was not so constituted as to permit the investigation from a scientific 
point of view of the properties and effects of opium and its products, I concur with Mr. 
Miyaoka's view that all that remains for us to do is to recommend that phase of the 
question to our respective Governments. 

I2th Session (page 73): Monsieur Ratard's Amendment: 

With reference to this Amendment, since the Resolution as finally adopted by the 
Commission entirely meets my views, it is obvious that I need not now consider any previous 
discussion pro or con. 

I agree to all other Resolutions as finally and unanimously adopted by the Commis- 
sion, and I shall be glad if you will insert this correspondence in the Minutes as you suggest. 

I remain, etc., 

(Signed) R. FARAONE, 
Delegate for Italy to the International Opium Commission. 



Commission Internationale de TOpium. 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCES-VERBAUX EN FRANgAIS. 



PREMIERE SEANCE. 
I Fevrier 1909. 

La Commission s'est leunie pour la premiere fois le ler Fevrier 1909, a Shanghai, dans le Palace- 
Hotel. Son Excellence Toan Fang, viceroi des Deux Kiang, sp^cialement nomme par rescrit imperial, 
souhaita la bienvenue aux d^i^gu^s dans une adresse qui fut ensuite r^p^tee en anglais par le taotai Wan 
Ping-tchoung. Le vice-roi, apres une r^f^rence a I'^dit imperial du 20 Septembre 1906, declare que la 
surface cultivee en pavot a deja 6i6 r^duite consid^rableraent, et que la consommation de I'opium a 
diminu6 de moitid. Son Excellence exprime I'opinion, qu'il ne faudra pas, pour la suppression totale de 
ropium, plus de deux ans, au lieu du d^lai entier de dix ans assign^. II indique la ndcessitd d'un 
monopole du gouvernenient, pour assurer le conUole plus effectif du mouvement et de la vente de 
I'opium ; mais il craint que I'dtablissement d'un pareil monopole ne soil contraire aux Trait^s et recom- 
mande cette question k I'attention de la Commission. Son Excellence termine en vantant les motifs de- 
bienveillance qui ont pousse le gouvernenient Americain a prendre I'initiative de cette Commission. 

Son Excellence se retire k iih.40, apres une remarque de M. Ratard, premier del^gud frangais au 
sujet de I'emploi de la langue frangaise, et la seance preliminaire de la Commission commence aussitot, 
le public 6tant exclus. 

Le Taotai Ling Yu-ling, premier delegue chinois propose comme president de la Commission, le 
T. R. Eveque Brent, chef de la delegation Araericaine. La proposition appuyde par Sir Cecil Clementi 
Smith, chef de la delegation britannique, est adoptee a I'unaniraite. 

Le T. U. Eveque Brent prend la presidence a iih.45 <^" matin. Dans une discours d'ouverture, 
il remercie les delegues de I'avoir choisi comme president. II s'excuse de son inexperience et sollicite 
leur collaboration pour I'aider k soutenir la responsabilit^ de sa position. Nous allons, dit-il, avoir a 
nous occuper d'une question importante et difficile; il faudra, pour arriver a une heureuse issue de nos 
travaux, du courage et de ia sinc^ritd. Tout grand probleme, d'apres son opinion, passe par deux, 
etapes : le premiere, de sentiment, parfois plus detach^e des faits que la question ne le comporterait. La 
seconde scientifique, froide analyse des faits. Le probleme pose devant la Commission est arrive- 
maintenant a cette seconde phase. Le President appuie sur ce point qu'ils sont reunis en Commission 
et non en Conference. II propose que toutes les discussions soint d^barrassees des sujets de controverse 
et que les questions a cote soient ^cartees. En conclusion, il rapelle aux deidguds qu'ils sont reunis avec 
I'id^e et I'espoir d'accomplir un travail qui vaudra le plus grand credit a leurs pays respectifs et dont 
ben^ficiera I'Humanite entieie. 

Sur la proposition du President, 

M. F. W. Carey, del^gu^ adjoint pour la Chine est nomme Secretaire, et M. L. De Gi^ter, 
secretaire adjoint de la Commission. 

Le President donne lecture de la liste des membres des diverses delegations dont les noms ont 
ete notifies au Gouvernement Americain. Monsieur Ratard, seconde par Monsieur Kleimenow, propose 
alors que les reunions n'aient lieu que I'apres-midi. Mais il est decide qu'un comite sera nornme pour 
discuter la question des heures des seances et les antres questions de procedure et de reglementation. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith propose que, vu I'importance de ce comite chaque delegation y soit 
representee par un de ses membres, le comite choisissant lui-meme sont president, (adopte). 

Le comite de procedure et de reglementation est alors compose comme suit: 

Etats Unis d'Amerique Dr. Hamilton Wkight. 

Austriche-Hongrie Dr. Kakl Brenaueh. 

Chine M. T'ang Kuo-an. 

France M. Breniek. 

AUemagne Dr. W Roessler. 

Grande-Bretapne M. R. Laidlaw, m.p. 

Italia M. Faraone 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VeRBAUX EN FrANQAIS. 87 

Japon M. MiYAOKA. 

Pays bas M. A. A. IJe Jongh. 

Portugal M. O. G. Potier. 

Russie M. Kleimknow. 

Siam M. Phya Sakdisinie, 

Sur la proposition de M. Potier, second^o par le Dr. Hamilton Wright, M. R. Laidlaw, M.P., est 
-^lu president de ce comit^. 

La stance est lev6 a. 1211.45. 



DEUXIEME SEANCE, 

2 Fevrier 1909. 

Le President ouvre la stance a, 211.30. 

Avant d'aborder les affaires inscrites a I'ordre du jour, Sir Cecil Clement! Smith, s'adressant au 
bureau, demande en son nom et au iiom des membres de ia Commission que le discours d'ouverture du 
President soit imprime in extenso et qu'il en soit fourni un exemplaire a chaque D^l^gu^. Le President 
accede a cette demande. (V. texte anglais de cc discours). 

Le proces-verbal de la prdc^dente reunion de la Commission est lu par le secretaire et adopts. 

Le President fait la declaration suivante : 

"En proclamant hier les nonis des Commissaires accr^dites, le Eureau a cru devoir 
" omettre ceux de deux membres de la delegation chinoise : S. E. Joei Tch'eng et S. E. Ts'ai-Nai- 
"Hoang; bien qu'ils soient duement designes par leur Gouvernement et portent des lettres du 
" VVai-ou-pou, leurs noms n'avaient pas ete notifies k la Puissance chargee des convocations. 
" Maintenant, cependant, une demande a ete faitepour que cette notification soit effectuee, en 
"sorte que la formalite necessaire pour placer ces deiegues dans une position reguliere sera 
"remplie ulterieurement." 

Le President donne lecture du t.eiegramme suivant regu le matin du President des Etats Unis : 
"J'exprime aux Commissaires qui sont reunis aujourd'hui mes meilleurs souhaits et ma 

conviction que leurs travaux seront de la plus haute importance en vue de la suppression du fleau de 

I'opium dans le monde entier." Signe : Theodore Roosevelt. 

Le secretaire donne lecture de nombreux teiegrammes adresses a la Commission par diverses 
societes d'education et de lutte contre I'opium dane les provinces du Kiangsou, Fokien, et Koangtoung 
(La copie en est annexee au chapitre Correspondance). 

Sur la proposition du Dr. Hamilton Wright il est decide qu'a I'avenir les teiegrammes ne 
presentant pas un caractere d'urgence adresses k la Commission, ne ser6nt pas his, mais qu'un nombre 
suffisant de copies en seront tires et distribues aux Deiegues pour leur information. 

Le Comite de Procedure et de Rfegiementation donne lecture de son rapport et des regies 
proposees : 

i) Le President sera designe par les termes " M. le President." 

2) Aucun Deiegue ne pourra prendre la parole sans I'autorisation du President. 

3) Chaque Delegation a son tour (alphabetiquement) deposera un rapport contenant ses donnees 
sur la question de Topium sur le Bureau de la Commission, sans discussion ni debat ; une sous-Com 
mission sera alors designee parmi les noms remis au President par les diverses Delegations, et les rapports 
dont il s'agit seront renvoyes a cette sous-Commission qui les discutera et fera son rapport k I'assembiee 
pieniere. La Commission nommera le president de la sous-Commission ; la sous-Commission nommera 
son rapporteur et ses secretaires. 

4) etc, 

Les Ragles i et 2 sont adoptees sans discussion. 

M. de Jongh propose d'amender la regie 3 en supprimant la seconde partie commengant par 
«' une sous-commission sera alors designee" eten la remplagant par la clause suivante: "La Commission 
Internationale siegera d'ordinaire en seance pienifere; une ou plusieurs sous-commissions pourront etre 
nommees quand il apparattra qu'une etude preiiminaire par un nombre limite d'experts est necessaire 
pour trailer avec succfes une partie speciale du probleme pose." 



88 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

L'amendement est soutenu par Sir Cecil Clementi Smith qui considere que la discussion de points- 
importants ne saurait etre conduite d'une fagon satisfaisante par aucun membre des d^idgations indivi- 
duellement. 

Apres une courte discussion ramendement de M. de Jongh est mis aux voix et vot^ par 15 
contre 10. 

La proposition, faite par Sir C. Clementi Smith, que les regies soient renvoy^es au Comity pour un. 
nouvel examen est acceptde. 

La Commission s'ajourne alors au 5 f^vrier a 11 heures du matin. 



TROISI^ME STANCE, 
5 Fevrier 1909. 

La Commission se reunit a 11 heures du matin ; le President annonce que le procfes-verbal de la- 
stance pr^cddente ne sera pas lu a moins de demande formelle. 

M. de (ii^ter ayant donn^ sa demission, M. de Laforcade est nommd secretaire adjoint pour 
le remplacer sur la proposition de M. Ratard, M. True est nomme stenographe officiel de la Commission. 

IJn Oomit^ des voies et moyens est forme; le President nomme pour en faire partie les deleguds 
suivants : MM. Bernauer, Faraone, Kleimenow, Potier et Katard; la fonction de ce Comite sera 
d'autoriser toutes les depenses support^es par la Commission dans son ensemble et d'aviser aux moyens 
de couvrir ces depenses. Les communications sur ce sujet devront etre adressees au president du 
Comit^ par les chefs des delegations. 

Le President, prenant le rapport de la Conference de la Paix tenue a la Haye en 1907, lit des 
extraits des instructions donnees par le Secretaire d'Etat americain aux deiegues representant son 
Gouvernement a cette Conference. 11 rappele aux deiegues qu'ils ne sont ni Envoyes extraordinaires ni 
Ministres pienipotentiaires ; qu'il a ete clairement entendu qu'aucun des Gouvernements representes ne 
serait tenu d'accepter les oojiclusions, ou d'agir selon les recommandations de la Commission; qu'en> 
consequence les vues qu'ils pourraient exprimer individuellement ou coUectivement, pendant le cours de 
cette enquete, n'oliligeraient en rien leurs Gouvernements. C'est leur devoir d'examiner a fond toute 
question qui sera presentee devant eux, et, ce faisant d'exprimer leur opinion en toute liberte ; autrement 
il serait presque impossible d'arriver a aucune solution pratique et la Commission resterait sans utiliie. 

Les noms suivants ayant ete notifies a la Puissance chargee des convocations sont ajoutes a la 
liste officielle des membres dument accrediies des Delegations: 

Wu-PAO-YEN deiegue adjoint pour la Chine 

F. A. Carl do. do. 

J. L. Chalmers do. do. 

F. W. Carey do. do. 

C. Clementi assesseur pour la Grande-Bretagne 

W. D. Darnes do. do. 

Le Comite de reglementation et de procedure a fait distribuer le texte de regies qu'il a revues et 
qui sont maiiitenant ainsi congues : 

I. — Le president sera designe par les termes: M. le Piesident 

2. — Aucun deiegue ne pourra prendre la parole sans I'autorisation du president. 

3. — En cas de vote, chaque delegation n'aura qu'une voix. En cas de partage egal des voix, 
le President aura une voix decisive. 

4. — Immediatement apres I'adoption des presentes regies, le President invitera les delegations 
prenant part k la Commission Internationale de I'opium, k presenter leurs rapports concernant les divers 
aspects de la question de I'opium dans les territoires et dependances de leurs pays respectifs. 

5.— Chaque delegation par ordre alphabetique deposera alors devant la Commission sans 
discussion ni debat un rapport contenant ses donnees sur la question de I'opium. 

6. — Un temps sufifisant sera accorde aux membres de la Commission en general, pour I'examen 
des rapports presentes. 

7. — Bien que la Commission doive en general sieger in pleno, un ou plusieurs Comites pourront 
etre nommees en vue d'etudier les rapports dont il est question aux articles 4, 5 et 6, ou toute partie 
specifiee de ceux-ci, lorsqu'il apparaitra qu'une etude preiiminaire par un nombre limite d'experts 
est necessaire pour arriver a une conclusion au sujet d'un probleme pose. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VerBAUX EN FraN^AIS. 89 

8. — Tout comite ainsi nomm^ pour I'elude ddtaillee d'un rnpport ou d'une partie de rapport 
devra, a la fin de ses travaux, exposer le rdsultat de son examen a la Commission en stance pl^niere et la 
discussion du rapport de ce comity sera alors mise a I'ordre du jour. 

9. — Le nombre et la constitution des Coniites seront d^cid^s en tout cas par la Commission en 
stance pl^nibre, mais cliaque Coiiiild sera autoris^ a completer sa propre organisation. 

10. — Les Comii^s seront formes de la fagon suivaiUe : 

Cliaque delegation remettra le nom d'un de ses membres au President qui, parmi ces noms, 
choisira le nombre n^cessaire pour former chacun des Comiies. 

II.— Toute proposition soumise a la C<immission devra etre remise par ^crit au President de la 
Commission (ou du Comit6) et la copie en sera fournie sur demande a chaque Delegation. 

12. — Le public ne sera pas admis aux stances de la Commission, mais les communications 
regardant la marche generale des travaux qu'il paraitra utile ou expedient de rendre publiques seront 
faites a la Presse par un Comit^ de trois membres 6\u a cet ellet. 

13. — Les proces-verba\ix des seances pldnieres de la Commission donneront un resume succinct 
des deliberations; une epreuve en sera distribuee en temps opportun aux membres de la Commission ; les 
proces-verbaux ne seront pas lus au commencement des seances, a moins qu'il n'en soit fait expressement 
la demande. Chaque deie^^ue aura cependant le droit de demander I'insertion en entier de ses 
declarations speciales conformement au texte qu'il en deiivrera au Secretaire, et de faire des observations 
au sujet des proces-verl aux. 

14. — La langue anglaise sera reconnue comma la langue officielle de la Commission. Le 
secretaire, avec le consentement de I'orateur, veillera a ce que tout discours prononce dans une autre 
langue soit lesume oralement en anglais. 

15. — Chaque Delegation aura le droit de se faire assister pendant les seances de la Commission 
par un ' secietaire de delegation" pourvu que ce secretaire exerce des fonctions reelles au service de son 
gouvernement. Exception pourra etre faite a celte regie pour les Delegations des pays n'ayant pas en 
Chine de represenlants Diplomatiques ou Consulaires ; iirais en aucuri cas il ne sera admis de secretaire 
qui ne soit bona fide. Les noms des secretaires de delegations devront etre notifies au Bureau. 

16. — Sauf decision contraire de la Commission les seances auront lieu de loh. 30 a midi 30 et de 
deux heures a cinq heures de I'apres midi, tous les jours excepte les samedis et dimanches. 

M. Laidlaw (Presidejit du Comite) en presentant ce nouveau, texte, propose que, jusqii'a ce 
que ces regies aient ete accepiees (ju votees chaque deiegue conserve son droit de vote individuel. 

Comme ainendement a cette proposition le Dr. Hamilton Wright propose que "les regies soient 
prises en consideration et votees dans I'ordre du rapport presente par le Comite, et que chaque regie 
entre en application aussitot adoptee." Aprfes une longue discussion la proposition de M. Laidlaw est 
adoptee. 

Les regies i et 2 ayant deja ete acceptees a la seance precedenle, la regie 3 vient en discussion. 
AL Ratard propose d'ajouter les mots "en matiere de procedure et de discipline" et la regie, ainsi 
amendee, est adoptee. 

Les regies suivantes sont adoptees sans discussion : nos. 3, 4, 11, 12, 13, et 15. 

La regie 5 est acceptee avec I'addition suivante proposee par Sir C. Clementi Smith : "Le 
President pourra, pour des motifs reconnus valables autoriser un deiai dans la remise desdits rapports." 

.'■ir C. Clementi Smith propose que la regie 6 soit alteree et lue comme suit: "Un exemplaire 
de chaque rapport sera fourni a chaque membre de la Commission et un temps suffisant sera donne aux 

; par la suite le President invii 
te" (adopte sans discussion). 



membres de la Commission en general pour I'examen de ce rapport ; par la suite le President invitera 
a Commission a discuter tout rapport qui se trouvera piet pour I'enquete 



M. Roessler propose comme amenden)ent a In regie 7 que les mots "bien que la Commission 
doive en general sieger iii pleno" soient supprimes et que le mot "experts" soit remplace par "deiegues." 
Apres avoir repousse un nouvel amendement propose par M. de Jongh la Commission adopte la regie, 
amendee selon la proposition de M. Roessler. 

Sir C. Clementi Smiih propose I'addition suivante a la rfegle 10: "lout deiegue qui n'est pas 
membre lui-meme d'un Comite pourra assister aux seances de ce Comite sans prendre part a ses delibera- 
tions." La ifegle est adoptee avec cette addition. 

Sur la proposition de M. Ratard la regie 14 est alteree et doit se lire ainsi d'apres le texte adopte: 
"L'anglais et le fr;in§ais seront reconnus en principe comme langues de la Commission et les mesiires 
seront prises pour que les deliberations soient traduites, si necessaire, et que les procbs-verbaux soien 
rediges dans les deux langues." 

En ce qui concerne la regie 16 le Dr. Tenney propose que la Commission sifege les samedis 
matin, mais la proposition, mise aux voix, est repoussee. 



go Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

La Commission s'ajourne alors a deux heures de I'apres-midi. 

L'ensemble des Regies adoptees apres cette discussion forme le texte suivant : 

I. — Le president sera design^ par les termes : M. le President. 

2. — Aucun delegue ne pourra prendre la parole sans I'autorisation du president. 

3 — En cas de vote, chaque d^ldgation n'aura qu'une voix. Pour les questions de procedure 
et de discipline, en cas de partage 6ga.\ des voix, le President aura una voix decisive. 

4. — Immddiatement aprfes I'adoption des presentes regies, le President invitera les Delegations 
prenant part k la Commission inteinationale de I'opium, a presenter leurs rapports concernant les divers 
aspects de la question de Topium dans les tenitoires et ddpendances de leurs pays respectifs. 

5. — Chaque Delegation par ordre alphab^tique deposera alors devant la Commission sans 
discussion ni d^bat un rapport contenant ses donn^es sur la question de I'opium. Le President pourra, 
pour motifs reconnus valables, autoriser un delai dans la remise desdits rapports. 

6. — Un exemplaire de chaque rapport sera fourni a chaque memhre de la Commission et un 
temps sufifisant sera accord^ aux membres de la Commission en general, pour I'examen de ce rapport : 
par la suite, la President invitera la Commission a discuter tout rapport qui se trouvera pret pour 
I'enquete. 

7. — Un ou plusieurs Comites pourront etre nommes en vue d'^tudier les rapports dont il est 
question aux articles 4, 5 et 6, ou toute partie sp^cifie de ceux-ci, lorsqu'il apparaitra qu'une etude 
preiiminaire par un nombre limits de del^gues est necessaire pour arriver a une conclusion au sujet d'uii 
probleme pos6. 

8. — Tout comite ainsi nomme pour I'etude detainee d'un rapport ou d'une partie de rapport 
devra, a la fin de ses travaux, exposer le rdsultat de son examen a la Commission en stance pl^nibre et 
la discussion du rapport de ce comite sera alors mise a I'ordre du jour. 

9. — Le nombre et la constitution des Comites seront decides en tout cas par la Commission en 
seance pleniere, mais chaque Comite sera autorise a completer sa propre organisation. 

10. — Les Comit6s seront formes de la fa^on suivante : — Chaque Delegation remettra le nom d'un 
de ses membres au President qui, parmi ces noms, choisira le nombre necessaire pour former chacun des 
Comites; tout deiegue qui n'est pas membre lui-meme d'un Comite pourra assister aux seances de ce 
Comite sans prendre part a ses deliberations. 

II. — Toute proposition soumise k la Commission devra etre remise par ecrit au President de la 
Commission (ou du Comite) et la copie en sera fournie sur deniande a chaque Delegation. 

12. — Le public ne sera pas admis aux seances de la Commission, mais les communications 
regardant la raarche generale des travaux qu'il paraitra utile ou expedient de rendre publiques seront 
faites a la Presse par un Comite de trois membres eiu a cet effet, 

13. — Les procbs-verbaux des seances pieniferes de la Commission donneront un resume succinct 
des deliberations; une epreuve en sera distribuee en temps opportun aux membres de la Commission; 
les procbs-verbaux ne seront pas lus au commencement des seances, a moins qu'il n'en soit fait 
expressement la demande. Chaque deiegue aura cependant le droit de demander I'insertion en entier 
de ses declarations speciales conformement au texte qu'il en deiivrera au Secretaire, et de faire des 
observations au sujet des proces-verbaux. 

14. — L'anglais et le frangais seront reconnus en principe comme langues de la Commission, et 
les mesures seront prises pour que les deliberations soient traduites, si necessaire, et que les proces- 
verbaux soient rediges dans les deux langues. 

15. — Chaque Delegation aura le droit de se faire assister pendant les seances de la Commission 
par un "secretaire de delegation" pourvu que ce secretaire exerce des fonctions reelles au service de 
son Gouvernement. Exception pourra etre faite a cette regie pour les Delegations des pays n'ayant pas 
en Chine de representants Diplomatiques ou Consulaires; mais en aucun cas il ne sera admis de 
secretaire qui ne soit " boni fide." Les noms des secretaires de delegations devront etre notifies au 
Bureau. 

16. — Sauf decision contraire de la Commission les seances auront lieu de loh. 30 a midi 30 et 
de deux heures a cinq heures de I'apres midi, tous les jours excepte les samedis et dimanchcs. 

A la reprise les deiegues suivants sont designes par le President pour faire partie du Comite de 
Presse : Sir A, Hosie, Dr. Takaki, et M. Brenier. 

La delegation des Etats-Unis presente alors son rapport en conformite des regies 4 et c • le 
President chde temporairement son fauteuil a Sir C. Clement! Smith. Le Dr. H. Wright lit'un 
sommaire du rapport pour les Etats-Unis et le district de Columbia. Le T. R, Eveque Brent lit ensuite 
son rapport sur la question de I'opium aux Philippines. 

Sir C. Clementi Smith donne lecture des rapports pour la Grande Bretagne, I'Australie, Hong- 
kong, Ceylon, les Etablissements du Detroit et Wei-Hai-Wei. 

M. Tsunejiro Miyaoka presente les rapports pour le Japon et Formose. II est decide que les 
questions de fait relatives k ces rapports seront pnsees seulement aprfes que ceux-ci auront p'u etre 
etudies suffisamment, et la seance est levee a 4h. 30. de I'aprfes-midi. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VeRBAUX EN FrAN^AIS. Ol 

QUATRIEME STANCE, 
8 Fevrier 1909. 

Le President monte a son fauteuil a loh 30 du matin. M. Miyaoka appelle rattention sur une 
ambiguity dans le rapport sur le Japon, k la page 27, i I'article achats et ventes. Les quantil($s sont, dit- 
il, donnees en kilogrammes avec trois chiffres ddcimaux. 

Le Dr. Tenney demande si la D6\iga.iion japonaise a I'intention de presenter uti rapport sur la 
question de I'opium en Corde. M. Miyaoka rdpond que la Cor^e a ^te omise du rapport par mdgarde 
mais qu'une enquete se poursuit actuellement et que les renseigneraents necessaires seront donnas 
ult^rieurement. (V. rapport japonaiSj in Fine.) 

Le President fait remarquer que les questions du genre de celle que vient de poser le Dr. Tenney 
doivent etre remises par ecrit au President. 

M. Tang-kouo-an presente un rapport sur I'opium en Chine et dans un discours durant pres d'une 
heure et demie traite verbalement des sujeis compris sous differentes rubriques : culture de I'opium ; 
production ; consommation ; morphine ; remfedes centre I'opium ; mesures centre Topium. II explique 
les contradictions qui apparaissent entre les estimations de Morse, de Leech, des douanes. En ce qui 
concerne les chiffres donnes par le bureau des Finances il declare qu'environ 25% de I'opium produit en 
Chine dchappe a Timpot et qu'un tiers seulenient des taxes pergues revient au Tresor Imperial, les deux 
autres tiers etant retenus par les differentes Provinces pour des besoins d'administration locale, Au sujet 
des chiffres donnes pour la consommation, il reconnait que I'estimation a 50 millions de la population 
adulte male peut etre considdree comme inferieure a la r^alite, mais le nombre exact importe peu : aucune 
interpretation des statistiques ne saurait changer le fait que plus de 600,000 piculs d'opium ont 6t6 
consommes annuellement jusqu'en 1909. 

M. T'ang considere que, dans I'ensemble, la situation de la Chine au point de vue du fleau de 
I'opium est reellement encourageante, et il conclut en exprimant I'espoir que le mouvement dont les 
regrettes Souverains de la Chine ont pris I'initiative par le memorable ^dit du 20 septembre 1906 se 
terminera par un plein succbs. 

Le Dr. Roessler presente ensuite le rapport pour I'Allemagne, y compris Kiao-tchdou, en notant 
que fort heureusement le probleme de I'opium n'est grave ni en Allemagne ni k Kiao-tchdou. 

Le President annonce que I'Amerique, le Japon, la Perse, la France et la Chine ont notifid au 
Bureau les noms de ieurs "Secretaires de delegation" conformement a I'art. 15 du Reglement de 
Procedure. 

M. de Jongh donne alors lecture d'un memorandum concernant le Monopole de I'opium aux 
Indes Neerlandaises. 

La Commission s'ajourne a midi 30. 

A la reprise de la seance a deux heures du soir M. Miyaoka propose la resolution suivante : 
"Autantque possible avis prealable des rapports, questions ou propositions a soumettre et des 
"discours ou remarques a faire sera donne au President de fagon a mettre celui-ci en mesure d'annoncer 
" avant la fin de chaque seance quel ordre d'affaires la Commission aura a traiter dans sa prochaine 
"seance." 

Pendant la courte discussion qui suit Sir Cecil Clementi Smith suggere que les mots "discours et 
remarques " soient retranches de cette resolution; M. Ratard pense de meme qu'il est impossible de 
savoir a I'avance la nature des discours que Ton peut-etre amene a prononcer. Le Dr. Hamilton Wright 
parle en faveur de la resolution qui, mise aux voix, est repoussee. 

A trois heures, apres avoir ecoute un rapport sur la question de I'opium au Siam, presente par 
Phya Sakdisinie, la Commission se separe en renvoyant la prochaine seance au mercredi 10 fevrier. 



CINQUIEME STANCE, 
10 Fevrier 1909. 



A Dix heures trente, le President monte a son fauteuil et ouvre la seance. 

M. J. B. Brunyate presente un rapport sur I'opium et la morphine aux Lides Anglaises et en 
Birmanie, en donnant verbalement ses commentaires sur les points les plus importants. 



92 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

Parlaiit d'abord de la Morphine, M. Brunyate declare que sa diffusion, toute re'cente aux Indes, 
at moins rapide que celle de la cocaine, a (ite arretee, aussitot que le Gouvernement en a eu connaissance, 
par des mesures regletnentaire^ tres sevetes. Ciiaque individu ne pent posseder l^galement que lo grains 
de morphine aux Indes et 5 grains en Birmanie. Les medecins et les pharmaciens eux-memes ne peuvent 
posseder la drogue qu'en se soutnettant a des reglements tths stricts. 

Passant ensuite a I'opium, M. Brunyate fait une distinction fondamentale entre celui qui est 
produit dans les territoires soumis au controle direct du Gouvernement et celui qui est produit dans ceux 
des Etats Indigbnes qui out conserve le droit de cultiver le pavot. Pour le premier, le Gouvernement 
peut prendre et a d6ja pris des mesures restreignant la culture; pour le second, son action se borne a 
maintenir I'exportation dans les limites permises. La difficult^ dans les Etats de Malwa est de trouver 
une culture remunerative a substituer a I'opium, et cela dans un delai tres rapproch^, car les stocks 
accumules suffisent a fournir les quantites necessaires a I'exportation, sans production nouvelle, pendant 
la majeure partie de la periode de 10 ans pr^vue par I'arrangement conclu avec la Chine. 

De plus, I'opium du Bengale (Patna et Benares) est achet^ aux cultivateurs pourvus de licences 
par le Gouvernement qui se charge aussi de la preparation de la drogue; il n'y a done pas d'intdrets 
commerciaux priv^s jusqu'au moment de la vente a Calcutta pour I'exportation on pour la consommatlon 
dans les Indes. En ce qui concerne I'opium de Malwa, au contraire, de grands intdrets commerciaux 
sent en jeu depuis le moment ou la drogue sort des mains du cultivateur jusqu' a celui ou il est concentre 
entre les mains de quelques grandes maisons de Bombay qui en font ensuite la distribution dans tout 
I'Extreme-Orient. 

M. Brunyate fait remarquer ensuite que les chiffres donnas pour I'exportation ne doivent pas faire 
pr^juger dc I'avenir puisque I'Arrangement du ler Janvier 1908 avec la Chine prevoit, dans I'exportation 
vers cette contr^e une dimmution de 5.100 caisses par an pendant trois ans et meme pendant 10 ans si le 
Gouvernement chinois arrive lui-meme a diminuer dans la meme proportion la production locale et 
I'importation de I'opium turc et persan. A la fin de ces 10 annees I'exportation de I'opium indien vers 
d'autres pays que la Chine resterait limitee a 16.000 caisses par an. Cet Arrangement a 6t6 accept^ 
avec reconnaissance par le Gouvernement chinois qui, apres une annee d'experience, yient d'en exprimer 
toute sa satisfaction au Ministre de Grande-Bretagne a Pekin. 

M. Brunyate donne ensuite le sommaire des mesures prises pour controler et reglenienter la 
possession et la consommatlon individuelle de I'opium depuis et y compris l'Opium act de 1878. L'opium 
est generalement avale a I'dtat cru plutot que fume aux Indes; il est aussi employ^ dans certaines 
ceremonies comme un accessoire indispensable. 

Apres avoir anlys^ les statistiques de la consommatlon et montrd les raisons de I'augmentation 
apparente des deux ou trois dernieres annees (contrebaride a destination de la Birmanie ou une politique 
prohibitive avait 6i6 inauguree en ce qui concerne les Birmans) M. Brunyate decrit les Stapes de la 
politique prohibitive adoptee par le Gouvernement de Birmanie et les resultats obtenus. Rapide 
diminution, puis augmentation plus rapide encore de la consommation jusqu'a ces dernieres annees ou 
la tendance est decidement a la diminution grice aux mesures prises pour determiner la consommation 
reelle de chaque consommateur et pour limiter a leurs besoins personnels les quantites qui peuvent leur 
etre ddlivrees. Les statistiques des prisons indiquent d'une fa^on approximative la proportion des 
Birmans qui ont conserve, malgre la prohibition, I'habitude de I'opium: cette proportion ddcroit surtout 
depuis 1902, epoque a laquelle ont ete prises les mesures ci-dessus indiquees. 

M. Brunyate indique ensuite I'importance des revenus tires de I'opium, pour certains Etats 
Indigenes d'abord et pour le Gouvernement de I'lnde lui-meme. Ce dernier tire de I'opium environ 
;^i. 000.000 pour la consommation interieure et ^3.750.000 pour I'exportation; de ce chiffre un peu 
moins de _;^3.ooo.ooo sont dues a I'exportation vers la Chine. 

En terminant, M. Brunyate cite les paroles prononcees par S.E. le Comte de Minto, Vice-Roi des 
Indes, au cours de la discussion du budget des Indes, au sujet de I'Arrangement, alors en projet, avec la 
Chine: 

"... .Nous nesaurions, sous pretextedepertederecettes,refuserd'aiderlaChine. J'admetsque 
la Chine s'est atteiee k une tache qui risque d'etre au-dessus de ses forces, et que, en acceptant la reduction 
"des importations provenant des Indes, nous avons parfaitement le droit de demander une preuve 
" satisfaisante que la Chine a, de son cote, reduit sa production interieure d'opium. Mais, malgre 
" la perspective d'une grandes perte de recettes, j'espere que nous pouvons accepter cette vue que, pourvu 
" que la periode de transition s'etende sur un nombre sufiisant d'annees, nous n'avons pas k apprehender 
" un desastre financier." 

La seance est levee a midi 45 et reprise k 2h 15 de I'apres-midi. 

M. Ratard donne lecture en francais d'un rapport sur I'importation de I'opium et de ses derives 
en France. M. Brenier donne la traduction anglaise de ce document; il en resulte que les statistiques 
officielles demontrent le peu d'importance du probleme de I'opium en ce qui concerne la France 
proprement dite. 

M. Ratard fait ensuite quelques remarques sur les mesures restrictives adoptees par le Conseil 
d' Administration Municipale de la Concession frangaise pour supprimer I'opiomanie a la suite de la 
promulgation des Edits contre I'opium. II fut considere comme peu pratique de fermer les fumeries 
joutes enregistrees ofificiellement, aussi longtemps que la vente de la drogue ne serait pas interdite, car' 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCES-VeRBAUX EN FrAN^AIS. 93 

entre autres considerations, IfiS dangers d'incendie augmeiiteraienten proportion du nombre du fumeurs, 
faisant usage de lampes dans leurs propres maisons. En consequence le plan adopts fut d'augmenter- 
annuellement les taxes payables par les fumeries enregistrees (d'aprfes le nomiire de lits) de fa.9on a, 
aniener la fermeture automatiqiie de ces dtablissements eii diminuant leurs benefices. La taxe a deja 
616 doublee deux fois en deux ann^es, le resultat etant une diminution de 57„ dans le norabre des 
etablissements et de 2S°/o dans le nombre des lits utilises. 

M. Brenier depose ensuite un rapport sur la question de I'opium en Indochine frangaise et donne 
un court re-juai6 des points qui y sont traites. 11 mentionne que I'importation la manufacture et la vente' 
de I'opium sont I'objet d'un monopole d'Etat. II ii'y a pratiquement pas de culture de pavot en 
Indochine except^ dans les districts de la froiitiere chinoise dont la production est meme insignifiante. 
En general le sol ec les conditions locales du Tonkin sont peu favorables a cette culture. La', 
consommation est presque exclusivement bornde aux riches classes annamites ou chinoise. Le revenu 
tire de I'opium constitue ^ du budget de la Colonie. 

Un rapport sur la question de I'opium a Macao est presente ensuite par M. G. O. Potier qui 
promet de fournir en outre, aussitot qu'il les aura revues, les informations concernant le Portugal 
lui-meme et ses autres Colonies. 

AL Jongh propose la resolution suivante; que " Dans I'article 16 du Reglement de procedure les 
" mots 2I1 30 a 5 heures soient substitues aux mots 2h a. 5 heures." 

La proposition soutenue par M. Ratard est adoptee a I'unanimiid des Delegations moins une. 

A 3h 30 Sir C. Clementi Smith propose un ajournement jusqu'au vendredi 12 fevrier afin de 
permettre aux delegations d'etudier les rapports qu'elles ont regus. 

L:i Commission ayant approuve cette suggestion, M. Laidlaw pose aux Delegations japonaise, 
chinoise et neelandaise phisieurs questions auxquelles il sera repondu uUerieurement et la seance est levee., 

N.B. — Les questions poshes au cours de seances et les reponses qui leur ont ete donnees sont reproduites a la suite 
de chacun des Rapports qu'elles concernent dans le Vol. II. 



SIXIEME SEANCE, 
12 Fevrier 1909. 

Le President ouvre la seance a loh. 30 du matin. 

M. Bernaner, Deiegue de I'Autriche-Hongrie, donne lecture d'un rapport concernant la question 
de I'opium et de la morphine dans cette contree, oil le problfeme ne s'est jamais pose avec beaucoup 
d'acuite. 

M. Rizaeff presente ensuite un rapport sur I'opium en Perse. La culture, la production et 
I'exportation ont une certaine importance dans ce pays, mais les fumeurs, peu nombreux, sont recrutes 
presque exclusivement dans les basses classes de la population, et ne jouissent que d'une mediocre consi- 
deration. II ne paralt pas que Ton doive redouter une grande extension de I'opiomanie en Perse. 

M. Faraone propose alors en son nom et au nom de la Delegation russe d'amender I'article 5 
du reglement de procedure en ajoutantin fine les mots "En attendant le depot de ceux-ci la Commission 
pourra alors passer outre et continner ses travaux." 

Cette proposition est adoptee. 

L'ordre du jour appelle la discussion du rapport de la Delegation chinoise. 

Sir Alexander Hosie, dans un discours dont le texte est publie in extenso dans le corps des 
minutes anglaises (V. la premiere partie de ce volume), presente ses observations sur ce rapport. 

II se declare tout d'abord en parfaite sympathie avec le gouvernement chinois dans ses efforts 
pour supprimer la culture du pavot et la consommation de I'opium dans son Empire, et exprime I'espoir 
que les critiques faites par lui ne seront pas attribuees a un esprit de denigrement mais bien a son desir 
d'assister la Chine dans sa tache en aidant, dans la mesure de ses forces, h. faire la lumiere sur certains 
points resies obscurs. 

M. Tang a, dit-il, desarme les critiques en avouant qu'il n'a pas ete possible de se procurer des 
statistiques serieuses et completes de I'etendue des surfaces cultivees en pavot ou du nombre des fumeurs, 
malgre les ordres contenus ace sujet dans le decret Imperial du 26 juin 1907 et dans le rfeglement du 23 
raai 1908. II aurait pu avec tout autant de raison faire une declaration semblable en ce qui concerne la 
production d'opium ; la, cependant, une tentative a ete faite pour fournir des chiffres comparatifs entre 
1906 et 1908; mais I'estimation donnee perd beaucoup de sa valeur si Ton admet, avec le Rapport lui- 
meme, que pour les provinces de I'interieur, celles qui produisent le plus d'opium, elle n'est qu'un travail 



94 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

morcel^. Les efforts pour donner le nombre des fumeurs et sa proportion avec la population d'adultes 
males, bas6s sur des chiffres absolument incertains, ne peuvent donner ^galement qu'un r^sultat sans 
valeur. 

Avant de passer a la production et a la consommation, I'orateur critique les tableaux donnes aux 
pages 5 et 6 du Memorandum chinois, d'ou r^sulterait que les seules provinces ou la consommation de 
I'opium Stranger aurait augment^ en igo8 seraient le Kiangsi et le Nganhouei ; une fois entr^ en Chine 
I'opium peut fort bien avoir passd d'une province a I'autre sans que ces mouvements aient pu etre 
controles par les Douanes Maritimes Imperiales. 

Les chiffres ties bas donnas a la page lo du memorandum comme reprdsentant le revenu tir^ de 
I'opium chinois pourraient conduire a de graves erreurs d'interpiitation car ils n'indiquent que la taxation 
sur cetle drogue effectuee par les soins des Douanes Maritimes Imperiales, et nous savons que rien qu'a 
Ichang il est pergu sur I'opium descendant de la Haute Valine du Yangtse un total de 5.960.105 kouping 
taels, soit plus que les recettes totales sur I'opium import^ de I'^tranger pendant la meme annee. La 
Delegation Chinoise peut-elle fournir a la Commission le chiffre total de la taxation sur I'opium 
indigene pendant une des dernieres anndes ? 

En ce qui concerne la production, les estimations donnees comme rapport^es par les Douanes en 
1906 et 1908 paraissent bein avoir et^ compildes a une seule et meme ^poque, a la fin de 1908; et Yon 
ne saurait attacher grande valeur au raisonnement par lequel on nous afifirme qu'il y a eu une reduction, 
dans une proportion d^terminee, des surfaces cultivdes, alors que I'dtenduede ces surfaces reste inconnue. 
C'est par de pareils raisonnements que I'on arrive a declarer que la production de I'opium chinois a 6t6 
diminude de 37% entre 1906 et 1908. Sir A. Hosie doute que ces conclusions paraissent satisfaisantes 
a aucune Soci^te de Statistiques occidentale. 

Dans les extraits de T61dgrammes annexes au Rapport, il est dit que la culture de I'opium a ^t^ 
entierement supprimde dans le Fengtien. Or le pavot, en Mandcliourie, se cultive I'^l^ ; il sera done 
temps, apres I'epoque des semailles, de dire si la culture est supprim^e pour I'annde 3909. Pour 
le Shantung le chiffre de la production donn^ par le Gouverneur est de 1.482 piculs et celui que 
donne la Douane est de 12.000; on peut croire que les mesures ndcessaires pour abolir la produc- 
tion seraient diff^rentes dans I'un ou I'autre cas. Les chiffres donnas tant sur la production que sur la 
reduction de celle-ci dans le Rapport chinois ne sauraient done etre pris comme une base s^rieuse. 

Sir A. Hosie critique enfin les estimations donnees par le meme Rapport au sujet du nombre des- 
fumeurs et de leur proportion en regard de la population male adulte et demontre rimpossibilit^ de se 
fier aux chiffres donnas. Quoi qu'il en soit, dit-il, le fait reste ^tabli et ne doit pas etre perdu de vue 
que I'opium est un fleau pour la Chine et que le seul moyen d'en gu^rir est de supprimer la tentation. 

Terminant son discours, il rdpete que ses observations ne precedent nuUement d'un esprit de 
d^nigrement, et reconnait qu'un certain progres a ddjk ete atteint dans plusieuis provinces. Beaucoup 
reste a faire mais le Gouvernerrjent Chinois, dont la sincdrit6 ne fait pas question, peut etre assur^ qu'il a 
toute la sympathie de la Delegation Britannique et de la Commission dans ses efforts pour supprimer le 
fl^au de I'opium. 

Sir A. Hosie, pose des questions ^crites precises, au sujet de la surface actuellement cultivee- 
en pavot, du nombre des fumeurs dans les differentes provinces, etc. (Cf. Vol. II, a la suite du Rapport 
Chinois). 

M. Laidlaw retire alors les questions d^ja posees par lui a la Delegation Chinoise, et qui se 
confondent avec les nouvelles questions plus nettes de Sir A. Hosie. 

Sir C. Cletnenti Smith s'eleve contre Texag^raiion de certaines estimations concernant la contre- 
bande d'opium entre Hongkong et la Chine maintenant ou avant la creation des nouveaux postes des 
Douanes Imperiales. 

M. Ratard et M. Brenier posent deux questions relatives aux taxes de likin sur I'opium, et au. 
nom des districts du Szechouen oil la culture de I'opium aurait cess^. 

Un des D^legues Chinois n'ayaiit pu assister a la seance k cause d'une indisposition les reponses 
aux questions et remarques ci-dessus est letnise a plus tard. 

M. Miyaoka et de Jongh, et Sir C. Clementi Smith d^clarent qu'ils ont demand^ t^legraphique- 
ment les informations necessaires en vue de repondre aux questions qui leur ont et^ pos<Jes. 

M. Miyaoka propose que "d^sormais les questions relatives aux rapports soient poshes par ^crit 
et que copie en soit fournie aux Delegations par les secretaires." M. Ratard demande que les "riponses" 
soient faites et communiquees de la meme maniere. Ces propositions sont adoptees, etant bien entendu, 
sur I'observation faite par Sir C. Clementi Smith, que le President aura le pouvoir de ne faire appliquer 
cette rfegle que dans la mesure ou elle ne sera pas de nature a retarder d'une facon exageree les travaux 
de la Commission, et lorsqu'il lui paraitra que le compte rendu stenographique serait insuffisant. 

II est decide que la discussion du rapport de la Delegation neerlandaise sera mise k I'ordre du. 
jour de la prochaine seance. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VeRBAUX EN FrAN^AIS. 95 

Le Dr. H. Wright exprime le desir que la Delegation Britannique fournisse des informations au 
sujet de I'opium et de la regiementation relative a sa consommation en Nouvelle-Z^lande et dans I'Afri- 
que du Sud. 

M. Bernauer demande que des rapports soient fournis au sujet des Concessions et settlements 
•etrangers en Chine. II est entendu que le President ecrira au Doyen du Corps Consulaire de Shanghai 
en vue d'obtenir des informations sur la question de I'opium dans le Settlement International : pour les 
autres Concessions en Chine, aprfes une discussion anim^e la proposition est retiree provisoirement. 

Sur la proposition du Dr. Hamilton Wright il est d^cidd de nommer : 

1/ Un Comity de trois membres charg^ de coordonner les statistiques du commerce de I'opium 
contenues dans les differents rapports soumis a la Commission et d'^tablir un rapport international sur 
ce sujet. 

2/ Un Comitd de trois membres charge de coordonner les renseignements relalifs a la culture du 
pavot et a la production de I'opium cru contenus dans les differents rapports soumis a la Commission et 
d'etablir un rapport international a ce sujet. 

3/ Un Comite de trois membres charge de coordonner les statistiques des revenus tir^s de I'opium 
contenues dans les diffdrents rapports soumis a la Commission et d'etablir un rapport international a ce 
sujet. 

La formation, egalement proposee par le Dr. H. Wright, de Comites charges d'dtudier les 
questions de I'opium au point de vue medical et des remedes contre I'opiomanie, est repoussee apres 
discussion, la Commission estimant qu'elle ne comprend pas un nombre suffisant d'experts en ces 
matieres. 

La seance est levee a midi 30 et renvoj-ee au lundi 15 fevrier. 



SEPTIEME STANCE, 
15 Tevrier 1909 

La seance est ouverte a loh 30 du matin. 

Le President donne lecture des designations faites pour les Comites dont la formation a ete 
decidee k la seance precedente. (Cf. liste des Comites au debut de ce volume). 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith repond a une question posee verbalement k la Delegation Britannique, 
au cours de la seance precedente, par le Dr. Hamilton Wright au sujet de Timportation et de I'exportation 
de la morphine dans le Royaume-Uni. Le Dr. H. Wright dit que sa question n'a pas ete comprise 
exactement. Ce qu'il desirait savoir, c'est la destination finale de I'importation nette de morphine dans le 
Royaume-Uni; il remettra la question par ecrit. 

Un rapport sur la production et I'usage de I'opium en Italic est lu ensuite par M. Faraone. II 
declare qu'il n'y a pas de loi speciale sur I'opium dans ce pays mais qu'une rbglementation trhs stricte est 
en vigueur pour le commerce des "remedes contenant des poisons," toute infraction etant sevbrement 
punie; I'opium est compris sous cette rubrique generale., 

Le President declare ouverte la discussion du rapport neerlandais. 

Le texte de diverses questions est soumis a la Delegation Neerlandaise par MM. Roessler, 
Laidlaw, et le Dr. Tenney. M. de Jongh fournit aussitot les reponses a ces questions (V. a la suite du 
rapport neerlandais, au Vol. II.) 

M. Miyaoka ayant lu les reponses aux questions qui lui avaient ete posees par la Delegation 
Britannique a la seance precedente, M. Laidlaw demande si les chiffres donnas sous la rubrique 
"depenses de I'usine d'opium" comprennent les paiements fails pour le compte des services destines 
a combattre la contrebande. M. Miyaoka repond que ces depenses sent comprises au budget general 
de la Police et des Douanes. 

M. T'ang-kouo-an lit les reponses aux questions posees par la Delegation Britannique aux 
Commissaires chinois. (V. Vol. II, a la suite du rapport chinois). 

Se referant au discours de Sir A. Hosie (voir 6" seance) il dit que ses collegues et lui 
apprecient hautement les sentiments exprimes par la Delegation Britannique a regard des efforts 
accomplis contre I'opium par le Gouvernement Imperial. Basee comme elle I'est sur son experience 
de la vie, sur ses voyages repetes dans les provinces occidentales de la Chine, et sur ses observations 
personnel'les, I'opinion de Sir A. Hosie, admettant franchement les malheurs resultant de I'opiomanie, 
aura certainement le plus grand poids auprfes de la Commission. II est convaincu que les critiques faites 
sur le memorandum chinois par Sir A. Hosie ne procedent pas d'un esprit de chicane. La Chme a 
besoin de beaucoup de sympathies comme celles qu'a exprimees Sir A. Hosie. II espere que les 
travaux de la Commission aboutiront a des resolutions condamnant I'usage de Topium et de ses 
derives sauf pour un usage strictement medical. 



96 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 



expression de cette opinion agira, il en a I'assurance, comme un nouvel dperon pour 
sr ses concitoyens dans roeuvie de la suppression de ropiomanie dont Tenvahissement menace 



L'exj: 
encourager ses concitoyens dans I'oeuvre de la suppression de Topioii 
le bonheur de 400 millions d'liommes et I'existence meme de la Chine en tant que nalion. 

M. T'ang fait aussi la declaration suivante en r^ponse aux observations faites a la derniere 
seance par Sir C. Clenienti Smith au sujet de I'exactitude des indications donnees dans le rapport 
chinois sur la contrebande entre Hongkong et la Chine : 

A la page 4 de notre memorandum il est dit qu' "avant 1887, la quantite d'opium introduite 
en Chine chaqiie annee en dehors des voies Mgales s'dlevait a 20.000 piculs." Sir C. Clementi Smith 
pense que cette estimation est exag^ree. Les chiffres donnes sont ceux de Morse dans son livre "Trade 
and administration of the Chinese Empire" page 342. M. Morse ^tait un observateur consciencieux 
et son livre est considere comme une histoire impartiale des questions chinoises qui y sont traitees. De 
plus son estimation est, en giande partie, justifi^e par la coniparaison entre les quantites d'opium 
entrees dans le Kouang-toung par les ports de Soua-lao, Canton et Pakiioi pendant les six ann(!es avant 
1887 et les quantites entrees dans la meme province par les memes ports, en y ajoutant Kowloon et 
Lappa, pendant les six ann^es suivant 1887. 

L'importation annueile dans le Kouang-toung pendant les annees 1881-1886 a ^te de 6,114 piculs 
et pendant les anndes 1888-1893 de 23,246 piculs, soit 17,132 piculs de difif^rence. Ces chiffres- 
repr^sentent la quantite d'opium qui a pay^ les droits d'entr^e et de Likin aux bureaux des douanes 
indiqu6s, sans faire entrer en ligne de compte tout ce qui a pu eviter les Douanes. I5ans les "rapports 
des Douanes sur les amendes et confiscations" publics pour les memes anndes le nombre de saisies 
effectuees montre la frequence des tentative-, de contrebande. On doit aussi se rappeler que la contre- 
bande de I'opium n'etait pas limitee au Kouang-toung, mais s'eiendait plus ou moins, d'apres les memes 
rapports des douanes, k presque tous les "ports ouverts " de Chine. Les chiffres donnas par le 
memorandum ne s'appliquent pas seulement a Hongkong, car on sail que la contrebande d'opium se 
faisait aussi de Singapour, par jonques, et par les (Equipages des vapeurs touchant a Singapour, a Penang 
et aux ports de I'lnde. 

En consequence les Delegu^s chinois ne croient pns exagerer en estimant la contrebande de 
I'opium a 20,000 piculs avant 1887 et a 5,000 piculs depuis cette annee. 

Les questions posees par la Delegation Frangaise avaient echappe aux yeux de la Delegation 
Chinoise. 

H. T'ang exprime ses regrets a ce sujet et dit que les renseignements demandds seront fournis 1& 
plus tot possible. 

Le premier d6\6gu6 Nderlandais fait ensuite la declaration suivante : 

" Maintenant que les D61egues a la Commission Liternationale de l'Opium ont pris connaissance 
"de notre rapport, et de notre memorandum sur le systeme de la R^gie adopts aux Indes N^erlandaises ; 
"apres les questions poshes par eux et les reponses donnees par nous; nous pensons qu'ils sont 
"convaincus que I'objet poursuivi par notre systeme, le but que nous nous efforgons d'atteindre, est 
"d'arreter la consommation de I'opium, graduellement mais continuellemeni, et par tous les moyens en- 
" notre pouvoir. 

"En conformite de cette politique les d^l^gues des Pays-Bas sont autorisds a declarer que: 

" 1/ Leur Gouvernement, convaincu qu'il est desirable de supprimer I'usiige de I'opium, ne se 
"laissera jamais arreter par des considerations financieres lorsqu'il y aura lieu de prendre telles mesures 
"qui, dans son opinion, seraient de nature a amener une diminution graduelle de cet usage"; 

" 2/ Leur Gouvernement n'aurait pas d'objections a apporter au systeme de la Regie tels 
"changements qu'il considererait etre de nature a conbattre I'usage de I'opium el a etendre les moyens 
"d'empecher la contrebande par terre ou par mer"; 

"3/ Dans les provinces oil existe encore le systeme d'affermage, la substitution de la Regie a ce 
" systeme est d'ores et d^ja a I'^tude." 

Lo Dr. Roessler appelle ['attention sur une faute d'impression dans le rapport sur Kiaocheou. A 
la derniere page, chapitre 3, les mots "Average smokers use at least 2 liang " doivent se lire "average 

smokers at least 0.2 liang." Le Dr. Hamilton Wright remet par dcrit deux questions poshes par lui a 

la Delegation Britannique au sujet de l'importation de I'opium cru en Grande-Brelagne, et de I'usage de 
I'opium dans I'Airique du Sud. (V. a la suite du rapport britannique, V. IL) M. 'I'ang, se leferant aux 
declarations anterieures sur le pourcentage des fumeurs d'opium en Chine, rapporte des informations 
qu'il a obtenues sur le pourcentage des fumeurs parmi la population chinoise des Philippines. II dit que 
23% des residents Chinois de cet archipel sont fumeurs enregistr^s ; en plus un certain nombre ont pu, pour 
une raison ou pour une autre, dchapper a I'enregistrement ; on peut done estimer que 25% des Chinois 
residents aux Philippines sont fumeurs. Ceci a I'appui des estimations donnees par sa Delegation sur 
retendue de I'opiomanie en Chine, les pourcentages cites etant beaucoup plus Aleves que ceux qu'on 
admet habituellement pour la Chine. 

Le T. R. Eveque Brent, quittant la Presidence (assumee pendant quelques minutes par M. Potier) 
fait une declaration personnelle et explicative en reponse a I'observalion ci-dessus de M. T'an<i. Pour 
prevenir toute erreur d'appreciation, dit-ill, il croit necessaire de remarquer que tous les fumeurs 
enregisties aux Philippines sont Chinois, les indigenes n'etant pas autorises a prendre des licences. La 
majorite des Chinois viennent d'Amoy, ou, croit-il, I'habitude de fumer I'opium est ties repandue. 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCES-VeRBAUX EN FrAN^AIS. n-j 

Enfin presque toute la population Chinoise est compos^e d'adultes males, et le fait qu'll y a tres 
peu de femmes ou d'enfants explique le liaut pourcentage de fumeurs. 

Ces remaiques sont complbtdes par le Dr. H. Wright qui dit que le resultat de ses recherches 
parmi la population Chinoise aux Etats-Unis est que 20% des adultes males sont grands fumeurs et 20/ 
petits fumeurs, soit au total 40% usant en moyenne 1)4 mace d'opium prepare par jour. Cette 
estimation est peut-etre un peu ^lev^e mais il peut declarer avec une certitude presque absolue que ^0°/ 
des Chinois adultes miles sont adonnes a I'opium aux Etats-Unis. 

A midi 15 la stance est levde. 

A la repiise, a 2h. 30 le rapport austro-hongrois est mis en discussion. Aucune question n'est 
posee mais le Dr. Roessler demande seulement au Delegue Austro-Hony;rois de fournir quelques 
renseignements sur I'usage et la vente de I'opium dans la concession autrichienne de Tientsin. 

Le T. R. Eveque Brent declare que la Delegation Frangaise a attire son attention sur quelques 
erreurs, dans le rapport publie par la "Commission Aiuericaine de I'opium aux Philippines," dont 
il etait membre, au sujet des recettes tirdes de I'opium par Iiido-Chine. Les mesures seront prises, dit-il 
pour corriger ces fautes. 

L'ordre du jour appelle ensuite la discussion des rapports allemand et persan. Le Dr. H. Wright 
aura certalnes questions a poser sur ces rapports a la prochaine seance. 

A la suite d'une remarque faite par Sir C. Clementi Smith, le President admet que les Comit^s 
nomm^s pour etudier des parties speciales des rapports pourront rouvrir la discussion a propos des 
sujets qui leur sont soumis si de nouveaux renseignements leur paraissent utiles. 

La Commission accepte une suggestion du Dr. Roessler tendant a ce que le Comite ddsigne pour 
faire un rapport sur les questions de Revenus de I'opium etende ses recherches aux tarifs de douane et 
autres impots frappant I'opium. 

Une discussion s'eleve ensuite au sujet des stipulations relatives a I'opium contenues dans les 
Traites signes entre les divers pays repr^senti^s ; le President indique que chaque Delegation pourrait, 
si cela paralt utile, obtenir les renseignements necessaires sur ces stipulations, ou qu'un Comite pourrait 
etre nomme pour etudier la question. 

Le Dr. Roessler propose alors la resolution suivante : 

"Qu'un Comite soit nomme pour reunir les accords internationaux existant au sujet de I'opium." 

Apres discussion cette proposition est adoptee. 

Le Dr. Roessler demande aux 'D6\6'jues N^erlandais s'ils d^poseront un rapport sur I'opium aux 
Pays-Bas proprement dits. M. de Jongh r^pond par la negative, mais il n'existe, a sa connaissance 
aucune culture de pavot dans cette contree. Cependant si on le desire, il s'efforcera d'obtenir des 
renseignements plus precis. 

Une discussion s'eleve alors sur le point de savoir si, orii;inairement, I'enquete devait s'dtendre 
a d'autres contrdes que I'Extreme-Orient, Les premiers D^l^gues de France et de Portugal d^clarent 
qu'ils ont compris que les recherches de la Commission se borneraient a I'Extreme-Orieni. Le Dr. H. 
Wright declare de son cote que le Gouvernement am^ricain avait propose I'etude de toutes les phases de 
la question de I'opium dans chacun des pays repr^sent^s et sugger^ que les recherches soient faites 
avant la reunion de la Commission de fagon a faciliter le travail de celle-ci. 

Le President met fin au debat en indiquant que chaque pays represente pourra obtenir, sur 
I'opium dans la m<5tropole, des renseignements suffisants pour ^clairer la Commission et la mettre en 
mesure de mener sea travaux k bonne fin. 

La Commission s'ajourne alors au jeudi 18 f^vrier ; l'ordre du jour de cette seance sera : 

I. — Presentation du rapport sur le Canada (s'il est piet) ; 

2 — Continuation de la discussion du rapport chinois; 

3. — Discussion des rapports sur la Grande Bretagne et ses Possessions; 



gS Commission International^ de i. 'Opium. 

HUITlfeME SEANCE, 

1 8 Fevrier 1909. 

En ouvraiU la stance a loh. 30 du matin le President proclame les noms des Del^gues designds 
pour faire partie du Comite sur les Traitds et les Accords Iiiternationaux existant au sujet du tiaffic 
de I'opium. (Cf. liste des Comites, au debut de ce Volume.) 

M. Brunyate annonce qu'il a demande tel^graphiquement au Gouvernement des Indes les 
derniers chiffres concernant la morphine, mais il ne croit pas que ia reponse doive aifecter beaucoup les 
statistiqiies donn^es par lui dans son rapport. 

M. Mackenzie King, a qui le President souhaite d'abord la bienvenue, presente son rapport sur la 
question de I'opium au Canada en s'excusant de son arriv6e tardive. 

La discussion du rapport chinois est ensuite k I'ordre du jour mais aucune nouvelle question n'est 
posee. 

M. Cornilloii, au nom du Comit6 de statistique des Revenus indique qu'une etude preliminaire 
des Rapports a deja fait paraitre la necessity que toutes les Delegations adoptent des unites communes 
de monnaies, de poids et de mesures afin de faciliter la reduction du rapport International, et il soumet 
les propositions suivantes: 

I. — Que les superficies, quantities ct poids soient exprim^s d'apres le systeme metrique en 
hectares et kilogrammes. 

2. — Que toutes les monnaies soient r^duites en monnaie anglaise au change de 25 francs la jQ. 

3. — Que retude des statistiques soit bornee a cinq anndes, 1903 a 1907 inclus, ce qui sera suffisant 
pour qu'une opinion gen6rale puisse se former. 

Ces propositions rencontrent I'approbation gen^rale de I'assemblee, mais les calculs qu'elles 
peuvent entrainer sont confies aux soins du Comite. Apres une remarque du Premier Deiegue du 
Portugal sur le change a adopter, I'ordre du jour appelle la discussion du rapport sur ia Grande- Brelagne 
et ses Possessions. 

M. T'ang-kouo-an, le Dr. Tenney et M. H. Wright posent quelques questions relatives a la 
portee de I'accord Anglo-Chinois et a la culture, a I'exportation de I'opium dans les Etats Indigenes de 
rinde. M. Brunyate donne des reponses verbales provisoires en se reservant de les fournir par ecrit a la 
prochaine seance. (Cf. Vol. II. a la suite du rapport sur I'lnde). 

M. Miyaoka pose une question a la Delegation Persane au sujet de I'importation a Kormose 
de I'opium de Perse. (Cf. Vol. II. a la suite du rapport sur la Perse). 

M. T'ang-kouo-an propose la resolution suivante : 

"Qu'un Comite de 5 membres soit nomme pour etudier les aspects medicaux de la question 
" de I'opium y compris les meilleures methodes de guerir I'opiomanie sans recourir a I'opium ou 
"k aucun de ses derives." 

Une discussion s'eieve sur la recevabilite de cette motion qui semble se presenter comme 
semblable a celle qui a deja ete proposee par le Dr. H. Wright a la sixieme seance et repoussee. 

Le President dit qu'k son avis la presente proposition revet une forme entierement differente de 
la precedente; dans la resolution repoussee la portee de I'enquete etait reduite a I'etude du sujet d'apres 
les rapports deposes seulement, tandis que la resolution actuellement proposee est concue sur un 
plan beaucoup plus large ; c'est a I'assemblee de decider si elle entend ou non proceder a cette enquete 
plus etendue. 

M. T'ang explique que, lorsque la proposition repoussee avait ete proposee, le Premier Deiegue 
Chinois et lui-meme etaient absents, et, par consequent, n'ont pas pu exprimer leurs vues sur la question. 

" Dans notre esprit, dit-il, cette question ne le cede en importance qu'a celle de la suppression 
" meme de I'opium en Chine; nous pensons qu'il serait vain d'essayer d'enrayer I'habitude de fumer si 
" nous devons contiiiuer a absorber le poison sous d'autres formes, en pilules par exemple. C'est 
" pourquoi, si cette Commission veut justifier son existence, et si elle desire arriver a des resultats 
"satisfaisants il est necessaire, a notre avis, que cette question soit discutee a fond. Pour montrer 
"quelle importance y est attachee par tout le monde, on me permettra de rappeler que le Ministre 
"de Sa Majeste Britannique i Pekin a souvent demande i notre Gouvernement quel avanta^e la Chine 
"trouverait k reslreindre la culture de I'opium si, sous d'autres formes (et par la il entendait I'usage 
"de pilules contre I'opium etc.) le fieau de I'opium devait continuer a s'eiendre sans obstacle dans 
"I'Empire." 

" Je prie done cette honorable Commission de considerer la question avec soin afin qu'elle puisse 
"remplir son devoir tout entier et non pas seulement en partie ; je ne crois pas en effet que I'intention 
"de mon Gouvernement ni celle d'nucun autre Gouvernement ici represente soit que nous bornions nos 
"discussions aux matieres relatives a la culture de I'opium." 

" Au contraire je crois que nous sommes ici pour retourner la question sous toutes ses faces • et 
"c'est aussi I'idee exprimeepar les Societes contre I'opium et par I'opinion publique dans tous les pays 
"civilises. En presentant ma resolution je demande done instamment I'aide et la cooperation de cette 
"Commission." 



SOMMAIRK DES PROCis-VERBAUX EN FRAN9AIS. 



99 



Le Dr. Tenney declare qu'il partnge les vues exprimdes par le Delegue Chinois. II pense que la 
Commission serait blamde k juste titre si elle se s^parait sans presenter ses vues sur la question 
Lorsque la proposition soumise precedemment k la Commission a 6it repoussee elle n'a pas eid pesde 
suflfisamment peut-etre et il est possible que le vote n'ait pas etd ['expression d'un jugement muride 
I'Assemblee. S'il est necessaire de soumettre de nouveau la motion k rAssemblee il propose qu'il soit 
precede au vote par appel nominal. 

M. Ratard suggere qu'une copie de la resolution soit remise a chaque Ddi^gation afin d'en 
permettre I'etude, et que Ton ne passe au vote que dans deux ou trois jours. Dr. Tenney propose 
que la question soit mise en tete de I'ordre du jour pour la piochaine stance (adopts). A midi la stance 
est levee et renvoyee au 10 fevrier. 



NEUVlfeME SEANCE, 
19 Fevrier 1909. 

La s&nce est ouverte a ioh.30 du matin ; I'ordre du jour appelle la discussion de la resolution 
presente par M. T'ang-kouo-an a la seance precedente et ainsi congue : 

"Un comite de cinq membres sera nomme pour ^tudier et faire un rapport sur les aspects 
" medicaux de la question de I'opium y compris les meilleures m^thodes de guerii I'opiomanie sans avoir 
"recours a la drogue ou a aucun de ses d^iives." 

Sir C. Clementi Smith, se levant pour continuer la discussion, dit que I'attitude qu'il prend au 
nom de la Delegation Britannique en s'opposanl a la nomination d'un Comite medical n'est en aucune 
fagon dirigee contre une enquete pratique sur ce sujet dont il reconnait I'importance j elle est bas^e 
simplement sur le fait qu'il ne considere pas la Commission comme comprenant un nombre suffisant 
d'hommes competents pour traiter cette question. II declare que personne, dans la Commission, ne 
peut sympathiser avec I'objet poursuivi par M. T'ang plus que lui et ses collciiues, et il pense qu'on 
reconnaitra que le Gouvernement Britannique a prouv^ son d^sird'aider la Chine a rdsoudre le probleme 
de I'opium ; mais il considere que toute assistance accordee a la Chine doit revetir une allure pratique et 
qui puisse etre universellement reconnue comme telle. 

II insiste sur ce fait que la Commission n'a pas 6ti formee sur une base scieniifique. II ne croit 
pas se tromper en disant que, sauf le Dr. H. Wright et le savant distingue qui fait partie de la Delegation 
Japonaise, il n'y a parmi les membres presents personne qui soit qualifie pour traiter des sujets comme les 
remedes contre I'opium, etc.; c'est en s'attachant fortement a ce point de vue, et parce qu'elle sent en meme 
temps que la question presente une grande urgence et qu'elle a 6t6 laiss^e trop longtemps de cote, que la 
Delegation Britannique desire que des mesures soient prises sans retard. Bien que le Gouvernement Chinois 
ait public des rfeglements stipulant expressement que les pilules contre I'opium ne devront pas contenir 
d'opium ou de morphine, c'est un fait i)ien connu que des pilules contenant une large proportion des 
drogues prohibees sont vendues sur une large echelle en Chine. Sir C. Clementi Smith pense que, si 
des mesures etaient prises pour mettre effectivement en vigueur ces regleraents, une grande partie des 
maux affectant la Chine seraient supprimes. II ajoute que, bien que la question des remfedes contre 
I'opium ne se soit pas pose'e avec une grande ampleur encore pour les Gouvernements des colonies 
orientales, ceux-ci, neanmoins, ont deja reconnu la necessite de restreindre I'usage de I'opium sous cette 
forme. 

Continuant son discours I'orateur observe que les maux produits par I'usage de la morphine ont 
eu des effets terribles. Un accord, bientdt en vigueur, a cependant ete fait recemment avec la Chine 
pour arreter la diliFusion de la morphine, et il espere avec confiance que cet accord aura I'effet desire par 
tous les interesses. II repete que la Delegation Britannique ne trouve pas la Commission composee de 
fagon a admettre qu'un Comite puisse etre choisi, parmi ses membres, capable de naener une enquete 
d'une maniere pratique au sujet des aspects medicaux de la question de I'opium ; mais il pense pouvoir 
saisir I'occasion presente de suggerer aux differents Deiegues que ce sujet soit signaie directement et 
rapidement a leurs Gouvernements respectifs qui, seuls, sont en mesure de nommer des Comites 
competents et de proceder aux recherches utiles en vue d'atteindre le but poursuivi. Ce n'est pas une 
question qu'on puisse r^gler localement mais qui doit etre trailee par les plus Hautes Institutions 
Scientifiques des deux Mondes. La nomination du Comite preconise par M. T'ang generait plutot 
qu'elle n'avancerait I'enquete necessaire. C'est pourquoi il termine son discours en soumettant a la 
Commission I'amendement suivant ; si celui-ci est adopte il demandera, en temps utile, qu'il soit insere 
parmi les Resolutions formelles adoptees par la Commission en fin de session : 

" Eu egard a la constitution de cette Commission qui, parmi ses membres, ne comprend pas un 
" nombre suffisant d'hommes competents pour former un Comite d'enquete, a un point de vue scientifique, 
"sur les remedes contre I'opium et sur les proprietes et les effets de I'opium et de ses produits, la 
" Commission desire que chaque Delegation recommande cette branche du sujet a son Gouvernement 
" pour que celui-ci prenne telles mesures qu'il croira necessaire a cet egard." 



100 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

Le Dr. H. Wright, apres avoir remercid Sir C. Cleraenti Smith des compliments personnels a lui 
adress6s, fait remarquer qu'il y a, dans la Delegation Cliinoise, un expert medical, ayant fait des etudes 
occidentales et qui, au point de vue scientifique, est parfaitement competent. II y a done dans la 
Commission trois mddecins capables d'entreprendre I'enquete propos^e. La Commission Royale 
Britannique ne comprenait qu'un expert medical dont le rapport a beaucoup influence le jugement final 
de ladite Commission, mais ne parait pas avoir satisfait la majority des ni^decins qui Font examine en 
detail. II serait temps qu'une autre opinion, basee sur des fails r^cemment coiinus puisse etre exprimee, 
et, sans mettre en cause les capacites de I'expert medical ci-dessus d6sigiie, d'autres peuvent etre aussi 
bien que lui a meme d'examiner la question. Si un expert a suffi a la Commission Royale, trois peuvent 
sans doute satisfaire la Commission Internationale. 

En adoptant la proposition de M. T'ang on atteindra I'un des buts de cette Commission qui doit 
etre de reprendre la question medicale sur un pied plus moderne. 

H. T'ang-kouo-an demande la permission de repondre a quelques-unes des remarques de Sir 
C. element! Smith. 

II declare que dans les reglements publics par la Chine il y a deux ans pour la suppression de 
I'opiomanie une des questions trait^es etait les " remedes centre I'opium." Depuis lors la Chine a pris 
des mesures pour controler la vente de ces remfedes dans rint^rieur. Par exemple k Tchentou, capitale 
du Szechouen, aucun remede contre I'opium ne peut etre vendu sans I'autorisation de la police, et, dans 
d'autres endroits, la Police s'efforce de restreindre la vente de ces remedes. IVIais, et c'est un fait 
deplorable, la masse de ces rerafedes est fabriqu^e et introduite dans I'interieur par les Ports a Traitds; la 
Chine, pour ce motif, est impuissante a empecher la diffusion de ces drogues de charlatans sans la 
cooperation des Puissances a Trait^s. C'est une des raisons qui I'ont decide a rediger la Resolution 
actuellement a I'examen. 

De plus, en supposant qu'il n'y a pas, comme le pensc la Delegation Britannique, un nombre 
sufiSsant d'experts dans la Commission pour traiter la question, rien n'empeche, a sa connissance, soit 
dans la constitution, soit dans les regies de la Commission, que celle-ci ne prenne I'avis d'experts du 
dehors. 

Le Dr. Rossler soutient la proposition de M. T'ang dans les termes suivants : 

" D'apres la correspondance echangee entre le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis et les Puissances 
"interessees dans la question de I'opium, cette Commission doit faire une enquete generale et impartiale 
"sur les conditions scientifiques et materielles du commerce de I'opium et de I'opiomanie. Je craindrais 
"que le rapport que nous soumettrons a nos Gouvernement soit incomplet si nous ommettions I'aspect 
" medical de la question de I'opium." 

" Le cote medical de la question de I'opium est au debut de la campagne contre I'opium et, pour 
"cette raison, toutes les Commissions de I'opium qui ont fonctionne jusqu'a ce jour ont fait une enquete 
"soigneuse sur ce cote de la question. On me perniettra, a ce sujet, de citer les rapports des Com- 
" missions de Ceylan, des Etablissements des Detroits et de la Commission Royale sur I'opium aux 
"Indes, qui contiennent tons des informations precieuses de cette nature." 

" Vous n'ignorez pas que les medecins n'ont pas sur ce sujet une opinion unanime. II serait 
"d'auiant plus interessant d'entendre ce que les trois eminents medecins (|ui font partie de cette 
"Commission peuvent avoir a dire sur ce sujet. On salt que les medecins de nos metropoles ont peu ou 
"pas d'experience en ce qui concerne les effets de I'opium fume car il n'y a pas de probleme de ce genre 
"dans les Pays occidentaux. Au contraire les trois medecins faisant partie de cette Commission ont 
"acquis leur experience dans I'Extreme-Orient; c'est pourquoi je pense que nous devons leur donner 
"I'occasion de declarer leurs opinions. Pour ces raisons je suis en faveur de la Proposition de la 
" Delegation Chinoise." 

L'amendement de Sir C. Clementi Smith est alors mis aux voix et adopte par 7 voix contre 6 : 

Pour Pamendement : Contre V amendement : 

Grande-Bretagne Etats-Unis d'Amerique 

France -Xutriche-Hongrie 

Pays-Bas Chine 

Perse Allemagne 

Portugal Italie 

Russie Japon 

Siani 

M. Miyaoka repond ensuite aux questions C|ui lui ont ete soumises par M. Laidlaw, et M. Brunyate 
a celles que lui ont posees les Delegations Americaine et Chinoise. (V. ces reponses k la suite des 
rapports japonais et britannique, dans le Volume II). 

Le President suggere que la presentation de resolutions pourrait commencer lundi prochain (22 
fevrier). S'il y avait quelque point nouveau k discuter sur les Rapports distribues depuis peu, leur 
discussion serait a I'ordre du jour de lundi matin et I'assembiee pourrait, ensuite, passer a la presentation 
de resolutions sur les objets soumis a la Commission. 11 ne croit pas necessaire d'attendre les rapports 
des Comites avant de prendre en consideration les resolutions qui pourraient etre presentees. 



SOMMAIRE DES PkoCES-VeRBAUX EN FkAN(;:AIS. 1 01 

M. de Jongli, Premier D^l^gue des Pays-Bas, propose que toute resolution soit distribute par 
6crit avant d'etre soumise k la Conimissioii nfiii que les D^l^guds aient le temps de les etudier. 

Le President reconnait que cetle procedure est conforme aux regies adoptees et appliqu^es 
jusqu'a ce jour. 

M. Ratard donne dans les termes suivants une explication spontanee du vote de la D^l^gation 
fraii^aise sur la proposition de M. T'ang repoussde tout k I'heure par I'adoption de I'amendement de Sir 
C. Clementi Smith. 

"Si vous le permettez j'exposerai les raisons pour lesquelles j'ai vote centre la proposition de 
"M. Tang. 

"J'ai sous les yeux la correspondance echang^e entie les Goiivernements fran§aiset Americain au 
"sujet du programme de cette Commission, coriespondance sur laquelle out ete basees les instructions 
" donnees a notre Delegation. La question a ^t^ soumise au Gouvernement frangais par S.E. I'Ambassadeur 
"des Etats-Unis a Paris a deux reprises : les 15 et 24 juillet 1908. 

"La communication du 15 juillet donne I'dnunidration suivante des point que la Conference aura k 
"trailer, et C|ue le Gouvernement Americain invite chaque Pays represent^ afaire Etudier d'avance par ses 
" Dei^gues : 

" I. — Importation de I'opium a I'etat cru, de ses derives et du chandoo; 

" 2. — Consommation int^rieure de Topiani cru ; 

"3. — Fabrication et usage du chandoo; 

"4. — Fabrication et la morphine et autres ddriv^s ; 

" 5. — Usage de la drogue a Tetat cru ; 

" 6. — Preparation et usage de la morphine et autres derives ; 

"7. — Extension licite et illicite de la culture du pavot (en Amdrique); possibility de sa culture; 

"8. — Lois (fed^rales) relatives a I'usage de I'opium et de ses derives. 

"Lareponse ofificielle du Gouvernement Frangais a S.E. I'Ambassadeur des Etats-Unis a Paris, 
"datde du 5 aotit 1908, declare que, conform^ment au ddsir exprimd par le Gouvernement Americain, le 
" Gouvernement de la Rdpublique ne d^signera gue des Commissaires au fait de toutes les questions 
" soulevdes par le (r(?ww«r« de I'opium, document's sur les int'rets frangais qu'il touche, et munis 
"d'instructions limitatives. 

"Les instructions donnees par le Gouvernement frangais au chef de la Delegation frangaise, apres 
"avoir rappeie les points du programme limitatif ci-dessus, indiquaient que la question de I'opium 
" presentait un intdret considerable pour I'LTdochine dont les Finances pouvent etre affectees par les 
"travaux de la Commission, et recommandaient aux Commissaires frangais de ne s'ecarter en aucun point 
"de leurs instructions limitatives. 

" Le vote que la Delegation frangaise a exprime tout a I'heure est done pleinement justifie par ces 
"citations; aucune delegation ne ressent plus de sympathie que nous pour les efforts du Gouvernement 
" Chinois pour se debarrasser du fleau de I'opium et je m'associe pleinement aux sentiments exprimes a 
"cet egard par Sir Alexander Hosie ; les questions scieniifiques et m^dicales soulevees par I'opium, sont 
"d'une importance telle que je crois, comme Sir C. Clementi Smith, qu'il serait tres interessant et tres 
"utile de les soumettre aux plus hautes autorites scientifiques et medicales des Pays interesses dans la 
"question de I'opium. Cette Delegation etait cependant dans I'impossibilite de devier en quoi que ce soit 
"des instructions qu'elle a regues." 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright, au nom de la Delegation Americaine, declare qu'il est parfaitement 
d'accord avec M. Ratard sur le sens de la correspondance ediangee entre les Gouvernements Americain 
et Frangais. 

M. Miyaoka explique, de son cote, dans les termes suivants, les raisons pour lesquelles il a vot6 
centre I'amendement presente par Sir C. Clementi Smith : 

" .^vec la permission de I'assembiee j'ai I'honneur de donner I'explication du vote que j'ai emis 
"aunom de la Delegation Japonaise. Dans une note adressee par S.E. M. O'Brien, Ambassadeur 
"des Etats-Unis pres la Cour Imperiale de Tokyo en date du 12 mai 1908, a S. E. le Comte Hayashi, 
"alors Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, il est dit : 

" L'idee du Gouvernement des Etats-Unis d'Amerique est que les Commissaires de chaque 
" Gouvernement proceder ont independamment et immediatement .... dans le but; 

"(i) de rechercher les moyens de diminuer I'usage de I'opium dans les possessions de ce pays; 

" (2) d'assurer, s'il existe un trafic de I'opium parmi les nationaux de ce pays dans I'Extreme- 
" Orient, les meilleurs moyens de supprimer ce trafic ; 

" (3) que les Ddiegues respectifs soient, lorsqu'ils se reuniront k Shanghai au mois de Janvier 
"(fevrier), en position de cooperer et de presenter, conjointement ou separement, des suggestions definies 
"de mesures tendant a la suppression graduelle de la culture de I'opium, aussi bien que de son trafic et 
"de son usage, dans leurs possessions extreme-orientales, et que leurs Gouvernements respectifs seraient 
" prets a adopter. De cette fagon les membres du Gouvernement Chinois seront aides a deraciner le 
" mal dans leur Empire." 

"Ceci, comme je I'ai dit, se trouve dans une note de I'Ambssadeur des Etats-Unis datee du 12 
"mai 1908. Le Gouvernement Imperial du Japon acceda a cette proposition impliquant qu'il etait pret 
"a nommer une Commission qui rechercherait des moyens de limiter I'usage de I'opium, les meilleurs 



102 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

"moyens de suppriaier le trafic de cet article, et les meiUeurs moyeiis de supprimer graduelleraent non 
" seulement la culture mais aussi I'usage de I'opium. Sachant que les plans et systfemes qui ont pour 
" obiet la suppression de I'opium et de son usage ne peuvent etre efficacement discutes que par des 
"hommes qui ont une connaissance particuliere des propridtds chimiques de ropium et des effets qu il a 
" sur la constitution de Fhomme, le Gouvernment Imperial du Japon a cru bon de choisir comme 
" Ddle-'ues un chimiste eminent, le Dr. Tahara, et un mddecin egalement (Eminent, le Dr. lakaki, lequel, 
" ajouterai-je, est, a Formose, a la tete de tout ce qui regarde le controle de Topium. Done, lorsque cette 
" Delegation a ete nommee par le Gouvernement du Japon, il dtait entendu que nous devions aborder la 
" question de la suppression de I'opium, y compris naturellemcnt la gudrison de I'opiomanie. La Ddldgatiot> 
"japonaise a, pour ces motifs, cru devoir voter contra I'amendement propose par Sir C. Cleraenti Smith, 
"afin d'avoir I'occasion de donner sa voix a la resolution propos^e par M. T'ang." 

Le Dr. Tenney retire une proposition tendant a sieger samedi et la Commission accepte la motior> 
d'ajournement a lundi (22 f^vrier) proposee par M. Miyaoka. 

A iih. 40 la seance est levee. 

(Au cours de la seance le President, au nom de I'Assemblee, souliaite la bienvenue a M. Chalmers, 
associe a la Delegation chinoise, qu'une maladie avait jusqu' a present empeche d'assister aux seances 
de la Commission). 



DIXEME SJ^ANCE 
22 Fevrier 1909 

Le seance est ouverte a loh. 30 du matin. 

Le President annonce, en exprimant ses regrets, que le Delegue de I'ltalie est souffrant et ne 
pent assister a la stance. II exprime Egalement ses regrets de ce que le nom du Secretaire de la 
Delegation Persane a ete omis sur la liste officielle des repr6sentants. Le secretaire de la Commission 
prendra, dit-il, les mesures necessaires pour corriger cette erreur. Le nom de M. B. A. Somekh. 
ser-a inscrit dans le compte-rendu imprim^ des seances. (Cf. liste des Delegations en tete de ce 
Volume). 

Le premier Delegue des Pays-Bas donne les informations qu'il a regues teiegraphiquement sur 
I'opium en HoUande. (Cf. Vol. II, rapport sur la HoUande). 

Les Delegations Britannique et Japonaise donnent lecture de reponses aux questions qu'elles ont 
recues respectivement des Delegations Americaine et Britannique M. T'ang-kouo-an, au nom de la 
Delegation Chinoise rdpond a trois questions posees par les Delegations Britannique et Frangaise au^ 
cours de la sixieme seance. 

Une r^ponse aux questions posdes par la Delegation Americaine est donnee par la Deiegatior>' 
Persane et la Delegation Chinoise demande a la Delegation Britannique de fournir certaines statistiques- 
concernant le nombre des fumeurs d'opium a Hongkong et dans les Etablissements des Detroits. (V. 
ces questions et reponses a la suite des rapports qu'elles concernent au Vol. II). 

M. T'ang-kouo-an, se referant a ces dernieres questions, declare que sa Delegation saisit cette 
occasion d'exprimer combien elle apprecie les mesures recemment prises par les autorites de Hongkong 
centre la contrebande de I'opium vers la Chine, laquelle, d'aprfes le commissaire des Douanes h 
Kowloon, a beaucoup diminue depuis les dernieres annees. 

Deux questions sont soumises par M. T'ang-kouo-an a la Delegation Fran5aise au sujet de la 
quantite d'opium importee a Kouan-tcheou-ouan. (V. Vol. II a la suite du rapport frangais). 

Sir C. Clementi Smith exprime ses remerciements a M. T'ang pour ses remarques au sujet de- 
Taction des autorites de Hongkong, D'apres les informations qu'il possede le Gouvernement de 
Hongkong est au courant de tout ce que devient I'opium introduit dans ce Port et a de bonnes raisons 
de croire qu'il n'existe actuellement aucune contrebande de Hongkong vers le territoire Chinois. 

Les rapport imprimes du Portugal et des Etals-Unis sont distribues et le President annonce que 
la discussion de ces rapports sera a Tordre du jour. 

Le premier Deiegue de France demande que, s' il y a d'autres questions a poser sur le rapport 
fran^ais, elles soient presentees sans delai. 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCts- VeRBAUX EN FRANgAIS. I03 

Le Dr. H. Wright ayant pos6 uiie question a la D^ldgation Britannique sur la quantite d'opium 
fumer embarquee a Hongkong ou dans les Etablissements des Di^troits pour les Philippines, le 
resident demande si quelque Comite est pret a soumetlre son rapport a la Commission. 



Le Dr. Tenney, au nom du Comite des Trait^s et Accords Internationaux existant sur le trafic de 
I'opium declare que le rapport, non imprime, ne peut pas encore etre depose, mais qu'il pent le lire- il 
ajoute que le Comite a pris la liberty d'ajouter k son nom les mots "et de ses ddrivfes." 

Apres la lecture de ce rapport Sir C. Clementi Smith exprime I'opinion que ni lui ni ses collegues 
n'oiit jamais prdvu que le Comit6 ferait des extraits de certains Trait^s ou Accords et donnerait son 
interpretation de la signification exacte de ces extraits. Lui, en tout cas, n'oserait pas faire quoi que ce 
soil de ce genre et il considere cela comma un procedd extremement dangereux, ces questions ^tant 
gdneralement laissees a I'interpr^tation des Gouveriiements intdress^s. 

Finalement il est d^cidd de laisser !e rapport en I'^tat jusqu' a ce que les diverses Delegations 
aient eu le temps de I'etudier. 

Aucune autre question n'^tant presentee, le T. R. Eveque Brent constate que la Commission a 
attaint son premier objet et declare que la presentation de resolutions sera maintenant k I'ordre du jour. 
Avant de passer a ce genre de travail il attire I'attention de I'Assemblee sur certaines considerations et 
certaines principes qui lui paraissent importants dans cette occurence. II cite un passage du Rapport 
sur la seconde Conference de la Haye au sujet des Conferences et Commissions simblables a celle qui 
est actuellement reunie a Shanghai; il est rappele, dans cet extrait, que le but des Conferences et des 
Commissions ast d'arriver a un accord et non k une contrainte; que I'accord doit etre reel et non apparent 
seulement; et qu'il ast preferable de laisser un sujet temporairement de cote, de le renvoyer a une 
Conference ulterieure, plut6t cjue d'en arriver a irriter I'une ou I'aucre des Puissances representees. 

Convaincu que ces principes sont ceux de la Commission, le President insiste sur la respons- 
abilite qu'elle encourt, ainsi que lui, personnellement, comme son chef. Les resultats de cette Com 
mission seront directs et indirects; directs en ce qu'ils sont appeies a prendre eventuelleraent la formt 
■da lois dans les divers pays representes; indirects en ce qu'ils produiront leur impression sur I'opinion 
publique en faisant naitre des sentiments, arbitres supremes dans toutes les grandes questions. Ls 
monde attend de cette Commission quelquechose de deSnitif, sinon de final, et la Commission a devane 
elle une matiere suffisante pour qu'elle puisse arriver a des conclusions precieuses. 

II est probable qu'avant d'arriver a I'entente il y aura a traverser I'epreuve de la discussion, male 
le President espere avec confiance que chacun gardera le respect des convictions d'autrui et observera la 
plus parfaite courtoisie. 

Des resultats de cette Commission, dependent deux grandes questions; d'abord le principe merae 
•de retuda Internationale de questions controversees, car I'institution des Commissions Internationales est 
encore recente, et, selon les resultats donnes par celle-ci, il peut gagner ou perdre dans I'estime publique. 
Ensuite, si la Commission n'arrive pas a des resultats pratiques et appredables, la question de I'opium 
risque de retomber aux mains des agitateurs et des extremistes pour la plus grande confusion de I'opinion 
publique. 

Le President est convaincu que I'Assembiee est consciente de sa responsabilite et espbre qu'elle 
remplira noblement son devoir. 

II la remercie de la courtoisie et de la dignite qui a caracterise ses travaux sans qu'il ait eu a 
intervenir pour maintenir I'ordre, et espere que jusqn'a la fin ces qualites continueront a prevaloir au 
sein de la Commission. 

II suggere enfin que, suivant la niethode suivie jusqu'a ce jour les resolutions soient presentees 
par les differenres Delegations dans I'ordre alphabetique des Pays qu'elles representent, la discussion ne 
venant qu'apres le depot de toutes les resolutions. 

II est decide de proceder ainsi, mais sans fixer aucune limile de temps pour le depot des 
resolutions. 

La seance est levee et la prochaine reunion remise au 23 fevrier k loh 30 du matin. 



I04 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

PROCfeS-VERBAL DE LA ONZlfeME STANCE, 

23 Fevrier 1909 

La seance est ouverte a ro I1.-30 du msuin. 

Apies lecture par le premier D6\6gu6 Britaniii(iue de reponses (Cf. Vol. II) aux questions 
qui lui ont ^te pos($es par les Delegations Am^ricaine et Chinoise, le Dr. Rossler propose que les 
resolutions a soumettre a la Commission soient pr^alablement discutdes par un Comite afin d'dviter 
des debats inutiles. Sir C. Clementi Smith pense (]ue les resolutions doivent etre renvoyees a un 
Comit^ apres leur adoption et non avant d'avoir dte soumises a la Commission. Le Premier Del^gu^ 
de France partage ce point de vue. 

Mise aux voix la proposition du Dr. Rodssler est ecart^e par 6 contre 5. 

La Coniniission se trouve a ce moment en presence des textes suivants distribues d'avance aux 
difKrentes Delegations : 

(<i) Resolutions propos^es par les D^legfues Americans et bashes sur I'etude des diffdrents rapports 
pr6senies par les diverses Delegations a la Commission Internationale de Topium. 

I. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission de I'Opium par les Delegations des 
Puissances reconnaissent que I'opium, ses alcaloidei, preparations et derives sonl ou devraient etre 
reserves aux usages legitimes de la niedecine ; 

Pour ces motifs la Commission Internationale de I'Opium est d'avis (|u'un effort commun devrait 
etre fait par les pays representes en vue de confiner immediatement ou dans un avenir prochain, 
I'opium, Ses alcaloides, preparations et derives aux usages legitimes de la medecine; 

De plus la Commission Internationale de I'Opium est d'avis que chaque Gouvernement represente 
est le mieux qualifie poar determiner, en ce qui concerne ses nationaax respectifs el les peoples 
dependants ou proteges, ce qui doit etre considere comme usage medical legitime. 

2. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission Internationale de I'Opium par les 
Delegations reconnaissent qae, par suite d'une connaissance insafifisante des efifets desastreux qn'entraine 
I'usage iminodere et inconsidere de I'opium, de ses alcaloides, preparations et derives, et faute d'une 
opinion Internationale commune sur la question geiierale de I'opium en ce qui concerne la production 
et le libre usage de I'opium, de ses alcaloides, preparations et derives, certains problemes budgetaires 
dependent etroilement et principalement de la production, de la vente et de I'usage de I'opium, de ses 
alcaloides preparations et derives ; 

Pour ces motifs, la Commission Internationale de Topium reconnait que ces problemes 
budgetaires existent encore et que leur solution demandera un certain temps; 

Elle est d'avis cependant qu'aucun Gouvernement, ne devrait soit par principe soit par necessite, 
continuer a, depeiidre etroitement et principalement de la production de I'opium, de ses alcaloides 
preparations et derives, comme faisant partie essentielle de ses recettes; 

Elle est encore d'avis que les problemes budgetaires, tels qu'ils existent, ne sont pas de nature 
a dejouer les efforts des Goavernements qui doivent les resoudre ; et ciu'une solution devrait etre donnee 
aussitot que possible en vue de reieguer I'opium, ses alcaloides, preparations et derives a lenrs usages 
propres, et legitimes, en matiere m^dicale. 

3. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission Internationale de I'opium par les 
Delegations dedarent qu'il est defendu k leurs nationaux de fumer I'opium; considerant en outre que 
quelques-uns desdits rapports dedarent que la meme prohibition s'etend aux peuples dependants ou 
proteges de certains Gouvernements representes ; 

Pour ces motifs, la Commission Internationale de I'opium est d'avis que le principe de la 
prohibition totale de la fabrication, de la distribution et de I'usage de I'opium a fumer est le vrai principe 
qui doit etre applique k tous les peuples, aussi bien dependants ou proteges que nationaux • et qu'aucun 
systeme pour la fabrication, la distribution ou I'usage de I'opium k fumer ne devrait continuer a exister 
si ce n'est dans le but expresse et unique de supprimer au plus tot les maux qn'entraine I'habitude de 
fumer I'opium. 

4. — Considerant que les rapports soumis k la Commission Internationale de I'Opium par les Delega- 
tions rappellent que chacun de leurs Gouvernements a des lois strides dont le but direct ou indirect est 
d'empecher sur leurs territoires respectifs I'entree en contrebande de I'opiurr!, de ses alcaloides prepara- 
tions et derives. 

Pour ces motifs la Commission Internationale de I'Opium est d'avis que c'est un devoir pour tous 
les Pays qui continuent a produire I'opium, ses alcaloides, preparations et derives, d'empecher aux ports 
de sortie I'erabarquement d'aucun alcaloide, preparation ou derive de I'opium a destination d'un pays qui 
interdit I'entree sur son territoire desdits alcaloides, preparations ou derives de I'opium. 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCES-VeRBAUX EN pRANgAIS. I05 

5. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission Internationale de I'Opium par les 
Delegations indiquent que Tabus de la morphine, de ses sels et d^rivds, est indissolublement li^ a Tabus 
de Topium lui-meme, et que leur usage accompagne, et, tot ou tard, d^passe Tusage de Topiuni lui-meme- 

Pour ces motifs, la Commission Internationale de TOpium est d'avis que des Accords Interna- 
tioiiaux tres stricts sont necessaires pour coiitroler la fabrication, le commerce et Tabus present ou futur 
de la morphine, de ses sels et derives par les ressortissants des Gouvernements reprdsent^s k la Commission 
Internationale de TOpium. 

6. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission Internationale de TOpium par les 
Delegations indiquent que, bien que chaque Gouvernement represente soit le mieux qualifi^ pour rdder 
par ses lois nationales les problemes intdrieurs souleves par la fabrication, Timportation ou Tabus de 
I'opium, de ses alcaloides, preparations et derives, cependant aucun desdits Gouvernements representes 
ne pent r^soudre completement ses problemes interieurs de Topium sans Taide de tous les Gouverne- 
ments interesses dans la production et la fabrication de Topium, de ses alcaloides, preparations et derives; 

Pour ces motifs la Commission Internationale de TOpium est d'avis que des efforts concertos 
doivant etre faits par les Gouvernements representes k la Commission Internationale de TOpium en vue 
de s'assister mutuellement pour la solution de leurs problemes interieurs respectifs souleves par Topium. 

7. — Considerant que les rapports soumis a la Commission Internationale de TOpium par les 
Delegations reconnaissent directement ou indirectement que les resolutions ci-dessus ne peuvent devenir 
effectives que par Taction comhinee des Gouvernements interesses; 

Pour ces motifs il est decide que la Commission Internationale de TOpium dans son ensemble, et 
chaque Delegation en ce (|ui concerne son Gouvernement, recommande la convocation aussi rapide que 
possible d'une Conference Internationale chargee de negocier une Convention definitive basee sur les 
conclusions de la Commission Internationale de TOpium et sur les resolutions qu'elle aura adoptees. 

(d) Resolution separec proposee par la Delegation Americaine. 

Considerant que Tun des objets formels de la Commission Internationale de TOpium est 
d'encourager la Chine dans ses efforts pour debarrasser TEmpire de Tabus de Topium, de ses alcaloides 
preparations et derives; 

La Commission Internationale de TOpium est d'avis (\ue toutes les nations ayant des traites avec 
la Chine ont le devoir de notifier au Gouvernement Chinois qu'elles consentiront a la prohibition 
complete de Timportation de Topium, de ses alcaloides, preparations et derives aussitot que la Chine 
aura prouve d'une fagon satisfaisante que la prohibition de la culture du pavot en Chine est devenue 
effective; et que, cette preuve etant fournie, tout traite, stipulation ou accord special qui pourrait gener 
a libra action de la Chine vis-a-vis de Topium etranger devrait etre abroge. 

(c) Resolutions proposees par la Delegation Britannique. 

I. — La Commission reconnait la sincerite inebranlable du Gouvernement Chinoise dans ses efforts 
oour deraciner la production et la consommation de Topium a travers TEmpire; Tiniportance croissante 
de la partie de Topinion publi(|ue qui, parmi ses ressortissants, fait corps pour soutenir ces efforts; et le 
progres, reel bien c|u'inegal, deja accompli dans une tache qui est d'une ampleur immense, 

2. — Les representants de la Chine a cette Commission sont malheureusement hors d'etat de fournir 
despreuves statistiquessures temoignant de la portee actuelle de la diminution obtenue dans la production; 
et la Commission redoute qu'a certains egards cet element fondamental du probleme de la prohibition ne 
presente de plus en plus de difficultes : en consequence la Commission recommande fortement aux 
Gouvernements interesses d'entrer en negociations avec le Gouvernement Chinois en vue d'inaugurer 
des methodes plus systematiques de trailer la question de la production. 

3. — La Commission trouve que le manque de restrictions a la fabrication, a la vente et a la 
distribution de la morphine constitue d'ores et deja un grave danger pour la Chine, et (|ue la morphino- 
manie, tend a se repandre parmi les autres peuples de TExtreme-Orient et ailleurs : la Commission, en 
consequence desire insister fortement aupres de tous les Gouvernements sur Timportance que presente- 
rait I'etablissement de mesures draconniennes par chaque Gouvernement sur son propre territoire et dans 
ses possessions pour controler la fabrication, la vente et la distribution de cette drogue ainsi que des 
autres derives de Topium qu'une enquete scientifique pourrait signaler comme susceptibles d'abus 
semblables et d'effets similaires a ceux de Topium. 

4. La Commission trouve que Tusage de Topium sous quelque forme que ce soit autre que 

Tusage medical est considere par presque tous les pays representes comme devant etre prohibd ou 
soioneusement rbglemente : et que chacun des systemes de leglementation actuellement appliques a pour 
but" selon les occasions, d'augmenter progressivement les restrictions. Considerant la grande diversite 
des'conditions prevalant dans les differentes contrees, la Commission n'est pas en mesure de prononcer 
que Tun quelconque des systemes de reglementation est decisivement supe'rieur aux autres; mais elle 
attire Tattention des Gouvernements interesses sur Topportunite d'un noiivel examen de leurs systemes 
de reglementation a la lumiere de Texperience des autres pays ayant a traiter les memes problemes. 

g. La Commission, telle qu'elle est constituee, ne saurait entreprendre Tenquete a un point de 

vue scientifique sur les remedes contre Topium et sur les proprieies et les effets de Topium et de ses 
produits ; mais elle considere qu'une enquete de ce genre aurait la plus haute importance et desire en 



io6 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

consequence que cliaque Delegation recommande cette braiiche du sujet a son Gouvernement pour que 
celui-ci prenne telles mesures qu'il croiia necessaire a cet egard. 

Le President annonce que les Resolutions seront presentees dans I'ordre alphabetique de la liste 
officielle des Delegations. 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright se leve alors pour presenter a la Commission les Resolutions redig^es 
par la Delegation Americaine, en exprimant I'espoir qu'elles rencontreront I'approbation unanime de la 
Commission. Elles ont ete congues dans le meme esprit qui a anime le Gouvernement Americain 
lorsqu'il a entrepris de convoquer cette Commission, esprit de sympathie aussi bien pour les peuples qui 
ont a faire face a des problemes financiers souleves par I'opium que pour ceux qui se trouvent handicapes 
dans la lutte des affaires commerciales par I'usage et Tabus de cette drogue. Toutes les Delegations 
avant et surtout depuis leur anivee a Shanghai ont etudie profondement la question de I'opium et, I'orateur 
n'en doute pas, toutes ont pu se rendre compte de la difficulte du prol>leme, surtout en ce qui concerne la 
Chine et I'lnde'. II etend sa sympathie non seulement a la Chine, pour les malheurs que I'opium cause a 
sa population, mais, poussant plus loin que Sir A. Hosie, aux Gouvernements de I'lnde anglaise, de 
Hong-Kong, des Etablissements des Detroits, de I'lndochine frangaise, du Siam, du Portugal et des 
Pays-Bas, qui ont a traiter de graves problfemes financiers resultant de la production, de la fabrication ou 
du commerce de I'opium dans ces pays. 

Cependant, dit-il, la Delegation Americaine a conclu a I'abolition du trafic de I'opium qu'elle 
considere comme aussi necessaire qu'a pu I'etre autrefois I'abolition du trafic des esclaves. La situation 
n'est pas sans offrir quelque analogie avec celle qui existait a propos de la traite des noirs, et c'est avec 
admiration que I'on voit de nouveau la meme grande nation se preparer a sacrifier un gros revenu 
dans le but de faire cesser un grand mal. Le temps de Warren Hastings n'est plus et maintenant un 
autre grand homnie d'Etat, grand philosophe aussi. Lord Morley ne craint pas de dire qu'il n'est pas 
entierement d'accord avec la Commission Royale de l'Opium aux Indes, et de recommander a la 
Chambre des Communes les conclusions de la Commission des Philippines, declarant que I'usage de 
I'opium est un raal tel qu'aucun benefice financier ne saurait Ic compenser; et le meme homme d'Etat 
insiste sur ce point que la Grande-Bretagne, tout en entrainant la Chine a executer ses engagfements, 
ne doit pas faire dependre uniquement de la I'extinction graduelle du commerce de I'opium, et qu'elle 
doit etre prete a accueillir toute proposition du Gouvernement chinois tendant a abreger le deiai dans 
lequel cette suppression sera effectuee. 

La Grande-Bretagne ne s'arretera pas, continue le Dr. Hamilton Wright, dans la voie qu'elle a 
adoptee, et saura sacrifier s'il le faut ses arrangements particuliers et ses traites desuets comme elle 
sacrifie ses navires demodes. A I'epoque actuelle, la question de I'opium n'est plus une affaire entre 
deux Puissances qui y sont direclement interessees mais une affaire a laquelle peuvent et doivent prendre 
part aussi les Puissances qui ont pu eviter ce probleme dans leurs frontieres. 

A repoque actuelle, esperons-le, et par la voix de cette Commission Internationale, I'opium sera 
reiegue et confine a ses usages ))ropres et legitimes, et ne descendra plus de la place qu'il occupe comme 
un don de la nature destine a apaiser le souffrance pour retomber au rang d'un aliment des vices de 
I'humanite, 

Personnellement, le Dr. Hamilton Wright a pu se rendre compte de la dififioulte qu'eprouvent 
meme les medecins dument qualifies a ne pas ceder a la tentation, trop frequente, de recourir a I'opium 
pour endormir la douleur physique ou mentale de leurs malades ; et il est pour cette raison plus convaincu 
encore que I'opium, sous toutes ses formes, ne doit etre employe (jue dans les cas extremes. 

C'est dans cet esprit que la Delegation Americaine a etudie le probleme international qui souleve 
des questions de revenus, de traites entre differentes Puissances sur la question de I'opium et d'Arrange- 
ments particuliers entre deux Puissances pour le contr61e et la reduction de I'usage de I'opium parmi ces 
peuples qui considerent I'opium comme un remede toujours pret pour toutes leurs petites peines 
physiques ou morales. Elle n'a pas voulu se borner au point de vue medical ou moral ou financier ou 
historique, mais a tente d'embrasser le probleme sous toutes ses formes et elle presente ses Resolutions avec 
I'espoir qu'elles pourront etre acceptees par la Commission dans son ensemble et que bientot pourra etre 
enregistre le premier pas International fait vers la solution de cette question de I'opium. 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright donne lecture ensuite des Resolutions proposees par sa Delegation en 
les commentant et en expliquant a propos de chacune les motifs qui la recommandent a la Commission. 

M. Miyaoka s'enquiert auprfes du President si chaque Delegation sera libre d'introduire aucune 
resolution a quelque moment que ce soit pendant le cours des travaux jusqu'au vote final des Resolutions. 
Le President dit que c'est a I'assembiee de decider s'il lui parait preferable de recevoir les Resolutions 
deja deposees ou d'accepter la presentation de toutes celles qui pourraient etre pretes et de les discuter 
seriatim. II croit savoir que les Resolutions Chinoises ne sont pas encore pretes a etre distribuees. Sir 
C. dementi Smith suggfere que I'Assembiee procede a I'examen des Resolutions proposees par la 
Delegation Americaine sans plus tarder, et cette proposition est acceptee. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VeuBAUX EN FrANQAIS. to? 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright propose aiors I'adoption de la premifere Resolution Americaine ; 

Au nom de la Ddl^gation Britannique Sir C. Clementi Smith expose les raisons pour lesquelles il 
lui est impossible de donner son concours a cetie proposition ; d'al)ord elle interprete d'une fiigon 
erronnde ceilains des Rapports pr^sent^s a la Commission lorsc|u'elle dit, dans son pr^ambule, c)ue ces 
Rapports reconnaissent que I'usage de I'opium doit etre liinite aux pratiques m^dicales; cela est vrai 
pour certains des Pays repr^sentes, les Etats-Unis et le Canada, la Cliine meme ou le caractere 
particulier de la machine administrative ne semhle pas laisser d'alternative possible entre la prohibition 
totale et la licence sans restriction. Mais duns d'autres pays la question se presente sous un aspect 
totalement different : ou bien ils n'admettent.pas <iue I'opium doive elre confine dans ses usages medicaux, 
ou, s'ils I'admettent, c'est conime un but tres eloigne et non comme un guide pratique de leur action dans 
un avenir rapprochd ; tel est le cas de I'lnde oil la politique deolaree est la rei;lementation et non la 
prohibition, sauf en Birmanie oil une experience de la prohibition est actueliement tentee. L'habitude 
de I'opium est lepandue dans I'lnde depuis des siecles, mais il suffit de comparer ses statistiques avec 
I'exteiision rapide prise en Chine par la culture dii pavot pour s'assurer que le sysieme de reglementation 
adopte dans I'lnde a ete efficace pour prdvenir les abus. Des mesures despotiques dans ce pays ne se 
justifieraient que si l'habitude de I'opium avait cause une degradation sociale etendue, ce dont nous 
n'avons pas la preuve, ou si I'opinion publique devenait favorable. Les difficult^s ne seraient pas 
seulement, ni meme surtout financiferes, mais plutot politi(|ues. II sufifit de mentionner que tout le long 
de la frontifere sepientrionale et dans le cceur meme de i'lnde se trouvent des Etats ind^pendants ou 
proteges qui conservent le droit de produire, et lourniraient bien vite aux demandes des opiomanes si la 
prohibition etait adoptee par le Gouvernement de I'lnde. Le passe r^pond du present et de I'avenir a 
ce point de vue. En Birmanie meme, avec le soulien de la meilleure et de la plus grande partie de 
I'opinion publique la prohibition a ete tenue en echec pendant plus de 15 annees et peut a peine etre 
regardee comme eiablie delinitivement a I'heure actuelle. Si le Gouvernement se decidait a, piohiber 
I'opium, comme plus dangereux que I'alcool ou le chanvre dont il regie d^ja la consommation, il est 
clair que ce ne pouirait etre qu'apres une longue periode de preparation par la poursuile perseverante de 
la politique de rfeglementation. 

II est egalement clair, ajoute I'orateur, que le Gouvernement de I'lnde ne saurait priver les 
indigenes d'une drogue c|ui fait le fond de toute leur medicameniation : meme si la Resolution etait 
acceptee il faudrait pendant longtemps encore donner I'interpretation la plus eiendue aux termes "usage 
medical legitime," ce qui rendrait la prohibition purement nominale. 

Pour ces raisons la Delegation Britannique ne croii pas pouvoir recommander a son Gouvernement 
I'adoption du principe de la prohibition, auc|uel les informations presenl6es a ceite Commission n'apportent 
aucun appui nouveau. Elle est d'accord avec la Commission pour employer tous les moyens pratiques 
d'enipecher les abus de I'opium, mais croit que ce but sera atteint par I'adoption de la ([uatrieme des 
Resolutions proposees par la Delegation Britannique. 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright et le Dr. Roessler sugerent alors quelques changements de mots dans la 
redaction de la Resolution, mais Sir C. Cleraenti Smith declare qu'il ne peut pas accepter, sous aucune 
forme, une declaration du principe (|ue I'opium doit etre confine simplement et seulement aux usages 
de la medecine, car son Gouvernement ne partage nullement ce point de vue. Le Dr. Hamilton Wright 
reconnait qu'une des plus grandes difficuUes que le Gouvernement de I'lnde rencontrerait serait la 
definition de ce qui constitue "I'usage legitime de la medecine" car il est impossible d'appliquer le 
criterium medical de I'Occident a un grand pays colonial comme I'lnde. Aprfes discussion plus etendue 
il est decide sur I'initiative de M. Ratard que la prise en consideration de la Resolution en question 
sera remise a plus tard de fagon a permettre la recherche d'un terrain d'entente entre les Delegations 
Americaine et Britannique, par une conference prealahle et privee entre les interesses. 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright propose I'adoption de la seconde des Resolutions americaines. Au 
nom de sa Delegation Sir C. Clementi Smith indique qu'il ne lui est pas possible d'accepter cetie 
proposition dans son preambule, car ce n'est pas par suite de I'ignorance des effets desastreux qu'entraine 
I'usage immodere et inconsidere de I'opium ciue sont nes les problemes budgetaires auxquels 
il est fait allusion. Chacun salt au contraire que les plus gros revenus sont procuies par les sytemes 
de reglementation les plus efficaces. De plus, le premier Deiegue de Grande-l'.retagne ne voit pas 
pourquoi la Commission chercherait a dissimuler la gravite de ces problemes budgetaires, ni comment 
elle peut songer a empieter sur le doraaine fiscal d'aucune nation. 

Monsieur Ratard fait remarquer que les considerations fiscales ont un grand poids dans certains 
pays A Java et dans I'lndochine franQaise par exemple, I'accroissement des recettes signifie en realite 
que Vopium est taxe si lourdement ciu'il est mis hors de la portee des populations indigenes. Sur la 
sut'c'estion du Dr. Roessler la discussion de cette resolution est remise a plus tard. 

La troisieme Resolution Americaine est egalement retiree apres discussion pour etre modifiee. 
Le Dr. Hamilton Wright lit ensuite la quatribme Resolution qui aprfes discussion est adoptee avec 
quelques modifications. 



io8 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

La ciiiquieme Resolution Americaine est ^galement retiree en faveur d'une de celles qui sont 
presentees par la Delegation britannique (no. 3), laquelle est adoptee avec quelques legeres alterations 
qui lui donnent une portee plus gen6rale, 

Le stance est Itvee a midi 30. 

A la reprise a 2h. 30 la sixieme resolution americaine, qui venait en discussion est retiree comme 
se confondant avec celle (no. 4), qui a eti d'abord adoptee, dans sa nouvelle forme. La septifeme 
resolution est egalement retiree provisoirement. 

Le Dr. Tenney se leve alors pour proposer I'adoption de la resolution separee presentee par la 
Delegation Americaine, et dont le lexte, modifie depuis le matin, est maintenant le suivant : 

" La Commission Internationale est d'avis que toute nation qui prohibe effectivement la produc- 
tion de I'opium et de ses derives sur son propre territoiie devrait etre libra de prohiber I'importation sur 
ses territoires de I'opium ou de ses derives, excepte pour I'usage medical." 

A I'appui de cette proposition le Dr. Tenney prononce un discours, insistant sur la situation 
particuliere de la Chine, seule nation qui n'ait pas les mains libres lorsqu'il s'agit de defendre ses popula- 
tions contre le fleau de I'opium. On peut avoir confiaiice cependant dans I'excellence de I'opinion 
publique chinoise en ce qui concerne les problemes moraux clairement poses devant elle. 

II est vrai, et la Delegation chinoise I'admet aussi bien que les autres, que le Rapport pre.sente par 
elle est incomplet et ne fournit que des estimations tres approximatives, mais trois fails restent etablis- 
solidement : Le Gouvernement Imperial a piis a coeur le mouvement de reforme anti-opium; il y a eu 
en faveur de cette campagne un mouvement d'opinion reraarquable ; et des progres tres satisfaisants ont 
deja ete accomplls depuis I'Edit Imperial de 1906. II faut que cette Commission tende la main aux 
Chinois et leur donne toute I'assistance possible; il sera plus facile a la Chine de faire un effort energique 
et rapide ([ue de se maintenir pendant une longue periode dans les hauteurs de I'heroisme moral et du 
sacrifice. II faut done qu'elle profile du mouvement actuel pour se debarrasser d'un seul coup du fieau 
de I'opium. 

Ceci, insiste le Dr. Tenney, n'est nullement dirige contre la Grande-Bretagne ; le consentement 
de toutes les Puissances a Tniites est necessaire pour permettre a la Chine d'agir en toute souverainete 
dans cette question de I'opium. Le Resolution proposee donnerait a la Chine une belle occasion de 
montrer ciu'elle est vraimsnt desireuse d'aboutir et qu'elle est capable de s'aider elle-meme. Et si elle 
n'est pas capable de s'aider elle-meme, alors le blame en retombera uniquement sur elle C'est un 
devoir pour toutes les nations de I'aider dans cette conjoncture, et par consequent il n'y a pas lieu de 
demander des compensations. 

M. T'ang-kouo-an, ensoutenant cette Resolution, declare son adhesion absolue a toutes les paroles- 
du Dr. Tenney. Au cours de la discussion celui-ci indique que sa Resolution estdestinee a remplacer 
celle qui avait ete distribuee auparavant. Le Premier Deiegue de Grande-Bretagne considere que I'effet 
de cette Resolution serait une entiere abrogation des Traites et il exprinie sa confiance dans la 
Commission pour repousser toute declaration qui impliquerait que les Nations peuvent rompre les- 
Accords qu'elles ont solennellement adoptes. M. T'ang-kouo-an declare que I'intention du Gouvernement 
Chinois n'est nullement de repudier aucun Accord signe par lui, mais qu'il apprecierait toute nouvelle 
concession que le Gouvernement Britannique croirait pouvoir consentir. Apres quelque discussion 
M. Miyaoka exprime I'opinion que la Commission est en train de se lancer dans I'examen d'une question 
qui a le caractere diplomatique entre la Chine et la Grande-Bretagne, et que toute discussion sur un 
sujet de cette nature depasse la competence de la Commission. Cette opinion est partagee par le 
Premier Deiegue de France. M. Miyaoka pose alors la question prealable suivante : 

"La prise en consideration de la Resolution du Dr. Tenney est-elle dans les limites de la 
competence de la Commission?" 

L'assembiee repond negativement et ecarte ainsi la Resolution. 

Les Resolutions britanniques viennent alors en discussion La premiere est adoptee a I'unanimite. 
La seconde est retiree apres une intervention de M. Miyaoka, faisnt I'eioge de la maniere dont la 
Delegation chinoise a accompli la tiche ardue de preparer un Memorandum sur la question de I'opium, 
et provoquant ainsi de la part de M. T'ang une promesse d'inciter son Gouvernement a inaugurer des 
methodes plus systematiques d'etudier la question de la production de I'opium. La troisieme a deja 
ete adoptee comme amendement a une des propositions amedcaines. La discussion de la Resolution 4 
est remise k plus tard. En ce qui concerne la suivante. Sir C. Clementi Smith explique que c'est la 
meme qui a deja ete adoptee par la Commission dans sa Neuvieme seance. M. Miyaoka declare qu'il 
donne son appui a cette Resolution qui lui parait la seule alternative laissee en dehors de I'enquete sur 
I'opium au point de vue medical qui a ete repoussee. Apres quelque discussion a laquelle prennent part 
le Dr. H. Wright et le Dr. Roessler, ce dernier en proposant un amendement qui est repousse au vote, la 
Resolution est adoptee avec une seule modification, la substitution du mot "permettre" au mot 
" entreprendre." 

La discussion des Resolutions chinoises dont le texte vient d'etre distribue est remise a plus tard 
et la sdance est levee k 4h., 40. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VerBAUX EN pRANgAIS. 109 

DOUZIEME STANCE, 
25 Fevrier 1909. 
La seance est ouverte k 2h. 30 de I'apres-midi. 

Le Premier Delegue du Japon fournit une nouvelle r^ponse k la question pos6e par M. Laidlaw^ 
M.P. au cours de la cinquieme stance. 

Le President annonce que le Delegue de Russie se trouve dans rimpossibilit^ de fournir un 
rapport actuellement sur la question de I'opium dans son pays, mais espere que les renseignements- 
n6cessaires lui arriveront ult^rieurement. Une discussion s'eleve alors sur la publication des proces- 
verbaux et rapports. Le President demande s'il ne serait pas possible de les imprinier a Shanghai, et le 
Secretaire est invitd a. s'informet du prix et autres conditions de publication. 

M. 'I'ang-kouo-an s'enquiert aupres de la Delegation japonaise du montant du droit d'importation 
impose a la morphine entrant cians le "Territoire a bail" de Kuangtoung. La r^ponse est promise pour 
la prochaine stance. Repliquant a une question du Premier Dei^gue n6erlandais, la Delegation 
Portugaise declare qu'elie n'est pas en mesure de fournir en plus de son rapport sur Macao des 
informations sur la question de I'opium a Timor. 

Les deux resolutions suivantes sont alors soumises h. la Commission par les Delegations 
americaine et britannique conjointement. 

I. — En vue de Taction exercee par le Gouvernement Chinois pour supprinier la pratique de fumer 
I'opium et par d'autres Gouvernements dans le raeme but, la Commmission Literriationale de I'opium 
recommande que chaque Delegation interessee incite son Gouvernement a prendre des mesures pour la^ 
suppression graduelle de la pratique de fumer I'opium dans ses 'I'erritoires et Possessions en tenant 
compte des circonstances variables pour chaque Pays interesse. 

2. — La Commission Internationale de I'opium trouve que I'usage de I'opium, sous quelque forme 
que ce soit, autre que I'usage medical, est considere par presque tous les Pays represenies comuie devant 
etre prohibe ou soignausemeut reglemente; et que chaque Pays dans I'adniinistration de son systeme de 
Re^lementation entend avoir pour but, selon les circonstances, d'augmenter progressivement les restric-- 
tions. En formulant ces conclusions la Commission Internationale de I'opium reconnait la grande diversite 
des conditions prevalant dans les diflferentes contrees, mais elle attire I'attention des Gouvernements 
interesses sur I'opportunite d'un nouvel examen de leur systeme de reglementation a la lumiere de 
I'experience des autres Pays qui out a traiter les memes problemes. 

Le Premier Deiegue des Pays-Das declare que, tout en acceptant la premiere de ces Resolutions 
telle qu'elie est, sa Delegation a I'intention de presenter une resolution similaire mais plus comprehensive. 
La Premiere resolution est alors mise aux voix et adoptee a I'unanimite, la Delegation Portugaise 
reservant seule son vole. 

Sir C. Clementi Smith propose ensuite I'adoption de la seconde resolution dont il donne lecture 
et qui est votee dans les memes conditions que la premiere, 

Le Dr. Hamilton Wright annonce que la Delegation Americaine retire definitivement les- 
resolutions qu'elie a originairement proposees sous les Nos. i, 2, 5, 6, et 7. 

M. de Jongh presente alors les resolutions proposees par la Delegation Neerlandaise, ainsi^ 
concjues : 

J Considerant que la suppression totale de I'usage de I'opium dans un deiai de quelques 

annees doit etre consideree comme un ideal eieve mais impossible a atteindre pour le moment; 

qu'en vue de combattre I'usage de I'opium on peut attendre beaucoup de mesures prises 
systematiquement et ayant un effet graduel ; 

qu'une pratique soigneuse de pareilles mesures ne se con5oit que si la direction des affaires 
d'opium est conservee en mains propres (du Gouvernement) de fagon qu'aucun individu n'ait interet, h 
augmenter la vente de la drogue ; , , , , 

qu'un tel systbme a sur beaucoup d'autres un grand avantage qui le rend recommandable, c est 
qu'il garaniit contre la diffusion de Thabitude de fumer dans les districts oil cette habitude est encore 

II est resolu de recommander aux Gouvernements des Pays ori des systemes differents sont en 

vieueur : — . • j ,, • j 1 ^ j- • ^ 

(a) qu'il soit decide en principe que tout ce qui regarde I'opium dans leur ressort sera dirige par 
I'Etat et que Tetablissement de ce systeme ne sera pas retarde plus longtemps que les circonstances ne- 
I'exigeront; 



no Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

{d) que, sans s'occuper de savoir si le Controle direct du Gouvernement a d^ja eie mis en vigueur 
ou non, les mesures suivantes soient prises imm6aiatement pour restreindre I'usage de I'opium, 

(i). faire bien comprendre aux fonctionnaires enropeens ou indigenes qui sont capables d'avoir 
une influence sur la consommation que le Gouvernement est resolu a combattre celle-ci; 

(2). ne pas permettre a qui que ce soit faisant uiage de I'opium de servir dans i'administration 
civile, militaire ou maritime. 

(3). imprimer dans I'esprit des enfaiits a I'ecole et des adultes partout et toujours les maux result- 
ant de ['usage de I'opium ; en un mot instruire I'opinion publique a ce sujet par tous les moyens.; afin de 
d6veiopper la tendance contiaire a I'opium, faire appel a I'aide de soci^t^s privdes ayant en vue 
d'amelinrer la morality de parties speciales de la population, et dont le but et les methodes paraitront 
satisfaisantes ; 

(4). Prohiber la vente de I'opium aux enfants ; 

(5). Donner toute publicity, y compris la vente a prix coutant, a tout remade contre I'opium au 
cas ou un tel remade se rdpandrait a I'dtranger qui ne conlienne ni morphine ni aucun ingredient malsain; 

(6). Maintenir s'il en existe, dans leur etendue actuelle, et si possible augmenter les suifaces 
soumises a la defense, en combinant ou non avec le systeme de donner des licences aux fumeurs 
habituels ; 

(7). Exclure de I'usage de la drogue des sections speciales de la population. 

(8). Diniinuer le nombre des debits et fumeries, et diminuer le nombre d'heures pendant lesquelles 
ils peuvent rester ouverts ; 

(9). Relever les prix de I'opium au detail. 

II Considdrant que la contrebande de I'opiuui va a I'encontre des mesures varices prises 

par les divers Gouvernements en vue de combattre I'usage de I'opium ; 

que la contrebande cause de grandes uertes aux Tresors, et de plus necessite de grandes ddpenses 
pour la combattre; 

qu'elle a un effet ddmoralisant a la fois sur les individus qui se livrent a ce commerce et sur les 
ofificiers de Dounnes et de Police ; 

que I'expdrience enseigne que la contrebande de I'opium, a cause de la grande valeur de ce 
produit sous un petit volume, est extremerr.ent difficile a combattre par les moyens employes jusqu'a ce 
jour individuellement par les divers Gouvernements; 

qu'il y a lieu en consequence de s'efforcer de supprimer la contrebande par une action concertee 
des divers Gouvernements ; 

et qu'une pareille action Internationale n'est possible qu'apres (\ue dans tous les Pays I'opium aura 
616 pris en mains propres (des Gouvernements); 

II est rdsolu : 
de recommander aux divers Gnuvernements, apres qu'ils auroiit dtabli un systeme de conliole direct de 
I'opium, d'entrer en n6gociations, par la voie diplon)atique, dans le but que par la suite le Commerce 
en gros de I'opium ne soit permis cju'entre les Gouvernements de pays producteurs et consommateurs 
d'opium, et soit ddfendu a toute personne privee. 

M. de Jongh propose I'adoption de la premiere de ces Resolutions. Le Premier J)6\6gu6 du 
Japon demande si la Delegation Neerlandaise considere cette resolution conime un amendement a 
celles qui viennent d'etre presentees par les deux Delegations Americaine et Britannique rdunies et 
adoptees par la Commission. M de Jongh rdpond que, dans son esprit, ce n'est pas un amendement, 
mais une resolution basde sur des principes plus larges; cependant il serait peut-etre possible dfe les 
comprendre dans un texte uni(|ue. A I'avis de la Delegation Japonaise les deux resolutions sont 
incompatibles, et telle est aussi I'opinion du Premier Deiegue de la Grande-Bretagne qui critique les 
differentes dispositions de la proposition neerlandaise, toutes inuliles ou inopportunes a son avis. Le 
Dr. Hamilton Wright propose (|ue la Resolution en question soit retiree de la discussion, et soit 
rapportee sous forme de Declaration de la Delegation neerlandaise au proces-verl)al. Elle aurait sous 
cette forme a peu pres le nieme effet que si elle etait adoptee comme Resolution par la Commission. 
Cette suggestion, acceptee par M. de Jongh, est approuvee par I'assembiee. 

M. de Jongh propose alors I'adoption de sa seconde resolution. Une nouvelle discussion s'ensuit 
les dispositions de ce texte paraissant inacceptables a certains tandis c|ue leur utilite est reconnue par 
d'autres Delegations. Finalement il est entendu que, de meme que pour la premiere, il y aurait lieu 
d'incorporer cette resolution dans le proces-verbal sous forme de declaration. 

La Delegation chinoise presente a. la Commission quatre Resolutions. En les soumettant a 
I'Assembiee dans leur ensemble, M. T'ang Kouo-an prononce un discours eloquent oil il expose le 
point de vue chinois sur la question de I'opium. 

Pour la Chine le probleme de I'opium est une des questions economiques et morales les 
plus aigues c]u'elle ait a traiter aciuellement en tant que nation. Elle sait que la solution depend 
d'elle principalement et a mesure toutes les difficuUes, calcuie le prix; elle s'est determinee a se 
debarrasser du fleau de I'opium coute que coute ; elle n'oublie pas cependant qu'une collaboration 
internationale est essentielle au succes. 



SOMMAIRE DES PrOCES-VeRBAUX EN FraN^AIS. Ill 

La Delegation Ohinoise est heureuse de constater la presence des D^l^gu^s de la Grande- 
Bretagiie, le pays qui avec la Chine a le plus grand int^ret-dans la question de Topiuni, et qui a accueilli 
avec tant de sympathie les propositions chinoises depuis deux annees ; la presence des Ddlegu^s de 
1 Amerique, ce pays (jui a doniie en convoquant cette reunion uiie si grande marque d'amiti^ 
d6sinteress6e; de ceux de rAllemagne, de la France, de la Russie, a Faction desquelles la Chine se plait 
a rendre hommage ainsi qu'aux autres contr^es qui ont bien voulu se faire representer. La Chine est 
heureuse de se sentir entouree de toutes ces sympathies et se sent assuree de la cooperation internationale 
qui lui est necessaire. 

On pourrait douter que la Chine soit capable de prendre en main elle-raeme le problfeme de 
I'opium, mais Taction ddterminee du Goiivernement et des Hauts Fonctionnaires est soutenue par le 
sentiment public qui a ete remue jusque dans scs fondements. Avec I'appui de ce sentiment la question 
financibre elle-meme, qui dtait susceptible de neutraliser les efforts tentes, parait pouvoir etre resolue 
facilement car le peuple acceptera sans difficulte les taxes de remplacement ndcessaires. 

II faut pourlant se hater, car il est difficile de garder au sentiment public toiite son intensity 
pendant une periode etendue. Quand un peuple est prepare a abolir un mal, le remede doit etre 
apport6 sans aucun retard. Tout delai nugmente les difficultes. 

Entier dans la description des effets de I'opium en Chine est inutile. Les chefs du peuple 
chinois regardent cetle drogue comme un ennemi dangereux de la nalioii, et la plus grande partie 
des dix-huit Provinces en est infestee. Dans le Kansou, TEveque Catholique, Mgr. Otto 
admet que six hommes sur huit sont confirmes dans I'habitude de I'opium I 

La Chine se voit imposer par I'opium un fardeau economique qu'elle ne peut plus supporter. 
EUe depense pour la drogue une sonime que Ton peut evaluer a TIs. 250.000.000; la culture du pavot la 
prive du h^n^fice d'autres cultures qui rapporteraient au bas mot TIs. 150.ooo.oco, soit d^ja une perte 
annuelle de TIs. 400.000.000 et si Ton y ajoute la perte subie sous forme de diminution de productivite 
des fumeurs on peut admettre que I'opium coute plus de TIs. 800.000,000 par an a la China. Ces 
pertes n'affectent pas seulement la Chine mais encore toutes les principales nations du monde, car au 
premier rang des causes qui retardent I'essor du commerce de la Chine avec les Puissances etrangeres se 
trouve la pauvrete et le rendement inf6rieur de la population chinoise, deux facteurs Cjui n'eji font qu'un 
seul en realite, et qui sont terriolement aggraves par le fleau de I'opium. Revenue a un etat normal et 
ddveloppant son commerce dans la meme proportion que le Japon a pu le faire, la Chine devrait importer 
plus de 3 milliards de taels de produits etrangers chaque annee au lieu des 450 millions qu'elle absorbe 
actuellement. En regard de ce d^veloppement presque illimite, que doit peser la valeur presente du 
commerce de I'opium? Ce serait une folie commerciale que de maintenir ce trafic qui forme a peine 
7j% du commerce exterieur chinois aux depens de I'expansion future de ce commerce exterieur. C'est 
pourquoila Delegation Chinosie se croit justifi^e en comptant sur la plus large cooperation Internationale. 

II ne faut pas oublier non phis que, si I'on manque de tirer tout le parti possible du mouvement 
d'opinion actuel on portera un coup peut-etre irremediable a r^lement reformiste et progressiste chinois, 
et qu'on retardera d'autant I'essor de cette contree, essor dont les autres nations sont appelees a tirer un 
si grand benefice. 

N'est-il pas evident aussi que I'opiomanie fait beaucoup pour retarder I'entree de la Chine dans le 
Concert des Nations, et pour I'empecher meme de se sentir digne de faire partie de cette grande famille 
internationale? La Chine est entree dans la voie des r^formes e.t du progres; elle se prepare a sa vie et a 
ses responsabilit^s nouvelles, et a I'ambition d'arriver a tenir parmi les nations une place digne de celle 
qu'elle a occupee dans I'histoire lorsqu'elle a repandu sa civilisation au delk de ses frontieres dans la 
Mongolie, la Mandchourie, la Coree, le Japon, le Thibet, le Siam, la Cochinchine et meme dans la 
Birmanie et dans I'lnde. 

La Chine espere done la cooperation la plus complete de tous les pays civilises dans ses efforts 
pour se debarrasser de I'opium, et elle compte que toute restriction, existant dans les Traitds, c|ui serait 
de nature a gener ces efforts, ne sera pas invoquee par les interesses, dussent quelques int6rets priv^s en 
souffrir. 

Enfin la Chine, comme les autres Puissances, considere la question de I'opium comme une ques- 
tion morale surtout, et c'est a ce point de vue t|ue la campagne contre cette drogue a obteiui d'attirer et 
retenir I'attention du peuple chinois; la campagne anti-opium a 6i6 morale et patriotique ; I'agitation 
semble etre le prelude d'une puissante resurrection politique, sociale et commerciale; avec tous les 
defauts de son education la Chine a gardd un grand fonds de sentiment et de morale tir^ de I'etude de 
Confucius et de Mencius. C'est sa grande force quand elle aborde un probleme aussi complique, et cette 
force se double, a I'exterieur, d'une autre grande force de meme nature, la conscience chr^tienne. C'est 
avec cet appui que Ton peut entreprendre cette immense croisade morale du XXe siecle. 

Apres ce discours de M. T'ang, le Dr. Tenney propose que la discussion des Resolutions 
chinoises soit remise a la prochaine seance, ce qui est adopt6 sans difficult^. 

Sir A. Hosie presente le rapport du Comite nomme pour r^unir les elements parsem^s dans les 
divers Rapports sur la culture du pavot et la production de I'opium, apres quoi la Commission leve la 
stance en fixant la prochaine reunion au 25 f^vrier, k loh. 30. 



9 12 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

TREIZlfeME STANCE, 
25 Fevrier 1909. 

La seance est ouverte a ioh.30 du matin. 

Le President donne lecture d'line lettre regue duDeldgue italien qui regrette de ne pouvoir assister 
-a la seance pour cause de maladie, ainsi que d'une communication de M. Charles B. Towns qui depose 
entre ses mains une formule pour gudrir les opiomanes. 

Le Dr. Tenney lit le sommaire du rapport, corrigd depuis la dixieme stance, compost par le 

Comite sur les Accords et Trait^s Internationaux existant au sujet du trafic de I'opium. Le Premier 

Ddl^gue du Portugal fait remarquer que ce rapport laisse de c6te I'accord sino-portugais relatif au 

-commerce et a la contrebande de I'opium k Macao ; le President invite le Comite a tenir compte de cette 

observation dans la redaction definitive de son rapport. 

L'ordre du jonr appelle alors la discussion des resolutions chinoises dont le texte, est ainsi congu : 
I. — La Commission, recoiinaissant I'ardeur du Gouverneraent et du peuple chinois dans leur desir 

•de d^raciner la production et la consommation de I'opium a travers I'Empire, et admeitant qu'un certain 
progres a d^ja 616 accompli dans oette direction, est d'accord pour recommander que, en vue d'aider la 

»Chine a resondre aussi rapidement et aussi efficacement que possible la tiche immense qu'elle a 

«ntreprise, tons les D61egu6s assembles dans cette Commission pousseront leurs Gouvernements respectifs 

Ji promettre leur cooperation et a se declarer prets a r^duire I'importation de I'opium en Chine pari 

passu avec la reduction de la culture du pavot dans les limites de cette contree, 

2. — -La Commission Internationale de I'opium recommande vivement a tons les Gouvernements 
possedant des Concessions ou Settlements en Chine qui n'ont pas encore agi effectivement pour la 
fermeture de toutes les fumeries et de tous les debits d'opium dans lesdits Settlements et Concessions, 
de prendre dans ce but des mesures similaires a celles qui on deja etd adoptees par plusieurs 

•Gouvernements. 

3. — La Commission Internationale de I'opium recommande fortement a tous les Gouvernements 
possedant des Concessions ou Settlements en Chine de prendre les mesures n&essaires pour prohiber 

-dans lesdits Settlements ou Concessions la vente, sous quelque forme que ce soit, de remedes contre 
I'opium contenant de I'opium, de la morphine ou aucun de leurs derives. 

4. — La Commission Internationale de I'opium reconnait les maux immenses actuellement causes 

A la population chinoise par I'usage des injections de morphine et signale aux differents Gouvernements 
prenant part a la Commission le besoin urgent de faire immediatement des lois prohibant I'importation 
^t la vente de la morphine et d^riv^s ainsi que des seringues hypodermiques a tous leurs suiets ou 
citoyens en Chine, a I'exception de la vente a des praticiens dument qualifies et pour un usage 
exckisivement medical. La Commission recommande egalement que les diles lois, lorsqu'elles seront 
passees, prevoient la punition adequate de toute contravention a leurs stipulations par lesdits suiets 
ou citoyens, et qu'il soit bien compris que la possession, sans autorisation, de morphine, de ses derives 

•ou de seringues hypodermiques sera cons\d6r6e prima facie commeune preuve suffisante de culpabilite. 

M. T'ang propose d'abord I'adoption de la premiere de ces Resolutions. 

Sir C. Clement! Smith fait une declaration pour exprimer ses regrets de ne pouvoir soutenir une 
resolution qui, de toute evidence lui parait sortir des attributions de la Commission, et ajoute que 
la Delegation britannique ne retire rien de la sympathie qu'elle a exprimee des le debut ; il pense que 
Taide et la cooperation active fournie a la Chine par la Grande-Bretagne comptera infiniment plus que 
■n'importe quelle declaration irresponsable a laquelle sa Delegation pourrait se laisser entrainer. 

M. Miyaoka exprime sa satisfaction tres sincere pour la declaration sympathique da premier 
'Deiegue Britannique dont la Chine saura, croit-il apprecier le prix. 

M. T'ang-kouo-an dit que la delegation chinoise ti'insiste pas pour la mise aux voix de la premiere 
■de ses resolutions, mais exprime le desir de la voir incorporee dans le rapport de la Commission comme 
-exprimant les vues de la Delegation chinoise et du peuple chinois. 

M. T'ang propose alors I'adoption de la seconde Resolution redigee par la Delegation Chinoise. 

M. Ratard, Premier De'iegue de France, demande si I'intention de la Delegation Chinoise est 
■bien de demander la fermeture des debits en meme temps que des fumeries d'opium. Jusqu'a present 
il avait cru le contraire. D'autre part il ajoute que le contrat pour Kouan-tcheou-ouan est obligatoire 
jusqu'en 1911 et que le Gouvernement frangais ne peut songer a le rompre. II suggere done que les 
"mots "et de lous les debits" soient supprimes, et que les mots ''aussitot qu'ils le jugeront utile" soient 
ajcutes apres les mots "de prendre dans ce but." 

M. Miyaoka saisit I'occasion de cette discussion pour declarer que contrairement a un passrge du 
j-apport de Leech, il n'existe plus aucune fumerie japonaise d'opium a Antoung. 



SOMMAIRE. DKS PROcfes VeRBAUX KN pRANgAIS. II3 

M. T'ang, repoiidant k M. Ratard, admet la suppression des mois " et de tons les debits" car 
I'opinion du Gouvernemeiit Chinois est bien que les debits ne pourroiit etre fermes que concurremment 
avec I'abandon de I'habiiude de fumer. II considfere que les dangers d'incendie, auxquels M. Ratard a fait 
allusion dans sa premiere declaration sur I'opium dans la Concession fian^aise de Shanghai, ne sauraient 
etre un argument sdrieux pour mainlenir les fumeries, car les statisliques des Compagnies d'assurance 
di^niontrent que le nombre des incendies dus aux lampes des fumeurs a domicile est pratiquemenl nul. 
L'existence de fumeries sur la Concession frangaise exerce une action ddcoiirageanie sur les Chinois qui 
en sent informes par la Presse jusqu'aux confins de I'Empire. 11 fait un pressant appal au sentiment de 
la justice Internationale chez les Frangais et espere qu'ils ne refuseiont pas de fermer les fumeries dans la 
Concession. 

M. Ratard repond que des mesures ont et^ prises dfes la publication de I'Edit Imperial, et qu'elles 
ont d^ja eu un certain rdsultat. La Concession frangaise est d^cid^e a fermer les fumeries aussitot 
qa'elle aura la preuve que la Chine a rdellement ferme les siennes. 

II est procede alors a un vote par appel nominal sur rame]idement propose par M. Ratard, le 
resultat etant six voix pour et cinq voix contre, le Ddlegue d'Aiitriche-Hongrie di^clarant i ^server son 
vote. Une discussion s'dleve alors sur la possibility de niaintenir cette reserve qui anete la discussion, 
et sur le temps qu'elle pourra durer. Pour r^soudre cette difificult^, M. Miyaoka demandeala Delegation 
Chinoise de faire quelque concession afin d'entrer dans les vues de M. Ratard. M. 'J''ang propose alors 
de modifier I'amendement de M. Ratard en substituant les mots "aussitot que possible" aux mots 
"aussitot qu'ils le jugeront utile," et exprime I'espoir que la France ne se laissera pas arreter par des 
considerations d'interet prive. 

M. Ratard declare ne pouvoir accepter les mots "aussitot que possible" dont le sens est trop 
imperatif; il proteste dnergiquement contre I'allusion offensante faile par M. T'ang a des "intdrets 
privds," affirmant que des considerations de cet ordre n'entrent absolument pour rien dans les motifs de 
la politique suivie par la Concession frangaise a propos des fumeries d'opium. Le President declare que 
ces paroles de M. T'ang doivent etre retirees, et M. T'ang explique qu'il n'a pas voulu dire que I'intdret 
personnel d'aucun individu pourrait etre pris en consideration, mais bien I'interet prive de la Concession 
au point de vue de ses recettes budgetaires. 

Sur une nouvelle intervention du Dr. Roessler et du Dr. Hamilton Wright, M. T'ang accepte 
I'amendement de j\I. Ratard, en substituant le mot "possible" au mot "utile." 

Cet amendement, avec cette nouvelle redaction: "aussitot qu'ils le jugeront possible" est mis 
aux voix et adopte alors a I'unanimite. 

M. T'ang propose ensuite i'adoption de la troisifeme Resolution Chinoise en redisant que les 
soit-disant pilules contre I'opium, qui continnent de I'opium, de la morphine ou tout autre derive de 
I'opium, se repandent avec une rapidite inquietante, et que plusieurs nationalitds etrangerts prennent une 
trfes grande part a ce commerce, specialement le Japon. 

M. r^Iiyaoka declare que cette Resolution a la sympathie de la Delegation Japonaise, mais regrette 
que l'existence de fabricjues japonaises et d'un commerce japonais des pilules en question n'ait pas ete 
signalee plus tot au Gouvernement Japonais. Au cours de I'cnquete faite par sa Delegation ce sujet a 
attire son attention et des analyses sont faites actuellement a Tokio. Mais, comnie aucune communica- 
tion n'a ete faite a cet egard aux fonctionnaires Japonais residant en Chine, et qui etaient tout designes 
pour etre saisis de la question, M. Miyaoka ne croit pas pouvoir appuyer la Resolution dont il s'agit, et 
espere que la Delegation Chinoise voudra bien la retirer. 

En reponse a une demande de M. Ratard, M. T'ang reconnait que les docteurs et medecins 
chinois n'ayant pas fait d'eludes occidentales ne peuvent pas etre consideres comme des praticiens 
qualifies pour ordonner ou non I'usage de la morphine. 

M. Ratard pense que le sujet de la Resolution serait mieux traite par la voie diplomatique qu'au 
sein de cette Commission. M. Miyaoka, le Dr. Hamilton Wright partagent cet avis, mais ce dernier 
pense que I'adoption d'une Resolution relative aux pilules centre I'opium ne pourra (|ue hater la negocia- 
tion M T'an^ insiste sur ce point que les pilules ne sont encore visees par aucune loi ni aucun traite, au 
contraire de I'opium et de la morphine. Le premier Deiegue de France pense qu'il est difficile d'inter- 
venir dans ce commerce; en France une pareille intervention ne pent etre autonsee que par une loi, et 
meme un Traite, signe a, ce sujet, devrait etre soumis au Parlement pour sa ratification. II propose, 
comme amendement que la Resolution soit redigee dans les termes suivants: 

"La Commission recommande fortement que chaque Delegation incite son Gouvernement a 
entrer en ne^rociations avec le Gouvernement chinois dans le but que des mesures promptes et_ effectives 
soient prises dans les diverses Concessions ou Settlements pour prohiber le connmerce et la fabrication de 
remedes contre I'opium qui contiendraient de I'opium ou aucun de ses derives." 



114 Commission Internationale de l'Opium. 

Cette nouvelle redaction, acceptde par la Delegation chinoise est adoptee a runanimit^. 
La stance est levde a 1211.30. 

A la reprise, a 211.30 I'ordre du jour appelle la discussion de la quatrieme resolution chinoise. 
Dans sa forme originelle, elle n'avait pas paru acceptable a la majority des Delegations et, sur la 
suggestion des Deidguds americains, elle est prdsent^e apres modifications et ainsi conQue : 

"La Commission recommande fortement que chaque Delegation incite son Gouvernement a 
appliquer ses lois sur la pharmacie a ses sujets dans les districts eonsulaires, Concessions ou Settlements 
en Chine." 

Ainsi amendee cette resolution est acceptee a I'unanimite. (N. B. La Delegation portugaise a 
reserve son vote dans toutes ces decisions. Le vote de la Delegation italienne n'a pas ete donne, M. 
Faraone etant absent.) 

Le Premier Deiegue de la France lit des extraits de deux lettres qu'il a le^ues du Szechoueii 
d'apres lesquelles la culture du pavot continue dans cette province comme par le passe. II lit ensuite la 
declaration suivaiite : 

"Bien que ni I'lndo-Chine frangaise ni la France ne soient des pays producteurs d'opium et que 
" I'usage de I'opium, pratiquement inconnu en France, ne fasse en Indo-Chine pour ainsi dire aucun 
'• ravage dans les populations indigenes. 

" La Delegation tient k declarer avant la cloture des travaux de la Commission Internationale de 
" rOpium. 

"(i)Qu'ence qui concerne I'lndo-Cliine frangaise Tadniiaistration frangaise continuera a tenir 
'■ fermement la main a I'observation des prescriptions exposees dans la note qui a ete presentee a la 
"Commission et dont I'effet a eie deja de reduire dans une tres notable proportion les importations de 
"I'opium brut et la consommation du chaiidoo. 

"(2) Qu'en ce qui concerne Quang-tcheou-wan oil le Gouvernement frangais est lie par un contrat 
"avec la Ferme existante jusqu'a la fin de I'annee 191 1, les Deiegues franc^ais croient de leur devoir 
"vis-^-vis de leurs Coliegues chinois d'etre ici les interpretes de la ferme intention de M. le Gouverneur 
" General d'appliquer dans tout le Territoire de Quang-tcheou-wan des dispositions analogues a celles qui 
"seraient effectivement prises par la Chine au moment de I'expiration de notre contrat." 

II est decide que les rapports non encore presentes par les divers Comites seront inseres dans le 
Rapport final de la Commission et les decisions necessaires sont prises au sujet de I'execution de ce 
travail. Un Comite special est designe pourarreter les derniers details k ce sujet. Uu autre Comite est 
egalement designe pour revoir le texte des Resolutions adoptees et en presenter une redaction definitive. 

Le seance est levee a 4h.3o du soir. 



QUATORZIEME SEANCE, 
26 Fevrier 1909. 

La seance est ouverte a 211.30 de I'apres-midi. 

Le Premier Deiegue du Portugal, dfiment autorise par son Gouvernement, fait la declaration 
suivante : 

"Considerant que ceci est une Commission d'etudes, le Gouvernement Portugais desire examiner 
"avec soin le texte, les conditions et la base des propositions presentees par les differents Deiegues, aussi 
"bien que les rapports fournis par les autorites locales de ces colonies interessees en ce qui concerne les 
"moyens de rendre effectives les mesures desirables qui seraient adoptees, et pour ces raisons reserve sa 
"deliberation jusqu'k ce que les proces-verbaux de la Commission Internationale et les documents 
"relatifs au sujet aient ete etudies, apres quoi il communiquera sa decision a toutes les Puissances 
"representees a la Commission." 

Le Premier Deiegue des Pays-Bas, conformement a la decision prise a la douzieme seance, depose 
la Declaration suivante dans laquelle sont incorporees les Resolutions proposees originairement k 
I'Assembiee : 

" La Delegation Neerlandaise a propose deux Resolutions; la premiere est ainsi concue; 

Considerant que la suppression totale de I'usage de I'opium dans un deiai de quelques 

annees doit etre consideree comme un ideal eieve mais impossible k atteindre pour le moment • 

qu'en vue de combattre I'usage de I'opium on peut attendre beaucoup de mesures prises 
systematiquement et ayant un effet graduel ; 

qu'une pratique soigneuse de pareilles mesures ne se congoit que si la direction des affaires 
d'opium est conservee en mains propres (du Gouvernement) de fagon qu'aucun individu n'ait interet, a 
augmenter la vente de la drogue; 

II est resolu de recommander aux Gouvernements des Pays ou des systemes differents sont en 
vigueur : — 

(a) qu'il soit decide en prlncipe que tout ce qui regarde I'opium dans leur ressort sera dirige par 
I'Etat et que I'etablissement de ce systeme ne sera pas retarde plus longtemps que les circonstances ne 
I'exigeront : 



SOMMAIRE DES PuOCES-VeRBAUX EN FRANgAIS. II5 

(b) que, sans s'occuper de savoir si le Coiitiole direct du Goiivernement a d6ji etd mis en vigueur 
ou noil, les mesures suivaiUes soieiit prises imiii^diatement pour restreindre I'usage de Topium. 

(1) faire liieii conipreiidre aux fonctioiiiiaires europeens ou indigenes qui soiu capables d'avoir uiie 
influence sur la consommation i|ue le Gouvernement est rdsolu k combattre celle-ci ; 

(2) ne pas permette k qui que ce soit faisant usage de I'opium de servir dans I'administration 
civile, militaire ou maritime. 

(3) imprimer dans I'esprit des enfants k I'ecole et des adultes partout et toujours les maux idsultant 
de I'usage de I'opium; en un mot instruire I'opinion publique k ce sujet par tous les moyens ; afin de 
d^velopper la tendance contraire h. I'opium, faire appel k I'aide de societds privees, ayant en vue 
d'ameliorer la moraliie de parties speciales de la population, et dont le but et les methodes paraitroiit 
satisfaisantcs ; 

(4) Prohiber la venle de I'opium aux enfants; 

(5) Donner toute publicite, y compris la vente a prix coutant, k tout remede contre I'opium au cas 
oil un tel remede se repandrait k I'etranger qui ne contienne ni morphine ni aucun in^r^dient raalsain ; 

(6) Maintenir s'il en existe, dans leur etendue actuelle, et si possible augmenter les surfaces 
soumises a la defense, en combinant ou non avec le systeme de donner des licences aux fumeurs 
liabituels. 

(7) Exclure de I'usage de la drogue des sections speciales de la population. 

(8) Diminuer le nombre des debits et fumeries, el diminuer le nombre d'heures pendant 
lesquelles ils peuvent resier ouverts ; 

(9) Relever les prix de I'opium au detail. 

"En expliquant ses raisons pour presenter cette Resolution, le Premier Del^gu^ des Pays-Bas 
attire I'attention de I'Assemblee sur les deux premieres sections du preambule oil il est dit que "la 
suppression totale de I'usage de I'opium dans un d^lai de quelques ann^es doit etre considerde conime 
un ide.il eleve mais impossible a atteindre pour le moment," et plus loin que "en vue de combattre 
I'usage de I'opium on pent attendre beaucoup de mesures prises systematiquement et ayant un effet 
^raduel" ; il continue son discours ainsi : " jugeant d'apres I'expdrience aci|uiseaux Indes N6erlandaises, 
notre Delegation est d'avis que la meilleurs manifere d'atteindre cet objet est I'^tablissement d'un 
systeme d'opium dirige par des fonctionnaires qui ne sont aucunement int^ress^s dans le montant des 
ventes. Comme il est montre dans I'appendice III au memorandum sur la R6gie de I'opium aux Indes 
Neerlandaises, prdsente en meme temps que notre Rapport, sous ce systeme, pendant une pdriode de 
quinze annees, la consommation moyenne annuelle de chandoo par tete; d'habitant a Java est tomb^e de 
0.042 tahil a 0.025 t'lhi'i soit une diminution d'un peu plus de 40%. Je rappelle que cette diminution 
a eu lieu graduellement et que par consequent il y a de bonnes raisons de croire (ju'elle sera durable et 
se developpera progressivement. 

"La Delegation Neerlandaise, basee sus ces faits, fiere du systeme de la Rdgie de Java et 
profondement convaincue de son utiliie a d'autres dgards, a pris la liberty de presenter le memoiandum 
precite dans le but d'exposer les principes sur lesquels ce systeme est bas6, et avec I'espoir que I'elude 
de ce memorandum pourrait inciter d'autres Gouvernements a pratiquer le meme systeme dans leurs 
territoires et possessions aussitot (jue les circonstances leur permettraient de supprimer les systemes de 
ferme ou de libre commerce de I'opium. 

"En ce qui concerne la seconde partie de cette Resolution, j'ai I'honneur d'attirer I'attention de 
I'Assemblee sur ce fait que les Resolutions adoptdes jusqu'a present s'occupent de la contrebande, de la 
morphinomanie, de I'etude du c6te medical de la question de I'opium, de I'opportunite de reexaminer 
les systemes en vigueur de recettes d'opium, de complimenter le Gouvernement Chinois pour ce qui a 
et6 fait pendant les deux dernieres anndes en vue de combattre I'usage de I'opium dans son Empire, et 
enfin d'une recommendation a nos Gouvernements les invitant a prendre des mesures pour la suppression 
graduelie de la pratique de fumer I'opium. 

"Jusqu'a present aiicune Resolution n'a dte proposee pour sugg^rer des mesures ddfinies sur le 
sujet qui, dans la correspondance diplomatic[ue etait indiqud comme I'objet principal de notre Commis- 
sion : chercher les moyens de limiter I'usage de ropium. En rejetant cette tache sur les dpaules des 
differents Gouvernements, notre Commission ne fait pas ce qu'on attend d'elle. C'est poarquoi ce sera 
peut-etrecontribuer grandement a un rdsultat pratic|ue que de presenter une Resolution recommandant 
des mesures definies a cet effet. On peut considerer comme rentrant dans cette categorie de mesures 
celles qui ont ete enumerees sous les numeros i k 9 de notre Resolution proposee, et qui, en partie ont 
deja ete appliquees a Java depuis de longues annees, en partie ont ete recemment prises en consideration, 
afin de montrer au monde, qui attend des resultats pratiques, que notre Commission n'a pas neglige de 
donner quelques avis pratiques pour une solution satisfaisante de le question de I'opium. C'est 
pourquoi la Delegation Neerlandaise croit utile que la seconde partie de cette Resolution scit adoptee. 

" Je ne crois pas necessaire d'en dire plus long a propos de ces mesures qui s'expliquent d'elles 
memes. Je suis pret cependant a donner toute information compiementaire ([ui serait deraandee." 

" La seconde Resolution est ainsi conQue : 

"Considerant (|ue la contrebande de I'opiuni va k I'encontre des mesures varices prises par les 
divers (Gouvernements en vue de combattre I'usage de I'opium ; 

(jue la contrebande cause de grandes pertes aux Tresors, et de plus necessile de grandes c'epenses 
pour la combattre ; 



ii6 Commission lNTP:RNATroNALE de l'Opium. 

qu'elle a un effet ddmoralisant a la fois sur les individus qui se livient a ce commerce et sur les 
officiers de Douanes et de Police; 

que I'expdrience enseigne que la contrebande de ropium, a cause de la grande valeur de ce produit 
sous un petit volume, est extrememment difficile a combattre par ies nioyens employes jusqu'a ce jour 
individuellement par les divers Gouveriienients ; 

qu'il y a lieui en consequence de s'efforcer de supprimer la contrebande par une action concertde 
des divers Gouvernements ; 

et qu'une pareille action Internationale n'est possible qu'apres que dans tous les Pays I'opium 
aura ele pris en mains propres (des Gouvernements); 

II est resolu : 
de recommander aux divers Gouvenemeiits, aprfes qu'ils auront dtabli un systfeme de controle direct dc 
I'opium, d'entrer en negociations, par la voie diplomatique, dans le but que par la suite le Commerce en 
gros de I'opium ne sera permis qu'entre les Gouvernements de pays producteurs et consommateurs 
d'opium, et sera d^fendu a toute personne privde. 

" Au sujet de cette Resolution le Premier D6\6gu6 des Pays-Bas dit que son objet est de mar(iuer 
le desir de supprimer la contrebande de I'opium en prohibant le commerce de la drogue entre particuliers, 
ce qui tontefois n'est possible qu'apres que la direction du Monopole de I'opium aura ^t^ prise par 
chaque Gouvernement interesse en mains propres. 

" L'experience a enseign6 que la contrebande de I'opium (qui, pour les raisons expos^es dans le 
prdambule, est un grand mal en elle-meme) ne peut pas etre completement extirpee aussi longtemps c|ue 
I'opium reste un article ordinaire de commerce et par consequent passe par les mains de negociants en 
gros particuliers et de ]k aux mains des contrebandiers qui achetent la marchandise. 

" En consequence il est urgent que le commerce de I'opium soit retire des mains de ces 
personnes et confie exclusivement aux Gouvernements des Pays producteurs ou consommateurs. Cette 
mesure peut faire un bien immense pour la solution du probleme de I'opium, et par consequent, a notre 
avis, elle doit, dans cette occasion, etre recoramandee aux Gouvernements interesses, meme si la 
realisation de son principene doit etre possible que dans I'avenir." 

M. Miyaoka lit une reponse a la question posee par la Delegation chinoise au cours de la seance 
prece'dents. II repond aussi a une question que le Dr. Tenney lui avait posee en particulier au sujet de 
la morphine reexportee du port de Kobe (Cf. a la suite des rapports ) 

M. Laidlaw depose le Rapport du "Comiie sur les statistiques de commerce." Le Comite de 
Revision soumet alors les resolution a I'approbation finale de la Commission. Apres un leger changement 
dans I'ovdre de leur presentation elles sont dument adoptees. 

Sur la proposition de Sir C. Clementi Smith il est decide que le texte des Resolutions sera signe 
par le President au nom de la Commission. 

En feiicitant chaleureusement le President de I'heureuse issue des travaux de la Commission, 
Sir C. dementi Smith propose la resolution suivante, adoptee par acclamation : 

" La Commission presente ses remerciements cordiaux au T. R. Eveque Brent pour la dignite, 
I'impartialite et I'habilete avec lesquelles il s'est acquitte de ses devoirs de President de la Commission 
Internationale de l'Opium." 

Repondant a cette manifestation, le President remercie I'Assembiee de la dignite et de la 
courtoisie qu'elle n'a cesse de montrer pendant tout le cours des debats. Sa tiche dit-il a ete tres facile 
cardans cette periode de moins d'un mois, il semble que les representants de 13 nationalites dif!erentes 
se soient coules dans le moule d'une grande famille. O'est la un bon signe pour I'avenir. 

II feiicite I'Assembiee non seulement de ce que ses Resolutions ont ete prises a I'unanimite mais 
aussi de ce que quatre d'entre elles invitent une nation particuliere a agir dans I'interet d'une autre 
nation, ce qui montre jusqu'ou va presentement la sympatliie des relations entre les Nations des 
deux mondes. Les Nations sont plus que jamais conscientes de leurs droits souverains mais elles 
ont de plus en plus de consideration pour le bien-etre des Nations voisines, et sont pretes a faire des 
sacrifices locaux pour le bien universel. 

Le President rappelle le travail accompli par la Commission : dep6t et discussion des Rapports de 
chaque Pays, redaction de Rapports Internationaux sur plusieurs sujets particuliers, adoption de 
Resolutions. 

Ces dernibres touchent aux differents aspects de la question de I'opium, sans que le sujet soit 
cependant epuise. En deux circonstances la Commission s'est dedaree incompetente : elle a repousse la 
proposition de faire elle-meme une enquete scientifique, et refuse de toucher aux Traitee Internationaux 
existant. 



SOMMAIRE DES PROCfeS-VERBAUX EN FRANgAIS. I17 

On pourrait croire que la Commission a neglige I'aspect moral de la question de I'opium. II n'en 
€st rien, cai ce point de vue, parfois exprime, a toujours et^ present k I'esprit de tous les D^l^gu^s. Mais 
■la sympathie de la Commission pour les victimes de I'opium ne n'est pas content^ d'etre purement dmotion- 
nelle ; elle s'est manifestee d'une fagon plus virile sous forme de mesures pratiques pour secourir ces 
victimes. De meme que le biologiste en son laboratoire travaille pour le bien de l'humanit6, ainsi, 
derriere les statistiques revSches et les froides expressions des deliberations et des Resolutions de la 
Commission, se retrouvait la pensde de la pitoyable arm^e d'esclaves moraux pour le bien desquels la 
Commission travaillait. 

II reste encore beaucoup k faire apres la dissolution de cette Counnission, mais, le President en 
exprime la confiance, c'est ddjk beaucoup d'avoir determine ce qui est bien, ce qui est le droit, car le 
droit porte en lui-meme une force qui le fait triompher en definitive. 

M. Miyaoka propose un vote de remerciements aux Secretaires dans les termes suivants : 
"Avec votre permission et I'indulgeiice des membres de la Commission Internationale, j'ai 
J'honneur d'exprimer ici combien nous apprecions les services rendus par les Secretaires. Je n'ai pas 
besoin d'appeler votre attention sur le soin, la diligence et I'dnergie qu'ils ont deployes dans, I'accom- 
plissement de leur lourde charge. En raison de circonstances locales, auxquelles nous ne pouvions rien, 
tls ont d<i se contenter de I'aide d'un personnel qu'on ne peut, en regard du travail qui leur incombait, 
hesiter a declarer trop peu nonibreux. En considerant ce qu'ils ont deja fait et ce qu'il leur reste a faire 
comme ce qu'ils accomplissent a I'heure actuelle, nous ne pouvons pas rester aveugles a I'entrain qu'ils 
ont apporte, ainsi que leur personnel a I'accomplissement de leur tache. 

A cet egard il me sera permis de remarquer aussi que les appels fails par les Diverses Delegations 
aux bons offices des Secretaires ont ete frequents et nombreux. Ces appels a leur assistance ont eie 
invariablement re^us non seulement avec la plus parfaite courtoisie de leur part, mais aussi avec cet 
empressement naturel qui a commande I'admiration de chacun. Je suis done persuade que j'interprete 
exactement le sentiment general en proposant que des remerciements cordiaux soient offerts par la 
Com.mission Internationale de I'Opium a ses Secretaires et a leur personnel, et que ce vote soit consigne 
•dans les proces-verbaux de nos seances." 

Le President constate que cette proposition fSt adoptee par acclamations. 

Une discussion s'eifeve sur I'opportunite de rendre publiques, en les communiquant a la Presse, 
les Resolutions adoptees par la Commission. Finalement il est decide que la publication sera retardee 
jusqu'a ce qu'elle ait ete autorisee par le Gouvernement de chaque pays ou de I'un des Pays interesses. 

Apres avoir exprime au nom de la Commission ses remerciements a la Delegation chinoise pour 
I'hospitalite qu'elle a offerte a la Commission en amenageant la salle de reunion, le President annonce 
-que les travaux de la Commission sont termines et declare I'assemblee ajournee sine die. 

(Signe) FRED. W. CAREY, 

(Signe) XAVIER DE LAFORCADE, 

Secretaires. 



TEXTE DES RESOLUTIONS ADOPTS DANS LA SEANCE 

FINALE. 

1. Xa Commission reconnait la sinc^rite indbranlable du Gouvernement 
Chinois dans ses efforts pour deraciner la production et la consommation de I'opium 
^ travers r Empire ; I'importance croissante de la partie de I'opinion publique qui, 
parmi ses ressortissants, fait corps pour soutenir ces efforts ; et le progres, r^el bien 
qu'in^gal, ddja accompli dans une tache qui est d'une ampleur immense. 

2. J6n vue de Taction exerc^e par le Gouvernement Chinois pour supprimer 
la pratique de fumer I'opium et par d'autres Gouvernments dans le meme but, la 
Commission Internationale de I'opium recommande que chaque D616gation interessde 
incite son Gouvernement a prendre des mesures pour la suppression graduelle de 
la pratique de fumer I'opium dans ses Territoires et Possessions en tenant compte 
des circonstances variables pour chaque Pays int^ressd. 

3. Xa Commission Internationale de I'Opium trouve que I'usage de I'opium, 
sous quelque forme que ce soit, autre que I'usage medical, est considdr^ par presque 
tous les Pays reprdsent^s comma devant etre prohibd ou soigneusement reglement^ ; 
et que chaque Pays, dans I'administration de son systeme de Reglementation, entend 
avoir pour but, selon les circonstances, d'augmenter progressivement les restrictions. 
En formulant ces conclusions la Commission Internationale de I'opium reconnait la 
grande diversity des conditions prdvalant dans les diffdrentes contr^es, mais elle 
attire I'attention des Gouvernements intdress^s sur I'opportunitd d'un nouvel examen 
de leur systeme de reglementation a la lumiere de I'experience des autres Pays qui 
ont a traiter le meme probleme. 

4. Xa Commission Internationale de I'opium trouve que chacun des 
Gouvernements reprdsentes a des lois strictes dont le but direct ou indirect est 
d'empecher sur leurs territoires respectifs I'entrde en contrebande de I'opium, de 
ses alcaloides, preparations et derives; dans I'opinion de la Commission Internationale 
de rOpium, c'est aussi un devoir pour tous les Pays d'adopter des mesures raisonnables 
en vue d'empecher, aux ports de sortie, I'embarquement d'opium, de ses alcaloides, 
preparations et ddrivds, a destination d'un Pays qui interdit I'entrde sur son territoire 
de I'opium, de ses alcaloides, preparations ou derives. 

5. Xa Commission Internationale de I'opium trouve que le manque de 
restrictions a la fabrication, a la vente et a la distribution de la morphine constitue 
d'ores et dd;j^ un grave danger et que la morphinomanie tend k se rdpandre : la 
Commission, en consequence desire insister fortement aupres de tous les Gouverne- 
ments sur I'importance que prdsenterait I'adoption de mesures draconniennes par 
chaque Gouvernement sur son propre Territoire et dans ses Possessions pour 
controler la fabrication, la vente et la distribution de cette drogue ainsi que des 
autres ddrivds de I'opium qu'une enquete scientifique pourrait signaler comme 
susceptibles d'abus semblables et de mauvais effets similaires a ceux de I'opium. 

6. Xa Commission Internationale de I'Opium n'est pas constitute de fa9on 
a permettre d'entreprendre une enquete k un point de vue scientifique sur les remedes 
contre I'opium et sur les proprietds et les effets de I'opium et de ses produits, mais- 
considere qu'une enquete de ce genre serait de la plus haute importance ; elle desire 
en consequence que chaque Delegation recommande cette branche du sujet a son 
Gouvernement pour que celui-ci prenne telles mesures qu'il croira necessaire ^ cet 
egard. 

7. Xa Commission Internationale de I'Opium recommande vivement a tous 
les Gouvernements, possedant des Concessions ou Settlements en Chine, qui n'ont 
pas encore agi effectivement pour la fermeture immediate de toutes les fumeries 
d'opium dans lesdits Settlements et Concessions, de prendre dans ce but aussitot 
qu ils le jugeront possible des mesures similaires a celles qui ont deja ete adoptees 
par plusieurs Gouvernements. 

8. Xa Commission Internationale de I'opium recommande fortement que 
chaque Delegation incite son Gouvernement a entrer en negociations avec le 
Gouvernement Chinois dans le but que des mesures promptes et effectives soient 
prises dans les diverses Concessions ou Settlements en Chine pour prohiber le 
commerce et la fabrication de remedes contre I'opium qui contiendraient de I'opium, 
ou aucun de ses derives. 

9. Xa Commission Internationale de I'Opium recommande que chaque 
Delegation incite son Gouvernment a appliquer ses lois sur la Pharmacie a ses 
sujets dans les districts consulaires, Concessions et Settlements en Chine. 



International Opium Commission 

SHANGHAI, 1909 



Vol. II —REPORT OF THE DELEGATIONS 



REPORT 



OF THE 



International Opium Commission 



SHANGHAI, CHINA 



February I to February 26, 1909 



Vol. II.— REPORTS OF THE DELEGATIONS 



SHANGHAI: 
Printed and Published by the North-China Daily News & Herald Ltd. 

1909 

3) 



CONTENTS. 



United States of America: 

Report 

Statistical Tables 

Appendix A, Act to restrictthe sale, etc., of opium in the Piiilippine Islands 

„ B, do. do. 

Importations of opium ... ... . ... ... ... ... 

Appendix C, Act to nmend tariff laws of the Philippine Islands ... 

Austria and Hungary : 
Statement ... 

China : 

Report. 

I. — Historical Note on Opium 
II. — Foreign Opium ... 
III. — Native Opium 
IV. — Consumption of Opium.. 
V. — Morphia ... 
VI. — -Anti-opium Remedies .. 
VII. — Anti-opium Measures .. 
VIII. — Extracts from reports of Commissioners of Customs re results of the 
Anti-Opium Movements 
Appendix A, Imperial Decrees 

,, B, Government Regulations, etc 

„ C, Provincial proclamations, regulations. Memorials, etc. 

Extracts from telegraphic reports ... 
Questions put to Chinese Delegation, with replies 



Page- 



I 

25 
26 

32 
40 
42 



43 



44 
46' 

54 
62 
66 

70 
73 

73 
79 
79 
94 
117 
118 



France : 



Report 

Annexes i to 18, Laws ordinances, statistical tables 

Questions put to French Delegation, with replies... 



German Empire : 



Report 

Supplement to the Report 



Great Britain : 

Opium. 

Paper 



I. — Great Britain 
II. — Weihaiwei 
„ III. — -Hongkong 

„ IV. — Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States 
„ V. — Ceylon ... 

VI. — Australia 

Morphia, Morphine, etc. 

Paper I. — Great Britain 

„ II. — Hongkong 

„ III. — Straits Settlements 

,^ IV. — Ceylon ... 
Report on Opium and Morphia in Canada 
Memorandum on Opium in India ... 
Memorandum on Morphia in India 
Ordinances, Regulations, Notifications, etc., by the Hongkong Government 
Qqestions put to British Delegation, with replies 



122 
127 
151 



153 



161 
162 
162 
163 
166 
167 

169 
169 
171 
171 
171 
173 
194 
195 
241 



Italy : 



Memorandum 



249 



Japan : 



History of the control of Opium ... 

Laws, regulations, and Statistics of Japan... 

Report on Opium in Formosa 

Questions put to the Japanese Delegation, with replies 



Netherlands: 



Memorandum concerning the Opium Regie Service in Netherlands India 
Questions put to the Netherlands Delegation, with replies 



250 
251 
267 
289 



294 
31S 



Persia : 



Memorandum on Opium produced in Persia 
Questions put to the Persian Delegation, with replies 

PORTUGAL: 

Memorandum 

Appendices A and B, Agreements 

Appendix C, Contract with Chinese Syndicate .. 

SlAM: 

Statement 

AnneXes'T to 8, laws, regulations, etc. 

Correspondence 

Telegrams received by the Commission ... 

Report of Committee on Trade Statistics . . . 

Report of Committee on Poppy Cultivation, etc. 

Report of Committee on Revenue Statistics, etc. 

Report of Committee on Existing International Agreements 

Summary of Report 

Agreement concerning the publication of the Minutes and Reports of the International 
Opium Commission. 



317 
319 



320 

32s 
326 



329 
330 

347 
352 
355 
355 
359 
366 

372 



America, United States of. 



February 5th, 1909. 
Mr. President: 

The American Opium Commission presents its Report on the Opium Question as it 
affects our States, Territories and the District of Columbia and the Possessions under our flag. 

We propose to deploy our data under the following heads : — 

NATIONAL. 

Treaties, with other Governments engaging us in regard to opium traffic. 

Tariffs, under which we import opium into the United States, its Territories and the District 
of Columbia. 

Excise Laws, governing the manufacture of Smoking Opium. 
Statutes, that restrain our citizens from engaging in the Opium trade. 
Effect, of our Treaties and Tariffs on our trade in Opium. 
Our Opium, and where we get it. 
Smoking Opium, and our Chinese population. 

Growth, of the Poppy within the United States, its Territories and the District of Columbia. 
Disposition, of our imported Opium. 

Federal La\vs, governing the use of Opium and its derivatives. 
State Laws, governing the use of Opium and its derivatives. 
Municipal Laws, governing the use of Opium and its derivatives. 
Final Destination, of our Opium imported ostensibly for medicinal purposes. 
Final Destination, of our imports of Smoking Opium. 

Recent Effect, of our National, State and Municipal laws bearing on Opium and its 
derivatives. 

Revenue, derived from import and excise duties on Opium. 

Present Status, of our laws on Opium of various sorts, 

Porto Rico. 

Cuba. 

International, needs to make our recent law effective. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

TREATIES. 

Our country has two treaties with China that engage us in regard to opium and its 
derivatives : 

China. 

(i) The "Immigration and Commercial Treaties between the *United States and 
China" of 1880. Article II of the " Commercial Treaty " stipulates that : 



2 International Opium Commission 

" The Governments of China and of the United States mutually agree and undertake 
that Chinese subjects shall not be permitted to import opium into any of the ports of the 
United States ; and citizens of the United States shall not be permitted to import opium 
into any of the open ports of China, to transport it from one open port to any other open 
port, or to buy and sell opium in any of the open ports of China. This absolute prohibi- 
tion, which extends to vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of either power, to foreign 
vessels employed by them, or to vessels owned by the, citizens or subjects of either power, 
and employed by Other persons for the transportation of opium, shall be enforced by 
appropriate legislation on the part of China and the United States ; and the benefits of 
the favored nation clause in existing treaties shall not be claimed by the citizens or 
subjects of either power as against the provisions of this article. 

It will be seen from this Article II of the " Commercial Treaty " of 1880, that the two 
Governments concerned undertook without any limitation or qualification whatever, to forbid 
the importation of opium into the United States by Chinese subjects ; the importation by 
American citizens of opium into any of the open ports of China, or its transportation from 
one open port to another, or the buying or selling of opium in any such open ports, etc. 
When this Article was negotiated it was recognized by both parties that it would be necessary 
for the United States in Congress assembled to pass a statute providing for the trial and 
punishment of its citizens offending against the provisions of this treaty. In 1887 Article II 
of the Treaty of 1880 was made effective when Congress passed the following statute: — 

AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE PROVISIONS OF ARTICLE TWO OF 
THE TREATY CONCLUDED BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE 
EMPEROR OF CHINA ON THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF NOVEMBER, EIGHTEEN HUN- 
DRED AND EIGHTY, AND PROCLAIMED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
ON THE FIFTH DAY OF OCTOBER, EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-ONE 

(Act of February 23rd, 1887, ch., 210, 24 Stat. L. 409.) 

(Sec. i) (Importation of opium by Chinese prohibited.) That the importation of opium into 
any of the ports of the United States by any subject of the Emperor of China is hereby 
prohibited. Every person guilty of a violation of the preceding provision shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine 
of not more than five hundred dollars nor less than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for 
a period of not more than six months nor less than thirty days, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. (24 Stat. L. 409.) 

(Sec. 2) (Forfeiture.) That every package containing opium, either in whole or in part 
imported into the United States by any subject of the Emperor of China, shall be deemed 
forfeited to the United States; and proceedings for the declaration and consequences of 
such forfeiture may be instituted in the courts of the United States as in other cases of 
the violation of the laws relating to other illegal importations. (24 Stat. L. 409.) 

"Sec. 3. (Citizens of United States prohibited from traffic in opium in China — punishment — 
jurisdiction — forfeiture.) That no citizen of the United States shall import opium into 
any of the open ports of China, nor transport the same from one open port to any other 
open port, or buy or sell opium in any of such open ports of China, nor shall any vessel 
owned by citizens of the United States, or any vessel, whether foreign or otherwise, 
employed by any citizen of the United States, or owned by any citizen of the United 
States, either in whole or in part, and employed by persons not citizens of the United 
States, take or carry opium into any of such open ports of China, or transport the same 
from one open port to any other open port, or be engaged in any traffic therein between or 
in such open ports or any of them. Citizens of the United States offending against the 
provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred 
dollars nor less than fifty dollars, or by both such punishments, in the 
discretion of the court. Consular courts of the United States in China 
concurrently with any district court of the United States in the district in which any 
offender may be found, shall have jurisdiction to hear, try, and determine all cases arising 
under the foregoing provisions of this section, subject to the general regulations provided 
by law. EveBy package of opium or package containing opium, either in whole or in part, 
brought, taken, or transported, trafficked, or dealt in contrary to the provisions of this 



Report jrom the United States fo America 3 

section, shall be forfeited to the United States, for the benefit of the Emperor of China • 
and such forfeiture, and the declaration and consequences thereof, shall be made, had] 
determined, and executed by the proper authorities of the United States exercising 
judicial powers within the Empire of China. (24 Stat. L. 409.) " 

Article II of the Treaty of 1880 and the statute passed in conformity with it, still 
remain in force. 

The last treaty with China in which opium or its derivatives is mentioned is the 
"Treaty as to Commercial Relations," concluded October 8th, 1903, and proclaimed January 
13th, 1904. Article XVI of that treaty is as follows: 

"The Government of the United States consents to the prohibition by the Govern- 
ment of China of the importation into China of morphia and of instruments for its injection,, 
excepting morphia and instruments for its injection imported for medical purposes, on 
payment of tariff duty, and under regulations to be framed by China which shall 
effectually restrict the use of such import to the said purposes. This prohibition shall be 
uniformly applied to such importation from all countries. The. Chinese Government 
undertakes to adopt at once measures to prevent the manufacture in China of morphia 
and of instruments for its injection." 

All Powers have adhered to the morphia clause in this "Commercial Treaty" and it 
went into effect January 1st of the current year. 

Korea. 

We have one other treaty with a Foreign Power covering opium, namdy, with Korea, 
In our first treaty with Korea a "Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation," 
concluded May 22nd, 1882, and proclaimed June 4th, 1883, it was stipulated in Article VII : 

" The Governments of the United States and of Chosen mutually agree and undertake 
that subjects of Chosen shall not be permitted to import opium into any of the ports of 
the United States, and citizens of the United States shall not be permitted to import 
opium into any of the open ports of Chosen, to transport it from one open port to 
another open port, or to traffic in it in Chosen. This absolute prohibition which extends 
to vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of either Power, to foreign vessels employed 
by them, and to vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of either Power and employed 
by other persons for the transportation of opium, shall be enforced by appropriate 
legislation on the part of the United States and of Chosen, and offenders against it shall 
be severely punished." 

TARIFF LAWS ON OPIUM TO 1861. 
thereafter on crude opium for medicinal purposes. 

Mr. President, we think we can more readily explain our tariff laws governing the 
importation of opium if the International Commission has before it a table compiled by our 
Commission. 

This table is concise as to our importation of different forms of opium and morphia, 
and the various duties imposed on all of them. It also presents features which will be 
referred to later. 

It will be seen by this table that our first tariff record of the importation of opium of 
any sort was in 1 840. Before 1 840 there is no mention in our tariff laws of opium or its 
derivatives or preparations. Opium, its derivatives, and preparations, were up to 1840 
admitted under the general title of" Drugs, chemicals, etc." In 1840, however, the attention 
of our Congress was engaged to the large amount of opium then passing into the country, and 
it was discovered that, coincident with the influx of Chinese coolies to our Pacific Coast, a 
large amount of opium was entering the country. Opium was therefore (in 1840) taken out 
of the schedule of "Drugs and chemicals" and placed in a schedule of its own, and was put 
on the free list. No distinction was made at this time between crude opium imported ostensibly 
for medicinal purposes, morphia and its salts, and smoking opium. 

It will be seen by the Table that, up to the enactment of our tariff of 1842, a 
considerable amount of opium entered the country. By the tariff of 1842, an ad valorem tax 
of 15 cents per pound was imposed and, in anticipation of it, it will be seen that in the year 
1841, 135,000 pounds of opium entered the country. This large importation would appear to 
have been a speculative attempt to escape the 15 cts. per pound duty that was to be imposed 
the following year. 



4 International Opium Commission 

In 1846 a new tariff law came into operation. Opium was made to pay 20 per cent 
ad valorem and, as in 1841, so in 1850, in anticipation of the imposition of a \i\^GX ad valorem 
duty, there was again a speculative importation of a large amount of opium: 116,390 
pounds. It will be seen by the Table that, in the following years, 1851 and 1852, our 
importations fell off considerably. No doubt there was enough opium in the country to satisfy- 
both licit and illicit needs. 

So far as we can learn, the only object in imposing these ad valorem duties on opium 
was revenue needs. 

It was found, however, by 1861 that it was no longer possible to collect an ad valorem 
rate on opium, for shippers were willing to make invoices to please buyers. A specific duty of 
$1.00 per pound was therefore placed on opium. 

In the tariff of 1861 the distinction of crude opium, smoking opium and morphia or its 
salts was first made. 

In our tariff laws of 1862 crude opium was taxed $2.00 a pound, and in 1864, $2.50 a 
pound. Undoubtedly this was primarily to produce an increased war revenue, our Civil War 
being waged at that pferiod. 

In our tariff of 1870 a reduction of the duty on opium was made from $2.50 to i.oo a 
pound. That was but an expression of the general reduction in our tariff after the Civil War. 

In 1894 opium was put on the free list, but in our last tariff of 1897, it was again taxed 
$1.00 a pound. 

Tariff Laws on Smoking Opium. 

It will be noticed in the Table that by 1859 our imports of opium had reached an 
immense figure. It was discovered about the fifties that a large percentage of the opium 
imported in previous years was not crude opium imported for medicinal purposes, but largely 
consisted of smoking opium imported into San Francisco and other Pacific ports with the 
primary intention of supplying the Chinese. 

In our tariff of 1861 smoking opium was therefore removed from the opium schedule 
and placed in a schedule by itself, and taxed as opium prepared for smoking. A large 
ad valorem duty was placed upon this smoking opium. We shall explain later, when we come 
to speak of the effect of our tariff laws on importations of opium, that the importations varied 
considerably, due to the fact that smoking opium could not stand the high tax imposed. 

Our people and Congress, realizing the iniquity of opium smoking, in the tariff laws of 
1864 put a 100 per cent ad valorem duty on smoking opium; hoping thereby to keep it out of 
the country. This method, however, of taxing an undesirable commodity out of the country, 
proved to be a failure. The only result was smuggling on an enormous scale, the enterprises 
being led by Chinese and by many of our "undesirable citizens." Reports from our various 
Collectors of Customs proved that smoking opium could not bear a tax of more than $6.00 
per pound, and in our tariff law of 1870 a $6.00 per pound duty was placed on it. 

During the discussion of our next two tariffs there was a popular demand for the 
exclusion of smoking opium from our tariff schedules. This was largely due (i) to the fact 
that we had negotiated the treaty of 1880 with China, which prohibited Chinese in the 
United States from importing opium; and (2) because the American people began to realize 
that the habit of opium smoking was spreading from the Chinese to our own American 
people. 

Ten dollars and then twelve dollars per pound was imposed upon smoking opium; but 
here the old difficulty arose. It was again found that it could not bear a tariff of ten or twelve 
dollars a pound, and as the Table will show, though there was a considerable reduction in 
the amount of smoking opium entered at our Customs Houses, quite as much again or more 
was smuggled into the country. 

Finally, in our so-called "McKinley Tariff" of 1897 after much correspondence with 
our Collectors of Customs, the tax on smoking opium was reduced to $6.00 per pound, and 
there it has remained until to-day. 

Morphia and its Salts. 

We need not go into detail in regard to the tariff on morphia and its salts. It will be 
sufficient to state that the amounts shown in the Table as imported were not beyond the 
medicinal needs of our country up to the time, about 1890, when our manufacturers beo-an to 
manufacture morphia profitably. Since then practically no morphia has entered the United 
States. The drugs classified as "Morphia or its Salts" are the rarer and more recently 
precipitated derivatives of opium, such as "heroin" and "codeine"; so that our importations 
of morphia and its salts are negligible. 



Report from the United States of America 5 

Last Tariff Covering Opium, Morphia, et cetera. 

The following is the last tariff law covering the importation of various forms of opium, 
approved July 24, 1897 : — 

" Section 43. Opium, crude or unmanufactured, and not adulterated, containing nine 
per centum and over of morphia, one dollar per pound ; morphia or morphine, sulphate 
of, and all alkaloids or salts of opium, one dollar per ounce ; aqueous extract of opium, 
for medicinal uses, and tincture thereof, as laudanum, and other liquid preparations of 
opium, not specially provided for in this Act, forty per centum ad valorem ; opium 
containing less than nine per centum of morphia, and opium prepared for smoking, six 
dollars per pound ; but opium prepared for smoking and other preparations of opium 
deposited in bonded warehouses shall not be removed therefrom without payment of 
duties, and such duties shall not be refunded." 

EXCISE LAWS. 

We have but one Internal Revenue Law that covers opium, a law that was approved 
October ist, 1890. It is as follows: — 

"Sec. 36. That an internal revenue tax often dollars per pound shall be levied and collected 
upon all opium manufactured in the United States for smoking purposes; and no person 
shall engage in the manufacture who is not a citizen of the United States and who has 
not given the bond required by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

" Sec. 37. That every manufacturer of such opium shall file with the collector of internal 
revenue of the district in which his manufactory is located such notices, inventories, and 
bonds, shall keep such books and render such returns of material and products, shall put 
up such signs and affix such number to his factory, and conduct his business under such 
surveillance of officers and agents as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the 
approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation, require. But the bond 
required of such manufacturer shall be with sureties satisfactory to the collector of 
internal revenue and in a penal sum of not less than five thousand dollars; and the sum 
of said bond may be increased from time to time and additional sureties required at the 
discretion of the collector and under instructions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue_ 

"Sec. 38. That all prepared smoking opium imported into the United States shall, before 
removal from the custom house, be duly stamped in such manner as to denote that the 
duty thereon has been paid; and that all opium manufactured in the United States for 
smoking purposes, before being removed from the place of manufacture, whether for 
consumption or storage, shall be duly stamped in such permanent manner as to denote 
the payment of the internal revenue tax thereon. 

" Sec. 39. That the provisions of existing laws governing the engraving, issue, sale, account- 
ability, effacement, cancellation and destruction of stamps relating to tobacco and snuff, 
as far as applicable, are hereby made to apply to stamps provided for by the preceding 
section. 

" Sec. 40. That a penalty of not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisonment not more 
than one year, or both, in the discretion of the court, shall be imposed for each and every 
violation of the preceding sections of this act relating to opium by any person or persons; 
and all prepared smoking opium wherever found within the United States without stamps 
required by this act shall be forfeited." 

It will be seen by this law that an internal revenue tax of $10.00 per pound was 
imposed on smoking opium manufactured in the United States, its Territories and the District 
of Columbia, and that the manufacture was restricted to citizens of the United States. 

We are glad to be able to state that no citizen has taken advantage of this law, and 
that not a pound of smoking opium has been licitly manufactured within the United States 
since the beginning of our government. 

STATUTES IN RESTRAINT OF OPIUM TRAFFIC. 

We have one other law besides that which made the American-Chinese Treaty 
effective, which imposes restrictions on our citizens as to the opium trade, namely : 

" AN ACT TO PREVENT THE SALE OF FIREARMS, OPIUM, AND INTOXICATING 
LIQUORS IN CERTAIN ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC. 

(Act of Feb. 14, 1902, ch. 18, 32 Stat. L. 33.) 



6 International Opium Commission 

"Sec. I. (Sale of arms and intoxicants to Pacific Islands aborigines forbidden.) That any 
person subject to the authority of the United States who shall give, sell, or otherwise 
supply any arms, ammunition, explosive substance, intoxicating liquor, or opium to any 
aboriginal native of any of the Pacific islands lying within the twentieth parallel of north 
latitude and the fortieth parallel of south latitude and the one hundred and twentieth 
meridian of longitude west and one hundred and twentieth meridian of longitude east of 
Greenwich, not being in the possession or under the protection of any civilized power, 
shall be punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three months, with or without hard 
labor, or a fine not exceeding fifty dollars, or both. And in addition to such punishment 
all articles of a similar nature to those in respect to which an offense has been committed 
found in the possession of the offender may be declared forfeited. (32 Stat. L. 33.) 

■' Sec. 2. (Medical use excepted.) That if it shall appear to the court that such opium, wine, 
or spirits have been given bonft fide for medical purposes it shall be lawful for the court to 
dismiss the charge. (32 Stat. L. 33.) 

'■ Sec. 3. (Deemed an offense on high seas.) That all offenses against this Act committed on 
any of said islands or on the waters, rocks, or keys adjacent thereto shall be deemed 
committed on the high seas on board a merchant ship or vessel belonging to the 
United States, and the courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction accordingly. 
(32 Stat. L. 33.)" 

So much for our Treaties and Federal Statutes covering the opium question. 

EFFECT OF OUR TREATIES, TARIFF, STATUTES, ETC. 

What has been the effect of our Treaties and Tariff laws on the imports and exports of 
opium and its derivatives ? The Table will show it at a glance. 

First as to Gum or Crude Opium for Medicinal purposes. 

It will be seen that since 1840, in ten-year periods, there has been a large and 
progressive increase in our importations of this form of opium. Be it under ' a small aa' 
valorem tax or a high specific tax, or be it on the free list, our imports of crude opium have 
grown. 

Between 1840 and 1841 the imports are largely estimated. But I have it from our 
Collectors of Customs that we can add another 20 per cent, to the importations of that decade. 

There is nothing to be remarked on the importations of the second decade from 
1850 to 1859. 

In the third decade from i86o to 1869, we may say that our imports for that decade 
are estimated. The first four years of this decennium marked our Civil War and our Federal 
statistics do not record the opium that entered the Southern ports during those years. 
Undoubtedly the amount was large and would considerably swell the total of 1,103,054 
pounds for the decade we are reviewing. 

From 1870 to the present time, our statistics for crude opium may be accepted as 
representing the amount of opium that actually entered the country. They are net figures, 
for but little crude opium is re-exported from the United States. 

Now, Mr. President and Fellow Commissioners, if we turn for a moment to the right 
hand columns of the Table, it will be seen that we have tabulated our population according to 
decades, — Chinese in one and all others in another column. The percent increase of 
population, per decade, has been reckoned, and the percent increase per decennary in our 
importations of crude opium. 

Proportionate Increase in Imports of Crude Opium. 

Our importations of crude opium have not grown pari passu with our growth in 
population. We think it will be seen at once that this is so. In i860 our total population 
increased 34 per cent, over the previous decade, while our importation of crude opium increased 
only 12.6 per cent. It should, perhaps, be 25 per cent, rather than 12.6 per cent., because, as the 
Commission will see, only light importations were- recorded due to the close of the Southern 
ports from 1861 to 1865. 

In the next decade our population increased 22 per cent, and our importations of crude 
opium 74.6 per cent. 

In 1880 the proportionate increase in our population was 30 per cent. • of crude 
opium 70.5 per cent. 

In 1890, there was a 26 per cent, increase in population as against 56 per cent, increase 
"in the imports of crude opium. 



Report from the United States of America 7 

Proportionate Increase in Imports of Smoking Opium. 

Now, Mr. President and Fellow Commissioners, as to the question of our importation of 
smoking opium. 

As I stated in reviewing our tariff laws, we may add a considerable amount of smoking 
opium to the figures that are in the Table. It will be interesting now to see the proportionate 
rate of increase in our importations of smoking opium as compared with the proportionate 
increase in our Chinese and total population. 

In i860, it will be observed we had a Chinese population of slightly over 34,000. By 
1870 that population had doubled, and as against 22 per cent, increase in our total population 
over that recorded in the previous census, we had an 88 per cent, increase in our importations 
of smoking opium. This, let us remind you, takes no account of the large quantities that we 
know were smuggled, but only of the importations recorded in the Table as having been 
legally entered at our Customs stations. 

Ten years later (1880) we get to a period in our history when the agitation began 
against the immigration of Chinese coolies. Our Immigration Treaty with China was 
negotiated in 1880. 

The Table will show that since then our Chinese population has remained practically 
stationary. The increase recorded since then shows not an increased immigration into the 
United States, but a Chinese population that accrued to us as a result of the purchase of 
Alaska and the annexation of Hawaii. In spite of the fact, however, that our Chinese 
population remained practically stationary, we find in 1900 a 26 per cent, increase in our 
total population and in the Table 7.6 per cent, increase in our importations of smoking 
opium. It might appear from the Table, if not carefully examined, that we had a decided 
fall in the percentage of increase in smoking opium at this census period. But it will be 
noticed that it was at this period that we had what was considered a prohibitive tariff on 
smoking opium, — $10.00 and $12.00 a pound. The legalized importations fell off considerably, 
but we are informed by our Treasury Department that we may add to the figures from 1885 
to 1896 at least 75 per cent as representing the amount of smoking opium smuggled into the 
country. The proportionate increase of smoking opium in 1900 should therefore more 
properly read ^6 per cent rather than J.S per cent. With this explanation we propose to let 
the figures stand as in the Table. 

By 1900 our percentage of increase in population over our population as shown in the 
census of 1890 was 21 per cent, as against 32 per cent, increase in our importation of smoking 
opium. 

To review this phase of the subject hastily: In every census period we have had a per 
cent., increase in our importation of smoking opium, largely in excess of the per cent., increase 
in our population, and this in spite of the fact that our Chinese population has been 
practically stationary for thirty years. 

WHERE DOES OUR OPIUM ORIGINATE? 

We may state in passing to another phase of our opium question, that our crude 
opium imported ostensibly for medicinal purposes comes to us directly or indirectly from 
Smyrna and a few other Levantine ports. On the other hand, our smoking opium comes 
principally from Macao, and in some quantity from Hongkong. 

It may be asked why, in view of our Treaty of 1880 with China forbidding citizens 
of the United States to engage in the opium trade in China and forbidding Chinese subjects 
to import smoking opium or manufacture it in the United States, we have continued to 
import smoking opium. We are informed that at the time this treaty was negotiated our 
State Department hoped that no American citizen would engage in the importation of 
smoking opium. Unfortunately, this has not been the case and up to to-day it has been the 
practice of American firms in San Francisco to import this smoking opium in their own 
names and than promptly hand it over to the real importers, certain Chinese firms on our 
Pacific Coast. 

SMOKING OPIUM AND OUR CHINESE POPULATION. 

Mr. President, it may be thought, in view of the fact that we have made a comparison 
between our present increase in importations of smoking opium and our Chinese population 
that the use of smoking opium is wholly confined to the Chinese element in our population. 
This is not so, however. 



8 International Opium Commission 

From a careful inquiry made in all the large Chinese communities in the United States, 
we have the following estimates as to the percentage of Chinese who smoke opium. 

Opium Smoked in the United States by Chinese. 

(2 mace per diem=73 taels per annum=6 lbs. per annum.) 
Heavy Smokers: (2 mace) 6 lbs. per annum, Total No. of heavy smokers 17,700=15 per cent. 
Light Smokers: (^ mace) i 3^ lbs. per annum, Total No. of light smokers 23,600 = 20 per cent. 
Social Smokers: i oz. per annum. Total No. of social smokers 11,800^10 per cent. 
Non-Smokers: 50 per cent. 

Total Chinese Population 118,000. 

Average Importation of Opium for 8 years: per annum 151,944 lbs. 

Heavy Smokers (15 per cent.) 17,700 of heavy smokers 

at 6 lbs. per annum : 106,200 lbs. 

Light Smokers (20 per cent.) 23,600 of light smokers 

at I j;^ lbs. per annum : 35,400 lbs. 

Social Smokers (10 per cent.) 11,800 of social smokers 

at I oz. per annum: 738 lbs. 



Total 142,338 lbs. 142,338 lbs. 



9,606 lbs. 

That is, from 10 to 20 per cent, of our Chinese are habitual smokers and we may accept 
2 mace per day as the average amount consumed by these habitues. Taking an average of 
15 per cent, of heavy smokers at two mace a day, we would have as shown by the above table 
17,700 Chinese smoking 6 pounds of opium per annum, a total of 106,200 pounds. 

Light smokers, that is those who smoke when from illness they feel the need of it, say 
once a day or twice a week, would consume an average amount of about half a mace a day. 
20 per cent, of light smokers would give us 23,600 Chinese in this class. That would account 
for a per annum, per capita consumption of 1 1^ pounds, or a total of 35,400 pounds of 
smoking opium. 

It developed in the course of our inquiry that amongst the Chinese population there is 
another class of smoker. We have classified this third class as the "Social Smoker" 
and we are quite within the case if we state that they represent 10 per cent, of our total Chinese 
population. A liberal estimate for each individual in this class is one ounce per annum. 
Chinese in this class confine their smoking to holidays and to ceremonial occasions and 
smoke as a matter of courtesy only. This class represents say 10 per cent, of our Chinese 
population, a total of 11,800 Chinese who smoke one ounce of opium per annum or a total of 
738 pounds per annum. These smokers of different classes account for 142,338 pounds of the 
152,944 pounds of our average importations for the past eight years. 

This leaves 9,606 pounds of smoking opium not accounted for, and to it we must add 
an estimated, but large amount surreptitiously manufactured in the United States and the 
larger amount known to be smuggled annually. Not to depend on the figures of our 
Commission in the matter of this smuggled opium, it might be well to bring in the evidence 
of a fellow Commissioner who represents a great daughter nation of Great Britain in this 
International Commission. 

The Hon. Mackenzie King found in the course of his investigation of the opium 
question in Canada that in the coast cities of Vancouver, Victoria and New Westminster 
there were at least seven factories carrying on an extensive business in the manufacture 
of smoking opium. He stated in his published report that it was estimated that the annual 
gross receipts of these combined concerns amounted for the year 1907 to between $600,000 and 
$650,000. Crude opium, he found, was imported from India in cocoanut shells, and was then 
manufactured into smoking opium ; that these factories were owned and these manufactures 
carried on by Chinese ; and that it was asserted by the owners of these establishments that all 
of the opium manufactured is consumed in Canada by Chinese and white people • but 
he himself concluded that there is strong reason for believing that much of what is produced 
at the present time is smuggled into China and the coast cities of the United States. 

We will not at this moment enter into the question as to what becomes of the smoking 
opium imported and smuggled into our country and not consumed by the Chinese. 



Rkport from the United States of America 9 

GROWTH OF POPPY. 
Before dwelling on the disposition of the vast amount of opium which we import, it 
may be well to state that within the United States itself we have no growth of the poppy that 
need be seriously considered, except in one State. The poppy in the State of California is 
quite extensively grown for its seed; the seed, of course, being used by our Syrian and other 
semi-Oriental population as a food, and the oil expressed from the seed used to adulterate 
other oils. Except in a few instances where physicians have experimentally endeavored to 
grow the poppy for opium, none of our people have been engaged in the growth for that purpose. 
However, our Agricultural Department has within the last few years grown the poppy, 
the object in view being to ascertain the practicabilit\- of obtaining from the dried capsule 
walls, morphia, codeine and other alkaloids now obtained from opium; and they have succeeded. 
The total amount grown last )-ear covered six acres and yielded 9,600 pounds of dried capsules. 

DISPOSITION OF OUR IMPORTED OPIUM. 

What becomes of the vast amount of crude and smoking opium imported into the 
United States ? First, to explain how we arrived at the facts that we are about to lay before 
the Commission. 

Under our Federal system of Government we are at an advantage in getting out data of 
this sort. Our Government Departments cover in their operation the entire country, and work- 
ing together they may collect and collate all data on any problem that affects us. In addition 
to them and subordinate to them there are our State Governments covering part of the 
statistical ground already covered by our Federal Departments, and in addition covering 
that part of any field of inquiry not covered b\' our Federal Departments of Government. 
So that, in this opium inquir)', we had intersecting Federal and State channels all pouring 
their data into our ofifice at the State Department. 

In addition to tapping all Federal and State sources of information, we had the benefit 
of the experience and advice of over twelve hundred of our most learned physicians and 
surgeons ; the views of the heads of our American Medical xAssociation and the heads of its 
State branches; of the heads of our Association of American Ph3'sicians and of the Association 
of American Surgeons. But in many ways the most important guides to our securing facts 
were those gentlemen who have been engaged in opium brokerage, or in the manufacture 
and distribution of opium derivatives such as morphia, and products such as laudanum. 

The social side of the opium problem was investigated by personal inquiry of those 
who throughout the country were best able to inform us. We do not think that a stone was 
left unturned that might conceal a fact of which this International Commission ought to know. 
Our Commission wishes to acknowledge the frankness that met all of its inquiries, and 
the fine spirit that animated all organizations and individuals in communicating to us informa- 
tion and trade statistics. 

FEDERAL LAWS. 
On the rst of January, 1907, there was put into effect our " National Food and Drugs 
Act," passed June 30th, 1906. 

The only part of that law which affects our present subject is Section 2, which states: 
"That the introduction into any State or Territory or the District of Columbia 
from any other State or Territory or the District of Columbia, or from any foreign 
country, or shipment to any foreign country of any article of food or drugs which is 
adulterated or misbranded, within the meaning of this act, is hereby prohibited " ; 
And then the Act goes on to define adulterated and misbranded drugs, and states fines, 
punishments, etc. 

In regard to adulteration ; Section 7 states : - 

" That for the purposes of this act an article shall be deemed to be adulterated : 
" In case of drugs " : (and this includes opium; 

"First. If, when a drug is sold under or by a name recognized in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary, it differs from the standard of strength, 
quality, or purity, as determined by the test laid down in the United States Pharma- 
copoeia or National Formular\- official at the time of investigation. Provided, that no 
drug defined in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary shall be 
deemed to be adulterated under this provision if the standard of strength, quality or 
purity be plainly stated upon the bottle, box or other container thereof although the 
standard may differ from that determined by the test laid down in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary." 



10 International Opium Commission 

In regard to misbranding, Section 8 of the Act states as follows : 

" That the term ' misbranded ' as used herein, shall apply to all drugs, or articles 
of food, or articles which enter into the composition of food, the package or label of 
which shall bear any statement, design, or device regarding such article, or the 
ingredients or substances contained therein which shall be false or misleading in any 
particular, and to any food or drug product which is falsely branded as to the State, 
Territory, or country in which it is manufactured or produced. 

" That for the purposes of this Act an article shall also be deemed to be misbranded : 

" In the case of drugs : 

"First. If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the name of another 
article. 

"Second. If the contents of the package as originally put up shall have been 
removed, in whole or in part, and other contents shall have been placed in such package, 
or if the package fail to bear a statement on the label of the quantity or proportion of 
any . . . morphine, opium, . . . heroin, ... or any derivative or preparation of any 
such substances contained therein." 

Without going into details, it will be sufficient to state that since the National Food 
and Drugs Act was passed, all of our States have remodelled or passed " State Food and 
Drug Acts" based on the provisions of the National Act. 

STATE LAWS. 

Some states have gone farther in the regulation of the sale of drugs. In addition to 
this Federal law, all but three states in our Union have State laws governing the sale of 
poisons and governing the sale and use of smoking opium. We will present those portions of 
the Massachusetts State Law as an illustration of what obtains in other states. The 
Massachusetts law may be taken to represent all such State laws : 

" Sec. 42. Whoever opens or maintains a place to be resorted to by other persons, in which 
opium or any of its preparations is sold or given away to be smoked at such place, 
whoever at such place sells or gives away opium or any of its preparations to be there 
smoked or otherwise used and whoever visits or resorts to any such place for the purpose 
of smoking opium or any of its preparations shall be punished by a fine of not more than 
five hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both such 
fine and imprisonment. 

" Sec. 43. If a person makes oath before a police, district or municipal court or trial justice 
that he believes or has probable cause to believe that any place, house, building or 
tenement within the jurisdiction of such court or justice is used or resorted to for the 
purpose of smoking opium or any of its preparations, or for the purpose of selling 
or giving away opium or any of its preparations to be smoked at such place, house, 
building or tenement, and that persons resort thereto for such purposes, such court or trial 
justice, whether the names of the persons last mentioned are known or unknown to the 
complainant, shall, if satisfied that there is probable cause therefor, issue a warrant 
commanding the sheriff or his deputy or any constable or police officer to enter such 
place, house, building or tenement and there to arrest the keepers thereof, and all persons 
there present, whether smoking or not, if the implements for smoking opium or any of its 
preparations are there found, and seize all the opium or preparations thereof and all the 
implements for smoking the same and all the furniture, fixtures and other personal 
property there found, and to keep said persons, opium, preparations thereof, imple- 
ments, furniture, fixtures and property so that they may be produced before a court 
or magistrate, to be dealt with according to law. Whoever is found so present or so 
smoking shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars for each offence. 
The provisions of sections three to eight, inclusive, of chapter 2 1 7 relative to articles seized 
under clause eleven of section one of said chapter shall apply to all opium, preparations 
thereof, implements, furniture, fixtures and property so seized. 

"Sec. 44. An officer who makes a search under the provisions of the preceding section shall 
not be permitted to use any evidence of any crime, except that of opium smoking, which 
he may discover, in making further prosecutions against the persons whose premises are 
searched. 



Report from the United States of America it 

"Chapter 213, Revised Laavs of Massachusetts. 

" Sec. 2. Whoever sells arsenic (arsenious acid), atropia or any of its salts, chloral hydrate, 
chloroform, cotton root and its fluid extract, corrosive sublimate, cyannide of potassium, 
Donovan's solution, ergot and its fluid extract, Fowler's solution, laudanum, McMunn's 
elixir, morphia or an\^ of its salts, oil of pennyroyal, oil of savin, oil of tansy, opium, 
Paris green, Parson's vermin exterminator, phosphorus, prussic acid, ' rough on rats,' 
strychnia, or any of its salts, tarter emetic, tincture of aconite, tincture of belladonna, 
tincture of digitalis, tincture of nox vomica, tincture of veratrum viride, or cabolic acid,, 
without the written prescription of a physician, shall affix to the bottle, box or wrapper 
containing the article sold a label of red paper upon which shall be printed in large black 
letters the name and place of business of the vendor and the words Poison and Antidote,, 
and the label shall also contain the name of an antidote, if any, for the poison sold. He 
shall also keep a record of the name and quantity of the article sold and of the name and. 
residence of the person or persons to whom it was delivered, which shall be made before 
the article is delivered and shall at all times be open to inspection by the officers of the 
district police and b\- the police authorities, and officers of cities and towns ; but no sale 
of cocaine or its salts shall be made except upon the prescription of a physician. Whoever 
neglects to affix such label to such bottle, box or wrapper before delivery thereof to the 
purchaser or whoever neglects to keep or refuses to show to said officers such record or 
whoever purchases any of said poisons and gives a false or fictitious name to the vendor 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than fifty dollars. The provisions of this section 
shall not apply to sales by wholesale dealers or manufacturing chemists, to retail dealers, 
or to a general merchant vi?ho sells Paris green, London purple or other arsenical poisons 
in unbroken packages containing not less than one-quarter of a pound, for the sole 
purpose of destroying potato bugs or other insects upon plants, vines, or trees except 
that he shall record each sale and label each package sold, as above provided." 

The following are the New York statutes relating to the use of opium and its. 
derivatives: — 

"Sec. 40s of the Penal Code of the State of New York, 'REGULATIONS AS TO- 
Prescription.s of Opium and Morphine.' A person who, except on written or 
verbal order of a physician, refills more than once prescriptions containing opium,, 
morphine or preparations of either, in which the dose of opium exceeds one-fourth grain 
or morphine one-twentieth grain is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

"Sec. 218 of the Public Health Law. 'PRESCRIPTION OF OPIUM, MORPHINE, Cocaink AND- 
Chlor.al.' No pharmacist, druggist, apothecary or other person shall refill more than 
once, prescriptions containing opium or morphine or preparations of either of them or 
cocaine or chloral, in which the dose of opium shall exceed one-quarter of a grain, or 
of morphine one-twentieth of a grain, or of cocaine one-half of a grain, or of chloral ten 
grains, except upon the written order of a physician. 

"Sec. 402 of the Penal Code: 'Selling Poison without Labelling and Recording 
THE Sale.' It shall be unlawful for any person to sell at retail or furnish any of the 
poisons named in the schedules hereinafter set forth, without affixing or causing to be 
affixed to the bottle, box, vessel or package, a label containing the name of the article 
and the word 'Poison' distinctly shown, with the name and place of business of the 
seller all printed in red ink, together with the name of such poisons printed or written 
thereupon in plain, legible characters, which schedules are as follows, to wit: 

"Schedule A. 

" Arsenic, cyanide of potassium, hydrocyanic acid, cocaine, morphine, strychnia and all 
other poisonous alkaloids and, their salts, oil of bitter almonds containing hydrocyanic 
acid, opium and its preparations, except paregoric and such others as contain less than two 
grains of opium to the ounceT 

"Sec. 388 of the Penal Code: 'PERMITTING BUILDINGS TO BE USED FOR NUISANCE, ETC.'' 
A person who, 

" I. Lets, or permits to be used, a building, or a portion of a building, knowing that 
it is intended to be used for committing or maintaining a public nuisance, or 



12 International Opium Commission 

" 2. Opens or mainains a place where opium, or any of its preparations, is smoked 
by other persons, or 

" 3. At such place sells or gives away any opium, or its said preparations, to be 
there smoked or otherwise used, or 

"4. Visits or resorts to any such place for the purpose of smoking opium or its said 
preparations ; is guilty of a misdemeanor." 

The following is a 
Law of one of our Southern States. 

Narcotic Bill of Georgia. 

AN act to provide AGAINST THE EVILS RESULTING FROM THE TRAFFIC IN CERTAIN 
NARCOTIC DRUGS AND TO REGULATE THE SALE THEREOF. 

Sec. I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Georgia, That it shall be 
unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to sell, furnish or give away any cocaine, 
alpha or beta eucaine, opium, morphine, heroin, chloral hydrate or any salt or compound 
of any of the foregoing substances, or any perparation or compound containing any of 
the foregoing substances, or their salts, or compounds, except upon the original written 
orders or prescription of a lawfully authorized practitioner of medicine, dentistry 
or veterinary medicine, which order or prescription shall be dated and shall 
contain the name of the person for whom prescribed, or if ordered by a practitioner 
of veterinary medicine, shall state the kind of animal for which ordered, and shall 
be signed by the person given the prescription or order. Such written order or 
prescription shall be permanently retained on file by the person, firm or corporation 
who shall compound or dispense the articles ordered or prescribed, and it shall not 
be again compounded or dispensed except upon the written order of the prescriber 
for each and every subsequent compounding or dispensing. No copy or duplicate of 
such written order or prescription shall be made or delivered to any person, but the 
original shall at all times be open to inspection by the prescriber and properly authorized 
officers of the law. Provided, however, that the above provisions shall not apply to pre- 
parations containing not more than four grains of opium, or not more than one grain of 
morphine, or not more than one-fourth grain of heroin, or not more than one-eighth grain 
of alpha or beta eucaine, or not more than twenty grains of chloral hydrate in one fluid 
ounce, or if, a solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce. Provided, also, that the above 
provisions shall not apply to preparations containing opium and recommended and sold 
in good faith for diarrhoea and cholera, each bottle or package of which is accompanied 
by specific directions for use, and a caution against habitual use, nor to powder of ipecac 
and opium, commonly known as Dover's Powders, nor to liniments or ointments plainly 
labelled " For External Use Only." And provided further, That the above provisions 
shall not apply to sales at wholesale by jobbers, wholesalers and manufacturers, to retail 
druggists or qualified physicians or to each other, nor to sales at retail by retail druggists 
to regular practitioners of medicine, dentistry or veterinary medicine, nor to sales made 
to manufacturers of proprietary or pharmaceutical preparations for use in the manufacture 
of such preparations, nor to sales to hospitals, colleges, scientific or public institutions. 

Sec. 2. It shall be unlawful for any practitioner of medicine, dentistry or veterinary medicine 
to furnish to or to prescribe for the use of any habitual user of the same an}- cocaine, 
heroin, alpha or beta eucaine, opium, morphine, chloral hydrate or any salt or compound 
of any of the foregoing substances, or any preparation containing any of the foregoing 
substances or their salts or compounds, and it shall also be unlawful for any practitioner 
of dentistry to prescribe any of the foregoing substances for any person not under his 
treatment in the regular practice of his profession, or for any practitioner of veterinary 
medicine to prescribe any of the foregoing substances for the use of any human being. 
Provided, however, that the provisions of this Section shall not be construed to prevent 
any lawfully authorized practitioner of medicine from furnishing or prescribing in good 
faith for the use of any habitual user of any narcotic drugs, who is under his professional 
care, such substances as he may deem necessary for their treatment, when such 
prescriptions are not given or substances furnished for the purpose of evading the 
purposes of this Act. 



Rei'Ort krom thk Unitkd States of America 13 

Sec. 3. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this Act shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished as prescribed in Section 
1039 of Volume Three of the Code of 1895. It shall be the duty under this Act of 
Judges of the Superior Court in this State at every regular term thereof to charge all 
regular impannelled grand juries to diligently inquire into and investigate all cases of 
the violation of the provisions of this Act, and to make a true presentment of all persons 
guilty of such violation. It shall be the duty of the Board of Pharmacy to cause the 
prosecution of all persons, \'i(ilating the provisions of this Act. No prosecution shall be 
brought for the sale of any proprietary or patent medicines containing any of the drugs 
or preparations herein before mentioned until the Board of Pharmacy shall certify that 
such medicine contains any of the said drugs or preparations in excess of the maximum 
percentage herein before mentioned. 

Sec. 4. In any proceedings under the provisions of this Act the charge may be brought 
against any or all of the members of a partnership or against the directors or executive 
officers of a corporation, or against the agent of any person, partnership or corporation. 

Sec. 5. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this Act are hereby repealed. 

MUNICIPAL LAWS. 

In addition to these State laws, every large city in our union has police regulations 
governing the sale and use of smoking opium and in many instances of all the better 
known poisons. 

AN ACT TO REGULATE THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY AND THE SALE OF POISONS IN THE 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. 

(Approved May 7, 1906. Public — No. 148.) 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Coftgress assembled, That it shall be unlawful for any person not licensed 
as a pharmacist within the meaning of this Act to conduct or manage any pharmacy, 
drug or chemical store, apothecary shop, or other place of business for the retailing, 
compounding, or dispensing of any drugs, chemicals, or poisons, or for the compounding 
of physicians' prescriptions, or to keep exposed for sale, at retail, any drugs, chemicals, 
or poisons, except as hereinafter provided ; or, except as hereinafter provided, for any 
person not licensed as a pharmacist within the meaning of this Act to compound, 
dispense, or sell, at retail, any drug, chemical, poison, or pharmaceutical preparation 
upon the prescription of a physician, or otherwise, or to compound physicians' prescrip- 
tions, except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a pharmacist licensed 
under this Act. And it shall be unlawful for any owner or manager of a pharmacy, 
drug store, or other place of business to cause or permit any person other than a 
licensed pharmacist to compound, dispense, or sell, at retail, any drug, medicine, or poison, 
except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a licensed pharmacist: Provided, 
That nothing in this section shall be construed to interfere with any legally registered 
practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery in the compounding of hi^ own 
prescriptions, or to prevent him from supplying to his patients such medicines as he may 
deem proper ; nor with the exclusively wholesale business of any dealer who shall be 
licensed as a pharmacist, or who shall keep in his employ at least one person who is so 
licensed, except as hereinafter provided ; nor with the sale by others than pharmacists of 
poisonous substances sold exclusively for use in the arts, or as insecticides, when such sub- 
stances are sold in unbroken packages bearing labels having plainly printed upon them the 
name of the contents, the word " poison," when practicable the name of at least one 
suitable antidote, and the name and address of the vendor : Provided further, That such 
person, firm, or corporation has obtained a permit from the board of supervisors in 
medicine and pharmacy, which grants the right and privilege to make such sales, such 
permit to be issued for a period of three years, and that each sale of such substance be 
registered as required of a licensed pharmacist, and it shall be unlawful for any person 
under the age of twenty-one years to sell such substances, and in no case shall the sale 
be made to a person under eighteen years of age except upon the written order of a 
person known or believed to be an adult: And provided further, That persons other than 
registered pharmacists may sell household ammonia and concentrated lye, in sealed 
containers plainly labelled, so as to indicate the nature of the contents, with the word 



14 International Opium Commission 

"poison," and with a statement of two or more antidotes to be used in case of poisoning 

and may sell bicarbonate of soda, borax, cream of tartar, olive oil, sal ammoniac, sal soda ; 

and persons other than registered pharmacists may, furthermore, sell in original sealed 

containers, properly labeled, such compounds as are commonly known as "patent" or 

"proprietary" medicines, except those the sale of which is regulated by the provisions of 

sections eleven and thirteen of this Act. 

Sec. 2. That every person now registered as a pharmacist in the District of Columbia, under 

an Act to regulate the practice of pharmacy in the District of Columbia, approved June 

fifteenth, eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, shall be entitled to be licensed under this 

Act without examination or payment of fee, provided that he make application therefor 

on or before the thirt)--first day of December next ensuing after the passage of this Act. 

Any person registered as aforesaid shall, until said date, by virture of such registration be 

entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities to which pharmacists licensed under 

this Act are entitled, and be subject to all the obligations and duties of such licentiates. 

Sec. 3. That every person not registered under an Act to regulate the practice of pharmacy 
in the District of Columbia, approved June fifteenth, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
eight, who shall desire to be licensed as a pharmacist shall file with the board of 
supervisors in medicine and pharmacy an application, duly verified under oath, setting 
forth the name and age of the applicant, the place or places at which he pursued, and the 
time spent in the study of pharmacy, the experience which the applicant has had in com- 
pounding physicians' prescriptions under the direction of a licensed pharmacist, and the 
name and location of the school or college of pharmacy, if an}-, of which he is a 
graduate, and shall submit evidence sufficient to show to the satisfaction of said board 
that he is of good moral character and not addicted to the use of alcoholic liquors or 
narcotic drugs so as to render him unfit to practice pharmacy; and said applicant shall 
appear at a time and place designated by the board of supervisors aforesaid and submit 
to an examination by the board of pharmaceutical examiners as to his qualifications for 
license as a pharmacist: Provided, That applicants shall be not less than twenty-one }'ears 
of age, and shall have had at least four years' experience in the practice of pharmacy 
or shall have served three years under the instruction of a regular licensed pharmacist, 
and any applicant who has been graduated from a school or college of pharmacy re- 
cognized by said board as in good standing shall be entitled to examination upon 
pi-esentation of his diploma: Provided further. That any applicant intending to limit his 
practice to compounding and dispensing homeopathic remedies and prescriptions may 
be licensed, if otherwise qualified. Any applicant intending to compound and dispense 
homeopathic remedies and prescriptions shall so state in his application for license as a 
pharmacist, and it shall thereupon become the duty of the board of supervisors afore- 
said to appoint a committee of three, ph)'sicians or pharmacists, or both, adherents to the 
homeopathic system of medical practice, to examine said applicant in homeopathic materia 
medica and pharmacy, and to report the result thereof to said board. Every such 
applicant, however, shall be subjected in all respects to the same examinations by the 
board of pharmaceutical examiners as are applicants generally, except that an 
applicant intending to limit his practice to the compounding and dispensing of homeo- 
pathic remedies and prescriptions shall not be examined by said board of pharmaceutical 
examiners in materia medica and pharmacy. But the license issued to any applicant 
after a limited examination as aforesaid shall permit him to compound or dispense 
homeopathic remedies and prescriptions onl}-. No person shall compound or dispense 
homeopathic remedies or prescriptions who has not been licensed so to do, nor shall 
any person who has been licensed to compound and dispense homeopathic remedies and 
prescriptions alone compound or dispense other remedies or prescriptions, except "patent" 
or "proprietary" remedies in original packages. 

Sec. 4. That if the applicant for license as a pharmacist has complied with the requirements 
of either of the two preceding sections, the board of supervisors in medicine and pharmacy 
shall issue to him a license which shall entitle him to practice pharmacy in the District of 
Columbia, subject to the provisions of this Act. 

Sec. 5. That the board of supervisors in medicine and pharmacy shall issue licenses to practice 
pharmacy in the District of Columbia without examination, or after limited examination, 
as said board may determine, to such persons as have been legally registered or licensed 
as pharmacists in States, Territories, or foreign countries : Provided, That the applicant 
for such license present satisfactory evidence of qualifications equal to those required of 



Report from the United States of America 15 

licentiates examined under this Act, and that he was registered or licensed after 
examination in such State, Territory, or foreign country not less than one year prior to 
the date of application ; that the standard of competence required in such State, Territory, 
or foreign country is not lower than that required in the District of Columbia, and that 
such State, Territory, or foreign country accords similar recognition to licentiates of the 
District of Columbia, all of which shall be determinable by the board of supervisors 
aforesaid. Applicants for license under this section shall forward with their application a 
fee of ten dollars. 

Sec. 6. That the license of any person to practice pharmacy in the District of Columbia may 
be revoked if such person be found to have obtained such license by fraud ; or to be 
addicted to the use of any narcotic or stimulant, or to be suffering from physical or 
mental disease, in such manner and to such an extent as to render it expedient that in 
the interests of the public his license be cancelled; or to be of an immoral character; or 
if such person be convicted in any court of competent jurisdiction of any offense 
involving moral turpitude. It shall be the duty of the major and superintendent of 
police of said District to investigate any case in which it is discovered by him, or made 
to appear to his satisfaction, that any license issued under the provisions of this Act is 
revocable and to report the result of such investigation to the board of supervisors in 
medicine and pharmacy, which board shall, after full hearing, if in their judgment the facts 
warrant it, revoke such license. 

Sec. 7. That in the month of November of each year every licensed dealer in poisons 
for use in the arts or as insecticides, whose permit has been issued not less than 
three years prior to the first day of such month, shall apply to the board of supervisors in 
medicine and pharmacy for the renewal of such permit. And said board is hereby 
authorized, upon the payment of such fees as are hereinafter provided, to renew such 
permit in the month of November for a period of three years from the thirty-first day of 
October immediately preceding the date thereof. And every permit not renewed within 
the month of November as aforesaid shall be void and of no effect unless and until 
renewed. Any license, permit, or renewal obtained through fraud, or by any false or 
fraudulent representation, shall be void and of no effect. No person shall make any false 
or fraudulent representation for the purpose of procuring a license, permit, or renewal 
thereof, either for himself or for another. 

Every license to practice pharmacy, and every permit to sell poisons, for use in the 
arts or as insecticides, and every current renewal of such permit shall be conspicuously 
displayed by the person to whom the same has been issued in the pharmacy, drug store, 
or place of business, if any, of which the said person is the owner or manager. 

Sec. 8. That there shall be in and for the District of Columbia a board of pharmaceutical 
examiners, consisting of five licensed pharmacists, appointed by the Commissioners of 
said District, each of whom shall have been for the five years immediately preceding, and 
shall be during the term of his appointment, actively engaged in the practice of pharmacy 
in said District. All appointments shall be made in such manner that the term of office 
of one examiner shall expire on the thirtieth day of June of each year, but every 
examiner shall hold office after the expiration of the term for which he has been formally 
appointed until his successor has been appointed and qualified. No appointee shall 
enter upon the discharge of his duties until he has taken oath fairly and impartially 
to perform the same. Said Commissioners may remove, after full hearing, any member 
of said board for neglect of duty or other just cause. 

That annually the board of pharmaceutical examiners shall organize by the election of 
a president and a secretary, both of whom shall be members of said board, who shall hold 
office for one year and until their successors shall have been elected and qualified. Said 
board shall hold meetings for the examination of candidates and for the discharge of such 
other business as may come before it, commencing on the second Thursdays in January, 
April, July, and October of each year and at such other times as the board of supervisors 
in medicine and pharmacy shall direct ; and said board of pharmaceutical examiners shall 
examine all applicants for license to practice pharmacy certified to it for that purpose by 
the board of supervisors in medicine and pharmacy, and shall report the results of such 
examination to said board of supervisors as speedily as practicable. 

Sec. 9. That from and after the passage of this Act the board of medical supervisors of 
the District of Columbia shall be known as the board of supervisors in medicine and 
pharmacy of the District of Columbia ; and the president of the board of pharmaceutical 



i6 International Opium Commission 

examiners shall be ex officio a member of said board of supervisors in addition to the 
members now provided for by law ; and said board of pharmaceutical examiners shall 
bear in all respects the same relations to the board of supervisors aforesaid as each of the 
boards of medical examiners of said District now bears to the board of medical supervisors, 
thereof; and said board of supervisors shall have all such rights, powers, and duties with 
respect to the examination of applicants for license as pharmacists and with reference to 
the issue of licenses to practice pharmacy and of permits to sell poisons for use in the arts- 
or as insecticides as said board now has with reference to the examination of applicants 
for license to practice medicine, surger\', and midwifery, and with reference to the issue of 
licenses to such persons, except in so far as may be inconsistent with the provisions of 
this Act. Said board shall elect from its membership a secretary and treasurer, respec- 
tively. The treasurer of said board shall give such bond for the proper performance oi 
his duties as the Commissioners of the Disirict of Columbia shall deem proper and shall 
render to said Commissioners accounts of his receipts and disbursements from time to- 
time as said Commissioners shall direct. All licenses issued by said board of supervisors 
shall be countersigned by the president of the examining board by which the candidate was- 
examined. Said board of supervisors shall keep records of its proceedings, and such records 
shall be prima facie evidence of all matters contained therein in all courts in the District 
of Columbia. Said board of supervisors shall, in the month of July of each year, make 
to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia a written report of its proceedings, of its 
receipts and disbursements, and of all licenses and permits issued. All records, funds, and 
other property in the possession of the commissioners of pharmacy of the District of 
Columbia at the time of the passage of this Act shall be delivered to such officer, or officers 
of the board of supervisors in medicine and pharmacy as may be designated by said board. 
And such funds ma\' be used for the payment of such necessary expenses as said board 
of supervisors may incur in the execution of the provisions of this Act during the twelve 
months immediately following the passage thereof, and any balance which remains on 
hand at the expiration of that time shall be deposited with the collector of taxes in said 
District and by him deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of 
the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 10. That applicants for license to practice pharmacy and for permits to sell poisons for 
use in the arts or as insecticides shall pay the following fees: For examination for 
license as pharmacist, ten dollars; for a permit for the sale of poisons for use in the arts or 
as insecticides, one dollar, and for each renewal thereof, fifty cents. 

And hereafter all fees for licenses to practice medicine and surgery and all fees aforesaid 
shall be paid to the treasurer of the board of supervisors in medicine and pharmacy of the 
District of Columbia before an)- applicant ma)^ be admitted to examination and before any 
license or permit, or any renewal thereof, may be issued by the said board. And all 
expenses of said board and of the boards of examiners incident to the execution of the 
provisions of this Act and of an Act to regulate the practice of medicine and surgery, to 
license physicians and surgeons, and to punish persons violating the provisions thereof in 
the District of Columbia, approved June third, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, shall be 
paid from the fees collected by the board of supervisors aforesaid. If any balance remain 
on hand on the thirtieth day of June of any year the members of said board appointed as 
such shall be paid therefrom such reasonable amounts as the Commissioners of the 
District of Columbia may determine. And the balance then in hand, or so much thereof 
as said board of supervisors may deem proper, shall be divided among the several boards 
of examiners in proportion to the number of candidates examined by each, each member 
of such board of examiners to receive such part of the entire amount paid to that board 
as that board itself may determine. 

Sec. II. That it shall be unlawful for any person, by himself, or by his servant or agent, or as 
the servant or agent of any other person, or of any firm or corporation, to sell, furnish, or 
give away any cocaine, salts of cocaine, or preparation containing cocaine or salts oi 
cocaine; morphine, salts of morphine, or preparation containing morphine or salts of 
morphine; or any opium, or preparation containing opium ; or any chloral hydrate, or 
preparation containing chloral hydrate, except upon the original written order or prescrip- 
tion of a lawfully authorized practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine,, 
which order or prescription shall be dated and shall contain the name of the person for 
whom prescribed or, if ordered by a practitioner of veterinary medicine, shall state the 
kind of animal for which ordered, and shall be signed by the person giving the order or 
prescription. Such order or prescription shall be, for a period of three years, retained ort. 



Report from the United States of America 17 

file by the person, firm, or corporation who compounds or dispenses the article ordered or 
prescribed, and it shall not be compounded or dispensed after the first time, except upon 
the written order of the original prescriber : Provided, That the above provisions shall 
not apply to preparations containing not more than two grains of opium, or not more 
than one-quarter grain of morphine, or not more than one-quarter grain of cocaine, or not 
more than two grains of chloral hydrate in the fluid ounce, or, if a solid preparation, in 
one avoirdupois ounce. The. above provisions shall not apply to preparations sold in 
good faith for diarrhoea and cholera, each bottle or package of which is accompanied by 
specific directions for use and caution against habitual use, nor to liniments or ointments 
sold in good faith as such when plainly labelled " for external use only," nor to powder of 
ipecac and opium, commonly known as Dover's powder, when sold in quantities not 
exceeding twent\- grains : Provided further, That the above provisions shall not apply 
to sales at wholesale by jobbers, manufacturers, aud retail druggists, hospitals, and 
scientific or public institutions. 

Sec. 12. That no physician in the District of Columbia, knowing, or when he might by 
reasonable inquiry know, that any person is addicted to the use of cocaine, morphine, 
opium, or chloral h)drate, shall furnish to or for the use of such person, or prescribe for 
such person, the drug aforesaid, to the use of which such person is addicted, or any 
compound thereof, or any preparation containing the same, except as it may be necessary 
to furnish or prescribe such drug, compound, or preparation aforesaid for the cure of drug 
addiction aforesaid, or for the treatment of disease, injury, or deformity : Provided, That 
no physician shall be convicted under the provisions of this section who shows to the 
satisfaction of the court before which he is tried that, having exercised due diligence and 
acting in good faith, he furnished or prescribed such drug, compound, or preparation 
aforesaid believing the same to be necessary for the cure of drug addiction aforesaid, or 
for the treatment of disease, injury, or deformity, and for no other purpose whatsoever. 
No dentist shall furnish or prescribe any drug, compound, or preparation aforesaid to, 
or for the use of, an}- person not under his treatment in the regular course of his 
professional work, nor in any case otherwise than ma\- be required by such work. 
No practitioner of veterinary medicine shall furnish or prescribe any drug, compound, or 
preparation aforesaid for the use of any human being, or when he has reasonable ground 
for believing that the drug, compound, or preparation aforesaid is desired or intended for 
the use of any human being: Provided further. That nothing in this section contained 
shall be construed to give to dentists or to practitioners of veterinary medicine the right 
to furnish or prescribe any drug, compound, or preparation whatsoever otherwise than as 
is usual and customary in the practice of dentistry and veterinary medicine, respectively. 

Sec. 13. That it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or deliver to any other person any of 
the following described substances, or any poisonous compound, combination, or prepara- 
tion thereof, to wit: The compounds of and salts of antimony, arsenic, barium, 
chromium, copper, gold, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc ; the caustic hydrates of sodium 
and potassium, solution or water of ammonia, methyl alcohol, paregoric, the concentrated 
mineral acids, oxalic and hydrocyanic acids and their salts, yellow phosphorus, Paris 
green, carbolic acid, the essential oils of almonds, pennyroyal, tansy, rue, and savin ; 
croton oil, creosote, chloroform, cantharides, or aconite, belladonna, bitter almonds, 
colchicum, cotton root, cocculus indicus, conium, cannabis indica, digitalis, ergot, hyos- 
yamus, ignatia, lobelia, nux vomica, physostigma, phytolacca, strophantus, stramonium, 
veratrum viride, or any of the poisonous alkaloids or alkaloidal salts derived from the 
foregoing, or any other poisonous alkaloids or their salts, or any other virulent poison, 
except in the manner following, and, moreover, if the applicant be less than eighteen 
years of age, except upon the written order of a person known or believed to be an adult. 
It shall first be learned, by due inquiry, that the person to whom delivery is about to 
be made is aware of the poisonous character of the substance, and that it is desired for a 
lawful purpose, and the box, bottle, or other package shall be plainly labelled with the 
name of the substance, the word " poison," the name of at least one suitable antidote when 
practicable, and the name and address of the person, firm, or corporation dispensing the 
substance. And before delivery be made of any of the foregoing substances, excepting 
solution or water of ammonia, and sulphate of copper, there shall be recorded in a book 
kept for that purpose the name of the article, the quantity delivered, the purpose for 
which it is to be used, the date of delivery, the name and address of the person for 
whom it is procured, and the name of the individual personally dispensing the same ; and 
said book shall be preserved by the owner thereof for at least three years after the date of 



1 8 International Opium Commission 

the last entry therein. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to articles dispensed 
upon the order of persons believed by the dispenser to be lawfully authorized practitioners 
of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery : Provided, That when a physician writes 
upon his prescription a request that it be marked or labelled " poison," the pharmacist 
shall, in the case of liquids, place the same in a colored glass, roughened bottle, of the 
kind commonly known in trade as a " poison bottle," and, in the case of dry substances, 
he shall place a poison label upon the container. The record of sale and delivery above 
mentioned shall not be required of manufacturers and wholesalers who shall sell any of 
the foregoing substances at wholesale to licensed pharmacists, but the box, bottle, or 
other package containing such substance, when sold at wholesale, shall be properly labelled 
with the name of the substance, the word " poison," and the name and address of the 
manufacturer or wholesaler: Provided further, That it shall not be necessary, in sales either at 
wholesale or at retail, to place a poison label upon, nor to record the delivery of, the sulphide 
of antimony, or the oxide or carbonate of zinc, or of colors ground in oil and intended 
for use as paints, or calomel, or of paregoric when sold in quantities not over two fluid 
ounces ; nor, in the case of preparations containing an}- of the substances named in this 
section, when a single box, bottle, or other package, or when the bulk of one-half fluid 
ounce, or the weight of one-half avoirdupois ounce, does not contain more than an adult 
medicinal dose of such substance ; nor in the case of liniments or ointments, sold in good 
faith as such, when plainly labeled " for external use onl\- " ; nor in the case of prepara- 
tions put up and sold in the form of pills, tablets, or lozenges, containing any of the 
substances enumerated in this section and intended, for internal use, when the dose 
recommended does not contain more than one-fourth of an adult medicinal dose of such 
substance. 

For the purpose of this and of every other section of this Act no box, bottle, or other 
package shall be regarded as having been labelled " poison " unless the word " poison " 
appears conspicuously thereon, printed in plain, uncondensed Gothic letters in red ink. 

Sec. 14. That no person seeking to procure in the District of Columbia an)' substance the 
sale of which is regulated by the provisions of this Act shall make any fraudulent repre- 
sentations so as to evade or defeat the restrictions herein imposed. 

Sec. 15. That every proprietor or manager of a drug store or pharmacy shall keep in his 
place of business a suitable book or file, in which shall be preserved, for a period of not 
less than three years, the original of every prescription compounded or dispensed at such 
store or pharmacy, or a copy of such prescription, except when the preservation of the 
original is required by section eleven of this Act. Upon request, the proprietor or 
manager of such store shall furnish to the prescribing physician, or to the person for 
whom such prescription was compounded or dispensed, a true and correct copy thereof. 
Any prescription required by section eleven of this Act, and any prescription for, or 
register of sales of, substances mentioned in section thirteen of this Act shall at all times 
be open to inspection by duly authorized officers of the law. No person shall, in the 
District of Columbia, compound or dispense any drug or drugs, or deliver the same to 
any other person, without marking on the container there of the name of the drug or drugs 
contained therein, or directions for using the same. 

Sec. 16. That it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale by peddling, or to 
offer for sale from house to house, or to offer for sale by public outcry, or by vending 
in the street, any drug, medicine, or chemical, or an)' compound or combination 
thereof, or any implement, appliance, or other agency for the treatment of disease, injur)', 
or deformity. That, except as ma)' be otherwise authorized by law, no person shall 
throw, cast, deposit, drop, scatter, or leave, or cause to be thrown, cast, deposited, 
dropped, scattered, or left, any drug, medicine, or chemical, or any compound or 
combination thereof, upon any public highway or place, or, without the consent of the 
owner or occupant thereof, upon any premises in the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 17. That it shall be unlawful for any person not legally licensed as a pharmacist to 
take, use, or exhibit the title of pharmacist, or licensed or registered pharmacist, or the 
title of druggist or apothecary, or any other title or description of like import. 

Sec. 18. That all persons licensed under this Act as pharmacists, and actively engaged in 
the practice of their profession, shall be exempt from jury duty in all courts of the 
District of Columbia. 

Sec. 19. That any person violating any of the provisions of this Act shall be deemed guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not 



Report from the United States of America io 

exceeding two hundred dollars or by innprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, and if the offense be continuing 
in its character, each week or part of a week during which it continues shall constitute a 
separate and distinct offense. And it shall be the duty of the major and superintendent 
of police of the District of Columbia and of the corporation counsel of said District to 
enforce the provisions of this Act. 

Sec. 20. That all Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with the provisions of this Act be, and 
the .same are hereby, repealed. Approved, May 7, 1906. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

First, it should be remembered that we do not produce opium of any kind in our 
States, Territories or the District of Columbia. 

Manufacturers of morphine are generally of the belief that from 70 to 80 per cent, of 
the crude opium imported is absorbed in the manufacture of morphine, and that from 50 to 
75 per cent, of such morphine so manufactured is used illicitly. The rest of our crude opium 
is manufactured into other medical preparations, such as laudanum, abstracts, Dover's 
Powder, etc. 

This means that at least 400,000 pounds of our annual importations of opium are manu- 
factured into morphine, and find users and abusers in our States, Territories and the District 
of Columbia. 

Of smoking opium we have already calculated the amount used by the Chinese. 

Physicians are unanimous in their opinion that the use of opium and its derivatives is 
much less in the profession of medicine than it was ten years ago. They are also of the 
opinion that we import very much more crude opium than can be legitimately used medicinally. 
The lowest estimate that we have is that 50,000 pounds would suffice for the licit needs of the 
American people; the highest 100,000 pounds. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

What becomes of the excess of crude opium over and above the amount used for 
legitimate medicinal purposes? 

We have reports from every State, Territory and the District of Columbia. 

We might confine our statement in regard to this matter to a few of our larger and 
more populous States and Cities, but as this might lead to a misconception of the States and 
Cities named, it will perhaps be better to average the data we have from a large number of our 
more populous States and Cities. 

Before going on in this matter, we might state that in the case of our college and 
university students there is no use of opium in any shape or form. The question of the illicit 
use of opium or its derivatives is unknown throughout our whole body of colleges and 
universities. 

With regard to the larger question of the general distribution and final destination of 
opium, its derivatives and preparations, statements from twenty-five States would show that an 
average of 5.62 per cent of prisoners who enter our large jails and states prisons, are addicted 
to the opium habit in some one of its forms; and that of the general criminal population 15.48 
per cent are addicts. 

Of our unfortunate women and their hangers-on we get an average of 21.6 as the 
percentage of habitues, in an average of twenty-five States and their large Cities. 

In the medical profession in this same territory, we have estimates that as large a 
percentage as 10 are addicted to the opium habit in one of its forms; the average for twenty- 
five States and Cities being 2.06 per cent. Trained nurses throughout this same territory are 
addicted at the rate of 1.32 per cent. 

In other professions we get an average in the twenty-five States of 0.684 per cent., and 
amongst our adults generally (that is, including all our adult population outside of those 
already enumerated), o.i8 per cent. 

Of course these average percentages apply wholly to our adult population; that should 
be clearly understood. 

Since the passage of our National Pure Food Law, and the State and City Laws 
modelled upon it, there has been an average reduction of 40 per cent, in the sale of proprietary 
medicines containing opiates. 



20 International Opium Commission 

We have, unfortunately, to state that in some of the twenty-five States enumerated, 
there has been an enormous growth of the morphine habit, especially in the rural communities 
where the sterility in social life has driven the elderly members of these communities to this 
habit. A large percentage of this class have become addicted to the morphine habit largely 
as the result of a sincere objection to the use of alcohol in an}' of its forms. 

These average percentages apply to all forms of opium abuse. Under the following 
heading we propose to particularize more fully the use of smoking opium amongst our 
American population in our States, the District of Columbia and the Territories. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING OPIUM. 

On this important matter we have some very definite figures. 

We have already estimated the amount of this form of opium used by the Chinese. 
This leaves us to account for at least 9,000 pounds that we definitely know is not used by 
them, in addition to the large amount smuggled into the country or surreptitiously manu- 
factured from crude Turkish opium. 

We have estimates from the police departments, from physicians, from warders of jails, 
from opium habitues themselves, from educated and intelligent Chinese, and from other reliable 
sources, that there are from 3,000 to 15,000 opium smokers amongst the American white and 
negro population of one of our largest cities. We think we are perfectly safe in taking 5iOOO 
as the number in this cit)'. Basing our data on the law of averages, and applying it to other large 
centers of population (and we have data as regards these large centers which is our warrant), 
we are very certain that there are from 100,000 to 150,000 opium smokers in our American 
white and colored population. 

Army and Navy. 

Among the personnel of our Army and Navy there is not the slightest evidence that 
the use of opium or its derivatives has been introduced except for purely medicinal purposes. 

THE EFFECT OF NATIONAL AND STATE LEGISLATION. 

Before our " National Food and Drugs Act " went into operation over two }'ears ago 
there was a large sale throughout the United States of proprietary medicines containing 
opiates. Since that law went into effect, we learn from inquiries made, and from the 
examination of sales books of manufacturing druggists that the sale of proprietary medicines 
containing opiates has decreased from 15 per cent in some states to 75 per cent and even 
80 per cent in other states. This reduction is due not only to the effect of the "National 
Food and Drugs Act " but to the " State Pure Food and Drugs Acts " modelled upon it. 
In addition to the new " State Pure Food Laws," several states have laws that ban proprietary 
medicines if they contain opiates or poisons at all. 

REVENUE. 

Under the heading of " Duty Total," an examination of the Table appended to our 
Report will show at a glance the amount of revenue that our Federal Government has derived 
from import duties on the various forms of opium and its derivatives. Taking the average 
of the last eight years, from 1900 to 1907, it has been $1,425,134, Our total revenue from all 
sources for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1907, was $663,140,334. The proportion of our 
opium revenue represents only one-fifth of one per cent of our total revenue. 

PRESENT STATUS AS REGARDS LEGISLATION. 

A new era has dawned in the United States since this Commission has been gatherino-. 
A few days ago our Congress, in response to the new light thrown on our home opium 
question has passed a bill of which the following is a summary : 

Sec. I. After April first, 1909, it shall be unlawful to import into the United States opium in 
any form, or any preparation or derivatives thereof, except that opium and preparations 



Report from the United States of America 



21 



thereof other than smoking opium or opium prepared for smoking, may be imported for 
medicinal purposes only, under regulations which the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby 
authorized to prescribe, and when so imported it shall be subject to the duties which are 
now or may hereafter be imposed by law. 

•Sec. 2. If any person shall assist in importation or receive, buy or sell prohibited opium or 
derivatives, such opium shall be forfeited and destroyed, and the offender shall be fined 
not exceeding five thousand dollars nor less than fifty dollars, or imprisoned not more 
than two years, or both. Possession of such opium or derivatives thereof to be deemed 
sufficient evidence to authorize conviction umless defendant explain possession to the 
satisfaction of the jury. 

It will be seen by this bill that the only opium that can now be imported into the 
United States is opium for medical purposes and we have no doubt that the Secretary of the 
Treasury will draw up such rules and regulations under this bill as will effectually prevent any 
■other form of opium entering the country, or the entrance of an abnormal amount of opium 
for medicinal purposes. 

An\- possible growth of the poppy will also be effectually regulated and we have reason 
to hope that our people and our Government are now in line with the best thought in regard 
to the immorality of the use of opium except as a drug for purely medicinal purposes. 

PORTO RICO. 

The following table shows the amount and varieties of opium imported into Porto Rico 
since that island came under the United States Government. The position of Porto Rico in 
regard to our governmental system is still vague, and its statistics do not appear in the Table 
covering" opium importations into the United States, the District of Columbia and the 
Territories. 

IMPORTS OF OPIUM INTO PORTO RICO DURING THE FISCAL YEARS 1899-I908. 



Fiscal Year 


i 

r- J r^ ■ i Opium prepared for 
Crude Opium ^ c- 1 • 

^ Smokmg 


Total 


* 1899 

f 1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

190S 

1906 

1907 

° 1908 


Pounds 

+ 

+ 

70 
2 

4 
3 


$ 

+ 

l':.::.: 
118 

s 

II 

8 


Pounds 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

I 


$ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

2 


Pounds 
9 

71 
2 

4 
3 


$ 

47 

128 

120 

S 

1 1 

8 



t Not separately reported. 

" July 28, 1898, beginning of Annerican Occupation, to June 30, 1899. 

I' July I, 1899 to April 30, 1900. Civil Government established in Porto Rico May I, 1900. 
Figures not yet available. 



CUBA. 



We also submit a table on the importations of opium into Cuba during the fiscal years 
from 1899 to 1908; that is, since our close relations with Cuba following the Spanish- 
American War. 

The figures cover not only the years when we were administering the Government but 
in the interregnum when Cuba was under its own republican government. The figures for 
1907 and 1908 are not yet available. 



22 



International Opium Commission 



IMPORTS OF OPIUM INTO CUBA DURING THE FISCAL YEARS 1899-I908. 











Imported from 




Fiscal 


Total 










Year 






United 




Other 






United States 


Kingdom 


Turkey 


Countries 




Pounds 


$ 


Pounds 


$ 


Pounds 


$ 


Pounds 


$ 


Pounds 


$ 


*i899 


1,192 


2,137 


1,182 


2,1 1 1 


8 


21 




.... 


2 


5 


1900 


17-372 


42,024 


5,328 


12,395 


5,712 


14,439 


3,502 


8,576 


2,830 


6,614 


1901 


22,206 


58,996 


3,3°6 


9,104 


948 


2,489 


17,168 


45,431 


784 


1,972 


tl902 


25,072 


67,95s 


1,129 


3,t37 


81 


277 


23,775 


64,302 


87 


239 


1903 


29,565 


72,825 


8,274 


18,922 


5,°9i 


12,240 


15,801 


40,561 


399 


1,102 


1904 


22,153 


55,369 


13,084 


32,610 


1,229 


3,445 


7,816 


19,223 


24 


91 


1905 


25,868 


59,487 


4,226 


10,158 


2,103 


4,736 


19,275 


44,064 


264 


529 


1906 


1 19,010 


59,798 


4,382 


11,488 


845 


3,5°8 


8,640 


26,269 


S>i43 


18,533 


1907 






















"1908 























* July 17, 1898 beginning of American Occupation, to June 30, 1899. 

t July I, 1901 to May 19, 1902, on which latter date American Occupation ceased in Cuba. 
Figures for 1907 and 1908 have not yet been published by the Cuban Republic. 



INTERNATIONAL NEEDS. 

We are justified in feeling, so far as the United States itself is concerned, that we are 
capable of enforcing the provisions of the Bill just passed. Our Government can keep without 
its borders all opium that we do not legitimately need. Nevertheless it is the desire of our 
Government that the countries immediately bordering upon us should take the same stand in 
regard to opium as we have now done. With the passage of the Canadian Anti-opium Bill 
last July we had an effective guarantee from our cousins to the North that not from Canada 
would come into our own country a commodity that we wished to exclude or control except 
for the beneficent purpose to which it was originally applied. 

In all our International history we have endeavored, so far as the opium question is 
concerned, to " Do unto others as we would be done," and we believe that in the future, as the 
result of the deliberations of this Commission, all nations will apply this Golden Rule to one 
another. 



Presented by Dr. Hamilton Wright. 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, 

The Philippine Islands ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898. 
Total population 7,635,426. 
Chinese population 55,000.* 

The Chinese Exclusion Act was applied to the Philippines in 1902 and has since been 
rigorously enforced. 

Opium Traffic Prior to 1898. 



From 1843 to 1898 opium was farmed out by the Government. There are but 
few available statistics for this period. The revenue rose from (Mex.) $81,532.60 in 1863 to 
(Mex.) $250,463.20 for the first half of 1897. Smoking was confined by law to the Chinese 
but the law was not strictly enforced and an increasing number of natives contracted the habit. 

There has never been any growth of the poppy in the Islands, nor has there been any 
export of opium to other countries. The chief sources of supply of imports have been 
Singapore and Hongkong. 



*These figures are the estimate of the Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Philippine Islands. The Immigration 
records give the number as 49,000. 



Report from the United States of America 23 

Period from 1898-1901. 

During the transition period between the American occupation and the establishment 
of Civil Government, the importation of opium was placed under the provisions of the Dingley 
Tariff of the U.S.A. which called for a duty of $1.00 per pound on the crude commodity and 
$6.00 per pound on opium prepared for smoking. 

During this period tiiere was no organized attempt made to control the use of the drug. 
The imports were : 

PouND.s Value Duty 

1899 91,823 $255,310 t$64,586 

1900 155,672 477,027 132,392 

Period from 1901 to 1905. 

By the Tariff Revision Law of 1901 a duty of $3.00 per kilo* for crude opium and 
$3.50 for manufactured was imposed. During this period the import rose to 268,128 
pounds in 1905, The highest figure reached was 285,443 pounds in 1902. There was an 
epidemic of cholera this year and opium vendors used the opportunity to increase the sale of 
opium among Filipinos as an antidote or cure for the disease. In 1903 there were one 
hundred and ninety opium shops in Maiiila alone where opium was sold and used. At this 
time a bill was framed and considered in the Philippine Commission for getting control of the 
traffic and regulating the use of the drug. Discussion ensuing upon its public presentation 
eventuated in the appointment of a Committee to investigate the use of opium and the traffic 
therein, and the rules, ordinances and laws regulating such use and traffic in various countries 
in the Orient before determining the best kind of law for reducing and restraining the use 
among the Filipinos. This Committee presented its Report in June 1904. (Report of the 
Committee appointed by the Philippine Commission to investigate the Use of Opium and the 
Traffic therein.) It advocated : 

(i) Immediate Government Monopoly, to become 

(2) Prohibition, except for medical purposes after three )-ears or, if at the expiry of 
this period it seemed expedient, a longer time of preparation. 

(3) A system of individual licenses until prohibition was made law. 

(4) Making salaried Government officials the sole vendors or dispensers. 

(5) {a) An educational campaign among the young; (J)) Treatment for victims of the 
opium habit; (c) Punishment, deportation if necessary, of incorrigible offenders. 

Period from 1905 to 8 M.arch, 1906. 

On the 3rd of March, 1905, in the Philippine Tariff Revision Act, the duty on crude 
opium was increased by Congress to $4.00 per kilo, and on prepared opium to $5.00 per 
kilo. It was further enacted that the Philippine Government should have the power to 
prohibit the importation and sale of opium, or to adopt such measures as might be required 
for the suppression of the evils resulting from the sale and use of the drug; and that after 
the 1st of March, 1908, there should be a law prohibiting all importation except for 
medicinal purposes only. The Philippine Government did not feel that it could carry out 
all the details of the propositions made by the Investigating Committee. Congress by the Act 
just referred to precluded the possibility of an extension of time in preparation for prohibitory 
measures. 

Period from 8 March, 1906, to i March, 1908. 

A high license s\stem was inaugurated as a temporary expedient (Act No. 1461 of the 
Philippine Commission) on the 8th of March, 1906, placing the administration of the law 
in th . h nds of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. This law became effective the ist of April. 
By its provisions only adult male Chinese were permitted to use opium, and then on the 
expressed condition that they took out a habitual user's license. About .r 2,700 licenses 
were issued, though a conservative estimate of Chinese smokers placed the number at 
more than 20,000. Filipinos and foreigners were not eligible for licenses. As the normal 
import exceeded on an average ten tons per annum, obviously there were many users among 
those not eligible for licenses, as well as Chinese who secured opium from secret sources, 
or otherwise evaded the law. 

fUnited States Currency is meant unless otherwise stated. 
*I kilo — 2.204 pounds. 



24 International Opium Commission 

Under this Act all opium in hand at the time of its passage was required to be declared 
and opium afterwards imported had to be stored or withdrawn under Government surveillance; 
wholesale and retail dealers, being placed under bonds, had to pay an annual license tax 
of $500 and $100 respectively; an internal revenue tax was levied of $1.25 per kilo* on crude 
and of $3.75 per kilof on prepared opium; severe penalties were provided for the transgression 
of the law ; monies accruing from the license and internal revenue tax were to constitute a 
special fund for an anti-opium educational campaign, hospital treatment for victims of 
the drug, the payment of informers, and school purposes. 

During this period the imports fell from 268,128 pounds in 1905 to 150,292 pounds 
in 1906. 

In order to prepare as far as possible for the prohibitory law. Act 1761 was passed by 
the Philippine Commission on the 12th of October, 1907. The provisions of this Act allowed 
of the continuance of licenses with a monthly permit increasing in price until the date of the 
prohibitory period four months later. A decreasing amount each month could be sold to the 
licensee. The sale of opium was placed under most rigorous Government supervision which 
required that Internal Revenue officers be constantly on duty in opium dispensaries. The 
internal revenue tax was increased each month by 20 per cent of the original tax. Special 
effort was made to induce opium addicts to take hospital treatment. When the prohibitory 
law came into effect it was estimated that not more than 5,000 persons were using opium. 

Period beginning i March, 1908. 

A strict prohibitory law came into effect on this date, since which the importation of 
opium has been 38 pounds. All importation of opium and its derivatives is made through the 
Government. 

Smoking still continues but it is estimated that it has been reduced from 50 to 60 per 
cent. The fact that contraband opium has sold at the rate of $90* per poundf — (one case was 
reported where the rate per pound touched $I2 5J) indicates that a large portion of the 
smoking population is protected from the drug owing to its inability to purchase so expensive 
a luxury. The poorer people are those who most need protection for not only have they the 
least stamina but they smoke dross, the cheaper, but most vicious form of the drug. There is- 
no morphia abuse in the Philippine Islands and consequently but little effort to smuggle. 

Our chief difficulties thus far are two in number : 

(i) Inadequate facilities. Neither sufficient money nor men are provided for the 
vigorous enforcement of the law. The Filipino officials at best only afford passive aid. The 
Customs officers and the Internal Revenue Agents who are Americans are meeting the 
situation with moderate effectiveness and hopefulness. 

(2) The ease with which opium is smuggled makes it impossible to cut off the supply 
without international co-operation. There is a constant supply of contraband opium 
introduced at different points in the Islands from Hongkong, Singapore and British North- 
Borneo. Our coast line is so extended — approximately 1,500 miles in Mindanao and the 
Sulu Archipelago alone — that, without an expense beyond the power of the Government to- 
incur, the territory could not be properly policed by revenue cutters and similar agencies. 
Two efficient employees of the Government closed a recent report in the following words : 
" It suggests itself to our minds that if a perfect arrangement be made with the neighboring 
governments whereby our Government could station officials at various points of the East for 
the purpose of checking and reporting the movements of opium there would very soon result 
a firm grasp and control of smuggling. We think the suggestion on its face is plain. We are 
grappling in darkness with an unknown quantity of opium floating in the East and which is- 
ready to spurt into the Philippine Islands at any time, lilve a flow of quicksilver; this in direct 
defeat of our" endeavor, and "in partial defeat of the Customs law and the opium law." 

Two important facts should be noted. Under our prohibitory legislation: (ist) An 
additional outlay is required by our Government. (2nd) Our revenue is seriously decreased.. 



* !|f6i9.87 per picul or 1033 taels. 
1 1206.62 per picul or 344 taels. 

* About 200 taels per catty. 

+ Of course the sales were in small quantities but the figures indicate the incentive to smuggle. 
J About 277 taels per catty. 



RkPORT FROiM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



'■5 



As has already been stated, conditions being as they are, it would tax the Insular 
Treasury beyond its capacity to organize and maintain an effective service against contraband 
opium. Even with such facilities as we are employing additional expense is incurred, and this 
at a moment when our exchequer is least able to bear it. The revenue from opium for the 
last complete fiscal year (1907)* prior to prohibition amounted to $600,417.85 out of a total 
revenue of $17,44.5,489.49, being 3^^ per cent, of the total revenue. This fact is presented 
as indicating the strength of the conviction of the Government regarding the necessity of the 
legislation enacted. 

Presented by Bishop Brent. 



STATISTICAL TABLES. 



I. 

Revenue derived by the Government of the Philippine Islands from contract for the 
sale of opium during the years 1890 to 1897. 









Mexican dollars 


1890 . . . $440,675.15 


I89I 






460,409.28 


1892 






746,470.58 


1893 






545,223.84 


1894 






568,933.24 


1895 






562,044.02 


1896 






542,808.88 


ti897 






250,463.20 



Value of opium imported into the Philippine Islands during the years 1863 to 1867 
and 1890 to 1894. 

Mexican dollars. 

1863 ... $ 81,532.50 



1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 



97,500.00 
141,427.50 
133,115.00 
133.907-50 

$587,492.50 



Opium classified as such. 



From China and Singapore only the returns for 1890-94 were as follows : — 

Mexican dollars. 
1890 . . . $49S,437'Oo 



1 89 1 
1892 

1893 
1894 



90,851.00 
14,415.00 
14,280.00 
13,830.00 

$628,813.00 



Opium classified as chemical 
and pharmaceutical products 
under the tariff of 1874, and 
among vegetable products 
under the tariff of 1891. 



N.B.—O^mm data furnished by the Division of Archives, Executives Bureau, Manila, P. I. 



f The import for this year was more than 100,000 pounds less than that for 1905, though the revenue was more than 
$230,000 greater. The e.-cplanation is contained in the fact that in 1906 the system of licenses and the imposition of an 
interrial revenue tax greatly augmented the revenue already increased by the Tariff Revision of 3rd of March, 1905. 

* First and second quarters only. 



26 



Intp:rnational Opiu.m Commission 



II. 



Quantity and value of imports of opium into the Piiilippine Islands and customs duty 
thereon during the years 1899 to 1908, also internal-revenue tax collected on opium during 
years 1906, 1907 and i( 



Fiscal Year 




Imports. * 




Internal Revenue 


Total 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 
$ 


Tax. t 


Revenue. 






$ 


$ 


$ 


1899 


91,823 


255,310 


64,586 






1900 


155,672 


477,027 


132,392 






1901 


221,683 


619,338 


187,020 






1902 


285,443 


819,625 


263,406 







1903 


259,473 


721,551 


357.575 






1904 


249,770 


770,596 


338,422 






1905 


268,128 


850,381 


366,893 






1906 


150,292 


440,464 


272,955 


47,144.82 


320,099.82 


1907 


169,933 


513,287 


308,277 


292,140.85 


600,417.85 


1908 


50,776 


143,670 


92,126 


152,208.25 


244,334.25 


+Total 


1.902,993 


5,611,249 


2.383.652 


491,493.92 


1,164,851.92 



APPENDIX A. 



AN ACT FOR THE PURPOSE OF RESTRICTING THE SALE .\ND SUPPRESSING THE EVIL 
RESULTING FROM THE SALE AND USE OF OPIUM UNTIL MARCH FIRST, NINETEEN 
HUNDRED AND EIGHT, WHEN ITS IMPORT.-VTION OR USE FOR ANY BUT MEDICINAL 
PURPOSES IS FORBIDDEN BY ACT OF CONGRESS. 

By authority of the United States, be it enacted by tiie Philippine Commission, that : 

Sec. I. Opium within the meaning of this .let shall embrace every kind, class, and character 
of opium, whether crude, prepared, or refuse, and all narcotic preparations thereof or 
therefrom, and all morphine or alkaloids of opium and all preparations in which opium, 
morphine, or any alkaloid of opium enters as an ingredient, together with all opium 
leaves and wrappings of opium leaves, whether such leaves or wrappers are prepared for 
use or not. 

Sec. 2. Upon the presentation by any Chinese person of a written application, duly verified 
by his oath before an officer entitled to administer oaths, and reciting that he habitually 
smokes, chews, swallows, or injects opium in any of its forms, or is otherwise addicted 
to the use of opium or of any of its narcotic principles, it .shall be the dut\- of the 
treasurer of the municipality or the treasurer of the township or .settlement in which said 
application is presented, or if presented in the city of Manila, then of the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, upon the payment to him of five pesos b\' the applicant, to register 
such Chinese person as a confirmed user of opium and to issue to him a certificate statino- 
that he is addicted to the use of opium, the manner and form of its use, and the quantity 
of the drug consumed by him by the day, week, or month. The certificates so issued 
shall be printed in quadruplicate and shall be consecutively numbered. One of the 
quadruplicate shall be retained by the officer issuing the same, one shall be forwarded 
forthwith to the treasurer of the province in which said municipality, township, or 
settlement is located, one shall be forwarded to the Collector of Internal' Revenue and 
one .shall be delivered to the person registered. All such certificates shall be accounted 
for as cash at the rate of five pesos for each certificate. Spoiled or mutilated certificates 
not issued must be retained and turned in with the accounts of the responsible officer at 
the proper time. 



* Report of Collector of Customs, 1908. 

+ Bureau of Internal Revenue figures. 

J Opium imported during the first half fiscal year 1909 — 38 pounds. 



Rki'okt from the United States ok America 27 

Sec. 3. Any person who makes or uses a false or counterfeit certificate, or other official 
document used in the enforcement of this Act, or who with intent to defraud has in his 
possession any false, counterfeit, restored, or altered certificate, or other official document 
used in the enforcement of this Act, or who alters the written or printed figures or letters' 
upon such certificate, or other ofificial document used in the enforcement of this Act, or 
who procures the commission of any such offense by another, or who cooperates or 
assists in the commission of any such offense, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 
five thousand pesos, or b\' imprisonment for a period not exceeding two )'ears, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 4. (a) Except when prescribed as a medicine hy a duly licensed and practicing physician, 
it shall be unlawful for an)- person to smoke, chew, swallow, inject, or otherwise consume 
or use opium in an\- of its forms unless such person has been duly registered as 
provided in section two hereof and has secured the certificate therein prescribed. 
Except when prescribed as a medicine by a duly licensed and practicing physician, no 
registered confirmed user of opium shall smoke, chew, swallow, inject, or otherwise use or 
consume opium except in his own residence. 

(b) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding two hundred pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months,, 
or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 5. (a) It shall be unlawful to sell, transfer, give, or deliver opium in any of its forms to 
any person unless such person is a duly licensed physician, pharmacist, or second-class 
pharmacist, or is a duly licensed wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium, or is duly 
registered as a confirmed user of opium as prescribed in section two hereof who presents- 
his certificate as such at the time of the sale, transfer, gift, or delivery to him of opium in 
an\- of its forms: Provided, however. That opium in all of its forms may be sold, transferred, 
or delivered to scientific bureaus of the Government and to hospitals, on permit from the 
Collector of Internal Revenue. Duly licensed physicians may prescribe and administer 
opium as a medicine, and pharmacists and second-class pharmacists may sell, transfer, 
give, or deliver opium as a medicinal preparation on the prescription of a duly licensed 
and practicing physician, under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue and approved by the head of the proper Department. 

(b) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year, 
or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

(c) Any physician who habitually prescribes opium for his patients when the physical 
condition of said patients does not require the use of opium shall have his license to 
practice medicine revoked by the Board of Medical Examiners for the Philippine Islands 
after due notice and hearing by said Board, and shall be punished by a court of competent 
jurisdiction by a fine of not less than two hundred and fifty pesos nor more than one 
thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not less than six months nor more than 
one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 6. (a) Every person other than a licensed pharmacist or second-class pharmacist who 
imports, cooks, or prepares opium or prepares any narcotic extract from opium, or who 
after its reception modifies or changes the form of any opium received by him, or who 
sells or offers to sell opium in any of its forms in quantities of one kilo, or more, or who 
for himself or on commission sells or offers to sell opium to another, for resale, shall be 
deemed to be a wholesale dealer for the purposes of this Act. 

(b) Every person other than a licensed pharmacist or a second-class pharmacist, or a 
wholesale dealer in opium, who sells opium in any of its forms, or who deals or traffics 
therein, shall be deemed to be a retail dealer in opium for the purposes of this Act: Provided, 
That persons engaged in selling or offering for sale, or giving away or bartering opium in 
such manner, and in such quantities, as to bring them within the definition of wholesale 
dealers and who also sell or offer for sale, or barter or give away, opium in such manner 
and in such quantities as to bring them within the definition of retail dealers shall be 
subject to both the wholesale and the retail dealer's license tax as prescribed by this Act. 

Sec. 7. {a) It shall be unlawful for any person not a duly registered confirmed user of opium, 
a licensed physician, pharmacist, second-class pharmacist, wholesale dealer or retail 
dealer in opium, to have in his possession opium in any of its forms except on a permit 
from the Collector of Internal Revenue, or as a medicine prescribed by a duly licensed 
and practising physician. 



28 International Opium Commission 

{b) Any person violating tiie provisions of this section siiall be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one 
year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 8. Every wholesale dealer and every retail dealer in opium shall keep and maintain on 
the outside of his place oi business, so that the same may be seen and easily read by the 
public, a sign setting forth in plain, large letters the name or firm designation of such 
wholesale dealer or retail dealer, and the words " Licensed wholesale dealer in opium," or 
" Licensed retail dealer in opium," as the case may be. For a failure to keep and 
maintain such sign conspicuously displayed as herein provided, or for a violation of any 
of the provisions of this Act, the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized 
representative, may cancel the license issued to such wholesale dealer or retail dealer, and 
such wholesale dealer or retail dealer shall not be entitled to the return of any money 
paid by him for such license. 

Sec. 9. (rt) Within ten days after this Act shall go into effect every wholesale dealer and 
every retail dealer in opium, and every licensed pharmacist and second-class pharmacist, 
shall report in writing to the treasurer of the province in which his place of business is 
located, or if located in the city of Manila, then to the Collector of Internal Revenue, the 
kind, quantity, and quality of all opium in his possession or under his control, and the 
then existing market value of the same and a definite description of the place in which 
the same is kept, held, or stored. 

{b) Any person failing to make true report of the opium in his possession or under 
his control as prescribed in this section shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five 
thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court; and all opium not reported by 
such person shall be seized, forfeited, and sold as prescribed by this Act. 

Sec. 10. {a) All imported opium immediately after its release from the custom-house, and all 
opium owned, held, controlled, possessed, prepared, or manufactured by any wholesale 
dealer in opium, shall be stored by the wholesale dealer in some building or place duly 
approved by the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, and 
neither the whole nor any part of the opium so stored shall be removed from such 
building or place except in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue and approved by the head of the proper Department, or on a permit 
from the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his dul)' authorized representative. Opium 
stored or withdrawn in any manner other than that prescribed in this Act, or by 
regulations of the Collector of Internal Revenue, approved by the head of the proper 
department, shall be seized and confiscated. 

{b) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five 
years, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. II. (a) Every wholesale dealer and every retail dealer in opium shall keep a book in 
which he shall enter, in Spanish or English, the full quantity of opium on hand at the 
time of giving the notice prescribed by section nine and of all opium thereafter 
received by him from every source, the date on which the same was received, 
the person or firm from whom received, the kind received, the price paid 
or to be paid therefor, the date and hour of each and every sale made by him, the 
quantity and kind of opium sold, the name and address of the purchaser, the quantity 
and kind of opium transferred on permit, the date of such transfer, the name and address 
of the person to whom transferred, together with the number of the permit for withdrawal 
or removal, and such other information as may be prescribed by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue. 

((5) Any wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium who shall fail to keep the book and 
make true entries therein, as prescribed by this section, shall be punished by a fine not ex- 
ceeding five thousand pesos or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or 
by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 12. Should an inspection of the opium on hand or an examination of the books of any 
wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium disclose a greater or less quantity of opium than 
the difference between the receipts of opium and the sales, transfers, or withdrawals 
ju.stifies, such wholesale dealer or retail dealer shall pay to the Government of the 
Philippine Islands as a penalty double the value of any deficiency or excess that may 



Report from the United States of America 29 

exist, and all opium and other property on the premises on which the opium business is carried 
on and conducted shall be subject to seizure and shall be forfeited and sold as prescribed 
by this Act: Provided, That the wholesale dealer or retail dealer may be relieved in whole 
or in part from the penalties and forfeiture provided in this section whenever in the 
opinion of the Collector of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the proper Depart- 
ment, such relief is just and equitable. 

Sec. 13, Ever)' wholesale dealer and every retail dealer in opium shall give each purchaser of 
opium a certificate of sale, written in English or Spanish, duly prepared and signed by the 
dealer, reciting the sale, name and address of the purchaser, kind, and quantity of opium 
sold, price paid, and such other information as shall be prescribed by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, and for ever\' failure, neglect, or refusal to deliver the certificate herein 
provided for, such wholesale dealer or retail dealer shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing five hundred pesos, or b)- imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months, or by 
both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 14. The books and stock of opium of wholesale dealers and retail dealers in opium, or 
pharmacists or second-class pharmacists, shall be subject to inspection at any time by the 
Collector of Internal Revenue or his duly authorized representative, and any wholesale 
dealer or retail dealer in opium, or pharmacist or .second-class pharmacist, failing, refusing, 
or neglecting to allow such inspection immediately upon demand made by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year, 
or b_\' both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 15- ('0 ^'0 person shall import, cook, or prepare opium, or engage in the business of 
purchasing or selling opium or of dealing or trafficking therein, unles.s he shall have 
first secured from the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, 
a license to transact such business and shall have paid the license tax prescribed by this 
Act. Crude opium shall not be sold to any person who is not a duly licensed wholesale 
dealer: Provided, That duly licensed pharmacists and second-class pharmacists may 
import, bu\', sell, and prepare opium for medicinal purposes without securing the license 
prescribed by this section, under such regulations as the Collector of Internal 
Revenue may prescribe, with the approval of the head of the proper Department. 

ih) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of 
not less than five hundred pesos or more than two thousand pesos, or by imprisonment 
for a period of not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the 
discretion of the court. 

Sec. 16. Before any license is issued to any wholesale dealer in opium, the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, shall require that such wholesale 
dealer shall execute to the Government of the Philippine Islands a good and sufficient 
bond in the sum of ten thousand pesos, duly approved by the Collector of Internal 
Revenue, and conditioned that said wholesale dealer will well and truly pay the internal- 
revenue taxes, fines, and penalties imposed by this Act; that he will not withdraw or 
remove any opium from the place in which it is lawfully kept or stored except as 
prescribed by this Act, or by regulations of the Collector of Internal Revenue, approved 
by the head of the proper Department ; and that he will well and truly comply with the 
provisions of this Act and perform all the duties by it required of him to be performed. 

Sec. 17. Every wholesale dealer in opium shall pay to the Collector of Internal Revenue, or 
his duly authorized representative, an annual license tax of one thousand pesos, and every 
retail dealer in opium shall pay an annual license tax of two hundred pesos, which tax 
shall become due and payable on the first day of January of each year or on commencing 
business as a wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium. In case any wholesale dealer or 
retail dealer in opium begins business after the first day of January, he shall pay that 
proportion of the license tax which the unexpired portion of the calendar year bears to 
the whole year : Provided, however, That the sum paid for the license shall not be less 
than that required for three months: And provided further, That the license tax may be 
paid in quarterly instalments on the first day of January, the first day of April, the first 
day of July, and the first day of October : And provided further, Tha.t no vjholesaXc or 
retail license shall be issued to any person authorizing him to peddle opium, or to sell 
opium in any locality outside of a store duly registered, and that any person so found 
peddling or trafficking in opium in the streets or dwelling places, or market places, of any 
city, or in the country, or in the waters of the Philippine Islands, shall be punished by 



30 International Opium Commission 

a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding 
one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court; and in 
addition all of the stock of opium found in the jjossession of any such peddler 
shall be confiscated to the Insular Government. 

Sec. 18. Persons doing business as co-partners in any one place shall be required to pa)- but 
one license tax. Should a wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium engage in the 
business of manufacturing opium or dealing therein in more than one place, he shall pay 
the prescribed license tax for each place in which he carries on business: Provided, 
however, That if the business of manufacturing opium or of dealing therein at wholesale 
or retail is transferred to a place other than that for which the license was issued, the 
Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, may transfer the 
license to the new place of business, and in such case no additional license tax shall 
be exacted: And provided further. That when any person to whom a license is issued 
dies during the term of the license, the surviving spouse, children, executor, adminis- 
trator, or other legal representative, of such person ma}', without the payment of an 
additional tax, carry on, for the rest of the term covered by the license, the business for 
which the license was issued. 

Sec. 19. Unless otherwise provided by this Act, the payment and collection of all taxes and 
of all judgments and moneys recovered and received for taxes, costs, forfeitures, and 
penalties imposed by this Act and the accounting therefore shall be made as prescribed 
by Act Numbered Eleven hundred and eighty-nine and the regulations of the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, and in the manner and form provided for the payment and collection 
of taxes imposed by said Act. 

Sec. 20. (a) Before imported crude opium or imported prepared opium in any of its forms 
shall be released from the custom-house, there shall be paid thereon an internal-revenue 
tax as follows : On crude opium, two pesos and fifty centavos a kilo., net weight, and on 
prepared opium seven pesos and fifty centavos a kilo., net weight. This tax shall be paid 
to the collector of customs, under regulations prescribed by the Collector of Internal 
Revenue, with the approval of the head of the proper department. 

Before any crude opium which is in the Philippine Islands at the time this Act shall 
become effective is cooked or prepared for sale or for human consumption or use, every 
wholesale dealer shall pay on such crude opium to the Collector of Internal Revenue, or 
his duly authorized representative, an internal-revenue tax of two pesos and fifty 
centavos per kilo., net weight. On opium cooked or prepared in the Philippine Islands 
for sale or for human consumption or use, every wholesale dealer shall pay on the 
removal or withdrawal of such opium from the place in which it is lawfully kept or 
stored, to the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, an 
internal-revenue tax of five pesos on each kilo., net weight. The burden of proving that 
the internal-revenue tax hereby imposed has been paid is imposed on the wholesale 
dealer : Provided, however. That no tax shall be paid on opium removed or withdrawn 
for exportation and actually exported and not relanded in the Philippine Islands. 

All opium in the possession, or under the control, or subject to the order or 
disposition of any retail dealer at the time this Act becomes effective on which the 
internal-revenue tax provided by this Act has not been paid by a wholesale dealer, shall 
be subject to such tax and said retail dealer shall pay on such opium before manufacture, 
sale, consumption, or use thereof, an internal-revenue tax, as follows : Crude opium, two 
pesos and fifty centavos for each kilo, net weight ; cooked or prepared opium, or opium 
prepared for human consumption or use, five pesos for each kilo, net weight. The 
burden of proving that such internal-revenue tax has been duly paid is hereby imposed 
on the retail dealer. Net weight shall be determined by the customs rules and 
regulations covering the importation of opium into the Philippine Islands. 

Before any opium is withdrawn or removed from the place in which it is lawfully 
kept or stored, as provided by this Act, it shall be marked, branded, or otherwise 
identified in the manner prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue and approved by 
the head of the proper department. 

(J)) All)' wholesale dealer or retail dealer in opium failing, refusing, or neglecting to 
pay the internal-revenue tax as prescribed by this section, or who shall fail, refuse, or 
neglect to mark, brand, or otherwise identify opium as required by this section, shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than five hundred pesos nor more than five thousand pesos, 
or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or by both such fine and 



RliPORT I'-ROM THE UNITEU StATKS OK AMERICA 3! 

imprisonment, in the discretion of tlie court; and all goods on which such tax is due and 
not paid as required by this Act shall be subject to seizure and shall be forfeited and sold 
as prescribed by this Act. 

Sec. 21. In case of the seizure of any property for the violation of the provisions of this 
Act, the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, shall 
publish a notice of such seizure once a week for three successive weeks in some news- 
paper of general circulation devoted to the publication of general news and published in 
the province in which the .seizure was made, or if the seizure was made in the city of 
Manila, then in some newspaper published in said city. If there be no newspaper 
published in the province in which the seizure was made, then such notice may be 
published in any newspaper in the Islands devoted to the publication of L;eneral news. 
The notice shall describe the propert)' seized and state the time, cause, and place of 
seizure, and shall require any person claiming such property to appear and file his claim 
within twenty days after the first publication of such notice. 

Sec. 22. Any person claiming seized property shall file his claim thereto as prescribed in the 
notice provided for in the preceding section, and shall deposit with the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, a bond executed to the Govern- 
ment of the Philippine Islands in the sum of five himdred pesos, duly approved by said 
Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, and conditioned that 
the claimant will pay all costs and expenses of proceedings for forfeiture and sale of the 
property in case forfeiture and sale thereof is adjudged by a court of competent 
jurisdiction. On the filing of such a bond, the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly 
authorized representative, shall transmit the claim and a copy of the notice of seizure to 
the Attorney-General, who shall commence proceedings for the forfeiture and sale of the 
seized property described in the notice mentioned in the preceding section. 

Sec. 23. In case no claim is filed for the property within the time specified in the notice, or 
in case the claimant refuses to furnish the bond prescribed by the section immediately 
preceding, the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, shall 
gi\-e notice of the sale of such property by publishing such notice in the manner 
prescribed for the publication of the notice of seizure. Such notice shall set forth the 
date, hour, and place of sale, and the first publication of such notice shall be made at 
least ten days before the sale and shall be made in each issue of the paper in which 
published until and including the date of sale, provided such paper is published on said 
date. On the date and at the hour and place specified in the notice the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, shall sell the property seized, at 
public auction, and for the proceeds of the sale he shall account as for other funds received 
by him in his official capacity. 

Sec. 24. The books, blank forms, certificates, and registers necessary to carry out the 
provisions of this Act shall be prepared by the Collector of Internal Revenue, printed by 
the Bureau of Printing, and furnished to wholesale dealers and retail dealers in opium at 
the cost of printing plus ten per cent. 

Sec. 25. The Collector of Internal Revenue shall prepare and distribute regulations, directions, 
and instructions, not in conflict with the provisions of this Act, pertaining to the assessment, 
collection, and payment of the internal-revenue tax prescribed by this Act ; and such 
regulations, directions, and instructions, whether general or special in character, shall have 
the force and effect of law when approved by the hend of the proper Department. 

Sec. 26. The Collector of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the head of the proper 
Department, mnv compromise any civil or other case arising under the provisions of this 
Act instead of commencing or prosecuting suit thereon, and, with the consent of the head 
of the proper Department, he may compromise such case if action has been begun 
thereon. 

Sec. 27. The registration tax required to be paid by this Act shall be covered into the 
treasury of the municipality, township, or settlement in which collected, or if collected in 
the city of Manila, then into the Insular Treasury, and shall be deposited and disposed of 
as are all other deposits to the general fund of said municipalities, townships, settlements, 
or city of Manila, as the case may be. 

The license tax and the internal-revenue tax required to be paid by this Act shall be 
covered into the Insular Treasury and shall constitute a special fund to be devoted solely 
to the following purposes : 



32 International Opium Coatmission 

First. The printing and dissemination among the people of information as to the 
evils resulting from the use of opium ; 

Second. The payment of the reasonable expenses, in some reputable hospital, of 
those desiring to cure themselves of the opium habit; 

Third. The payment of the expenses of such Filipino students as may be sent by 
the Insular Government to the United States for education; 

Fourth. The payment of salaries of Filipinos who have been appointed Insular 
teachers; 

Fifth. The construction of schoolhouses and school buildings in the various munici- 
palities of the Islands: Provided, That twenty-iive per centum of all fines imposed by 
reason of violations of this Act shall be paid to the person who furnished the original 
evidence, and substantiated it, which led to the detection of the offense and the imposition 
of the fine. The name of the informer shall be specified in the judgment of the court 
when conviction is had in the court. 

Sec. 28. This Act shall continue in effect until March first, nineteen hundred and eight, 
after which time it is made unlawful to import into the Philippine Islands opium, in 
whatever form, except by the Government, and for medicinal purposes only, by virtue of 
paragraph eighty of the Act of Congress approved March third, nineteen hundred and 
five, entitled "An Act to revise and amend the tariff laws of the Philippine Islands, and 
for other purposes." 

Sec. 29. This Act shall take effect on April first, nineteen hundred and six. Enacted, 
March 8, 1906. 



APPENDIX B. 

AN ACT GRADUALLY TO RESTRICT AND REGULATE THE SALE AND USE OF OPIUM PENDING 
THE ULTIMATE PROHIBITION OF THE IMPORTATION OF OPIUM INTO THE PHILIPPINE 
ISLANDS IN WHATEVER FORM EXCEPT FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES AS PROVIDED EV THE 
ACT OF CONGRESS APPROVED MARCH THIRD, NINETEEN FIUNDRED AND FIVE, AND 
PROHIBITING ANY PERSON FRO.M HAVING THE POSSESSION OF OPIUM, COCAINE, OR 
ALPHA OR BETA EUCAINE IN ANY OF THEIR SEVERAL FORMS, OR ANY DERIVATIVE OR 
PREPARATION OF ANY OF SUCH DRUGS OR SUBSTANCES, EXCEPT FOR MEDICINAL 
PURPOSES, AND TO REPEAL ACT NUMBERED FOURTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-ONE AND 
OTPIER PURPOSES. 

By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Philippine Commission that : 

Sec. I. Opium within the meaning of this Act shall embrace every kind, class, and character 
of opium, whether crude, prepared, or refuse, and all narcotic preparations thereof or 
therefrom, and all morphine or alkaloids of opium and all preparations in which opium, 
morphine, or any alkaloid of opium enters as an ingredient, together with all opium' 
leaves and wrappings of opium leaves, whether such leaves or wrappings are prepared 
for use or not. 

Sec. 2. Upon the presentation by any Chinese person of a written application, duly verified 
by his oath before an officer entitled to administer oaths, and reciting that' he habitually 
smokes, chews, swallows, or injects opium, or is otherwise addicted to the use of opium, 
stating the quantity of opium consumed daily, it shall be the duty of the treasurer of the 
municipality or the treasurer of the township or settlement in which said application is 
presented, or if presented in the city of Manila then of the Collector of Internal Revenue 
upon the payment to such official by the applicant of the fee herein prescribed, to register 
such Chine.se person as a confirmed user of opium and to issue to him a certificate stating 
that he is addicted to the use of opium, the manner and form of its use and the quantity 
of the drug which he shall be permitted to consume per day. The certificates so issued 
shall be printed in quadruplicate and shall be consecutively numbered. One of the 
quadruplicates shall be retained by the officer issuing the same, one shall be forwarded 
forthwith to the treasurer of the province in which said municipality, township, or 
settlement is located, one shall be forwarded to the Collector of Internal Revenue and 



Report from the United States of America 35. 

one shall be delivered to the person registered. Beginning with the certificates for the 
month of November, nineteen hundred and seven, the Collector of Internal Revenue shall 
reduce each month the quantity which shall be permitted to be consumed by each 
registered confirmed user of opium by an amount equal to fifteen per centum of the 
quantity allowed on the original certificate issued under this law. The fee to be charged 
for confirmed users' certificates provided for in this section shall be as follows : Certificates 
for the period from the date of taking effect of this Act until the end of October, nineteen 
hundred and seven, one peso ; for the month of November, nineteen hundred and seven,, 
two pesos and fifty centavos ; for the month of December, nineteen hundred and seven,, 
five pesos ; for the month of January, nineteen hundred and eight, seven pesos and fifty 
centavos ; for the month of February, nineteen hundred and eight, ten pesos. No- 
certificates shall be honored by a dispensator of opium hereinafter mentioned except 
when presented by the owner during the month for which issued. All such certificates- 
shall be accounted for as cash at the face value thereof Spoiled or mutilated certificate.'r 
not issued shall be retained and turned in with the accounts of the responsible officer at 
the proper time. 

Sec. 3. Any person who makes or uses a false or counterfeit certificate or other official 
document used in the enforcement of this Act, or who with intent to defraud 
lias in his possession any false, counterfeit restored, or altered certificate or other 
official document used in the enforcement of this Act, or who alters the written or 
printed figures or letters upon such certificate or other official document used in the 
enforcement of this act, or who procures the commission of any such offense by another^ 
or who cooperates or assists in the commission of any such offense, or who lends or 
delivers his certificate to another, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand 
pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 4. (a) Except when prescribed as a medicine by a duly licensed and practising 
physician, it shall be unlawful for any person to smoke, chew, swallow, inject, or 
otherwise consume or use opium unless such person has been duly registered as 
provided in section two hereof and has secured the certificate therein provided. Except 
when prescribed as a medicine by a duly licensed and practising physician, no registered 
confirmed user of opium shall smoke, chew, swallow, inject, or otherwise use or consume 
opium except in a duly licensed opium dispensary hereinafter provided for. 

{b) Any person violating the provision of this section shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding two hundred pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months, 
or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court : Provided, 
That in case of the commission of a second offense under the provisions of this section 
the person so convicted, if other than a citizen of the United States or a citizen of 
the Philippine Islands, may by order of the court be deported. 

Sec. 5. {a) It shall be unlawful to sell, transfer, give, or deliver opium to any person except 
to a duly licensed and practising physician, pharmacist, or second-class pharmacist, or 
a duly licensed dispensator of opium, or duly registered confirmed user of opium in a 
licensed opium dispensary for consumption therein only, and in accordance with the 
provisions of this Act : Provided, however, That the transfer of ownership of opium, 
but not delivery thereof, may be made to licensed wholesale dealers in opium : And 
provided further, That opium may be sold, transferred, or delivered to Government 
Bureaus or officers duly authorized by the Governor-General to receive it, and to hospitals 
on permit from the Collector of Internal Revenue. Duly licensed physicians may 
prescribe and administer opium as a medicine, and pharmacists and second-class 
pliarmacists may sell, transfer, give, or deliver opium as a medicinal preparation on the 
prescription of a duly licensed and practising physician under such regulations as may 
be prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue and approved by the Secretary of 
Finance and Justice. 

(b) Any person violating the provisions of the preceding sub-section shall be punished 
b)' a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment, for a period not 
exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court; 
Provided, That in case of the commission of a second offense under the provisions of 
this section, the person so convicted, if other than a citizen of the United States 
or a citizen of the Philippine Islands, may by order of the court be deported. 



34 International Opium Commission 

(c) Any physician who prescribes opium for his patients when the physical condition 
of said patients does not require the use of opium shall have his license to practice 
medicine revoked by the Board of Medical Examiners for the Philippine Islands after 
due notice and hearing by said Board, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
two hundred and fifty pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a 
period of not less than six months nor more than one year, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 6. (a) Every person other than a licensed pharmacist or second-class pharmacist who 
imports, cooks, or prepares opium, or prepares any narcotic extract from opium, or 
who modifies or changes the form of any opium, or who sells or offers to sell opium in 
quantities of one kilo, or more, or who for himself or on commission sells or offers to 
sell opium to another for resale, shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer for the 
purposes of this Act. 

(d) The keeping of licensed opium dispensaries, not to exceed such number in any 
one city, municipality, township, or settlement, as may be prescribed by the Collector 
of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of Finance and Justice, is hereby 
authorized. 

(c) Opium dispensaries for the purposes of this Act shall be divided into three 
classes, as follows: 

First class. To be kept open twenty-four hours per day or so long as the 
proprietor may desire. 

Second class. To be kept open not over sixteen hours per day. 

Third class. To be kept open not over eight hours per day. 

The hours during which an opium dispensary may be kept open shall be continuous. 

(d) Every opium dispensary shall be in the joint custody of an internal revenue 
officer and the proprietor thereof. It shall be kept securely locked when not open to 
users and shall at no time be unlocked, opened, or remain opened unless in the presence 
of an internal revenue officer. 

Sec. 7. (a) Except upon the prescription of a duly licensed and practising physician or upon 
lawful permit of the Collector of Internal Revenue it shall be unlawful for any person not 
a duly licensed and practising physician, pharmacist, second-class pharmacist, licensed 
dispensator of opium, or a duly registered user of opium, when using the same in a 
licensed opium dispensary only and in such quantities as may be stated in his 
certificate, to have in his possession opium, or any pipes, hypodermic syringes, or other 
apparatus or paraphernalia to be used for smoking, injecting, or using opium in any 
manner. 

(d) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred pesos or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one 
year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court: Provided 
That all opium, pipes, and other opium apparatus and paraphernalia found in the 
possession of any person not authorized to have same shall be seized and forfeited to 
the Government. 

Sec. 8. Every dispensator of opium shall keep and maintain on the outside of his place 
of business, so that the same may be seen and easily read by the public, a sio-n setting 
forth in plain, large letters the name or firm designation and the words "Licensed 
opium dispensary of the 'first,' '.second,' or 'third,' class," as the case may be 
For a failure to keep and maintain such sign conspicuousl\' displayed as herein 
provided, or for a violation of any of the provisions of this Act, the Collector of Internal 
Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, may cancel the license issued to such 
dispensator of opium, and such dispensator of opium shall not be entitled to the 
return of any money paid by him for such license. 

Sec. 9. (a) Within ten days after this Act shall go into effect every person having opium in 
his possession, except a duly licensed and practising physician, licensed pharmacist or 
second-class pharmacist. Bureaus or officers of the Government authorized by law or 
by the Governor-General to have possession of the same, shall deliver to the treasurer of 
the province in which the opium is located, or if located in the city of Manila then to 
the Collector of Internal Revenue, all opium in his possession or under his control and the 
official to whom the opium is so delivered shall issue receipt for same, store the opium in a 



Report from the United States of America 3^ 

safe place, and report to the Collector of Internal Revenue immediately the name of the 
person making delivery, the quantity and kind delivered, and such further information 
as may b)- regulation of the Collector of Internal Revenue be required. Opium sa 
delivered shall not be released except on permit of the Collector of Internal Revenue. 

{b) Reasonable charges to cover actual expense of storage and care of opium may be 
imposed by the Collector of Internal Revenue. 

(c) Any person failing to deliver the opium in his possession or under his control as- 
prescribed in this section shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos, 
or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment, in the discretion of the court ; and all opium not so delivered by such 
person shall be seized, forfeited, and sold as prescribed by this Act. 

Sec. 10. All imported opium shall be delivered by the customs authorities, after payment of 
all proper duties, taxes, and charges thereon, to the Collector of Internal Revenue or to 
his duly authorized representative only, for storage in a place to be approved by the 
Collector of Internal Revenue, and neither the whole nor any part of the opium so stored 
shall be removed from such building or place except to an opium dispensary, or for export, 
in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue and 
approved by the Secretary of Finance and Justice, or on a permit from the Internal 
Revenue. Opium stored or withdrawn in an)' manner other than that prescribed by 
this Act, or by regulations of the Collector of Internal Revenue made hereunder and 
approved by the Secretary of Finance and Justice, shall be seized and confiscated. 

Sec. II. (rt) Every dispensator of opium, pharmacist, and second-class pharmacist shall keep 
a book in which he shall enter, in Spanish and English, the full quantity of opium received 
by him from every source, the date on which the same was received, the person from 
whom received, and the authorization for its receipt, the kind received, the price thereof, 
the date and hour of each and every sale or delivery made by him, the quantity and kind 
of opium sold or delivered by him, the name and authorization of the person purchasing 
or receiving the same, the quantity and kind of opium transferred on permit, the date of 
such transfer, the name and address of the person to whom transferred, together with the 
number of the permit for withdrawal or removal, and such other information as may 
be prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue. 

Ever}- pharmacist and second-class pharmacist shall likewise make, and keep a 
similar record in regard to all cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative' 
or preparation of such drugs or substances received, sold, delivered, or transferred by him. 
Pharmacists and second-class pharmacists may, on proper permit to be obtained from 
the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized agent, transfer opium, cocaine, 
alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such drugs or substances, to 
other pharmacists and second-class pharmacists. 

{b) Any dispensator of opium or licensed pharmacist or second-class pharmacist who 
shall fail to keep the book and make true entries therein, as prescribed by this section, 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a 
period not exceeding five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion 
of the court, and the license of such pharmacist or second-class pharmacist, shall be 
revoked by the Board of Pharmaceutical Examiners for the Philippine Islands after due 
notice and hearing. 

Sec. 12. Should any dispensator of opium, pharmacist, or second-class pharmacist fail to 
make and keep the record book prescribed in the next preceding section of this Act, or 
should an inspection of the opium, cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine or any derivative or 
preparation of such drugs or substances on hand, or should an examination of the books 
of any dispensator of opium, pharmacist, or second-class pharmacist, disclose a greater or 
less quantity of such articles than the difference between the receipts of such articles 
and the sales, transfers, or withdrawals thereof, respectively, should justify, then said 
dispensator, pharmacist, or second-class pharmacist, as the case may be, shall pay the 
Government of the Philippine Islands, as a penalty, double the value of any deficiency or 
excess that may exist, and all opium and opium pipes, hypodermic syringes, and 
apparatus or paraphernalia for smoking or using opium which are found on the premises 
on which the opium business is carried on and conducted shall be seized and forfeited : 
Provided, That the dispensator may be relieved in whole or in part from the penalties, 
seizure, and forfeiture provided in this section whenever in the opinion of the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of Finance and Justice, such relief 
is just and equitable. 



36 International Opium Commission 

5ec. 13. It shall be unlawful for any dispensator of opium to sell or give opium to any 
person except to a duly registered user or on permit from the Collector of Internal 
Revenue. 

Each sale, gift, or delivery of opium to a duly registered user shall be entered on the 
back of his certificate or on an official slip for that purpose attached to the certificate by 
an internal revenue officer showing the date and hour of sale, gift, or delivery and the 
amount sold, given, or delivered, and it shall be unlawful for a dispensator to sell, give, 
or deliver to a registered user of opium in a greater quantity than that stated on his 
certificate as one day's allowance or the difference between that stated as one day's 
allowance and the amount noted on the back of the certificate as having been sold, given, 
or delivered to him that day, or for a dispensator of opium to sell, give, or deliver to a 
registered user of opium any opium when the entry on his certificate shows that he has 
been furnished his full allowance for that day. 

Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not 
less than five hundred pesos and not more than five thousand pesos, or by imprisonment 
for not more than two years, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of 
the court: Provided, That in case of the commission of a second offense under the 
provisions of this section the person so convicted, if other than a citizen of the United 
States or a citizen of the Philippine Islands, may by order of the court be deported. 

Sec. 14. The books and stock of opium of dispensators of opium or of pharmacists or second- 
class pharmacists shall be subject to inspection at any time by the Collector of Internal 
Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, and any dispensator of opium or 
pharmacist or second-class pharmacist failing, refusing, or neglecting to allow such 
inspection immediately upon demand made by the Collector of Internal Revenue, or his 
duly authorized representative, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand 
pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year, or by botii such fine and 
imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

5ec. 15. (a). No person shall import, cook, or prepare opium, or engage in the business of 
purchasing or selling opium or of dealing or trafficking therein, unless he shall have first 
secured from the Collector of Internal Revenue a license to transact such business and 
shall have paid the license tax prescribed by this Act. Crude opium shall not be sold to 
any person who is not a duly licensed wholesale dealer, and then only subject to all the 
provisions of section five : Provided, That duly licensed pharmacists and second-class 
pharmacists may import, buy, sell, and prepare, opium for medicinal purposes, without 
securing the license prescribed by this section, under such regulations as the Secretary of 
Finance and Justice may prescribe on the recommendation of the Director of Health and 
the Collector of Internal Revenue. 

(J)) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of 
not less than five hundred pesos nor more than two thousand pesos, or by imprisonment 
for a period not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the 
discretion of the court. 

Sec. 16. Before any license is issued to any wholesale dealer in opium, or to any dispensator 
of opium, the Collector of Internal Revenue shall require that such wholesale dealer or 
dispensator of opium shall execute to the Government of the Philippine Islands a good 
and sufficient bond in the sum often thousand pesos, duly approved by the Collector of 
Internal Revenue, and conditioned that said wholesale dealer or dispensator of opium 
will well and truly pay the internal-revenue taxes, fines and penalties imposed by this 
Act ; that he will not withdraw or remove any opium from the place in which it is law- 
fully kept or stored except as prescribed by this Act, or by regulations of the Collector of 
Internal Revenue made hereunder and approved by the Secretary of Finance and Justice; 
and that he will well and truly comply with the provisions of tiiis Act and perform all the 
duties by it required of him to be performed. 

S^c. 17. Every wholesale dealer in opium shall pay to the Collector of Internal Revenue a 
monthly license tax of one hundred pesos, and every dispensator of opium shall pay 
a monthly license tax in the following amounts : For a first-class opium dispensary, two 
hundred and fifty pesos ; for a second-class opium dispensary, one hundred and seventy- 
five pesos; and for a third-class opium dispensary, one hundred pesos, which taxes shall be 
paid in advance. In case any wholesale dealer or dispensator of opium begins business after 
the first day of a month, he shall pay for the whole month : Provided, however. That this 



RliPORT FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 37 

shall not apply to the month of October, nineteen hundred and seven, for which month 
he shall pay one-half of the amount hereinbefore prescribed : And provided further. That 
no license shall be issued to any person authorizing him to sell opium outside of a licensed 
opium dispensary, and that any person, except a duly licensed and practising physician 
or a pharmacist or second-class pharmacist, selling, giving, furnishing, or, otherwise 
disposing of opium outside of a licensed opium dispensar}', shall be punisiied by a fine 
not exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment, for a period not exceeding one 
_\'ear, or b\' both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court; and in addi- 
tion all of the stock of opium found in the possession of any such person shall be seized 
and forfeited. 

Sec. 18. Persons doing business as copartners in any one place shall be required to pay but 
one license tax. Should a dispensator of opium engage in business in more than one 
place, he shall pa)' the prescribed license tax for each place in which he carries on 
business: Provided, however. That if the business of a dispensator or of a wholesale 
dealer in opium is transferred to a place other than that for which the license was issued, 
the Collector of Internal Revenue may transfer the license to the new place of business, 
and in such case no additional license tax shall be exacted: And provided further, That 
when any person to whom a license is issued dies during the term of the license, his heirs, 
executors, administrators, or other legal representative, may, without the payment of an 
additional tax, carry on, for the rest of the term covered by the license, the business for 
which the license was issued. 

Sec. 19. Unless otherwise provided by this Act, the payment and collection of all taxes and 
of all judgments and moneys recovered and received for taxes, costs, forfeitures, and 
penalties imposed by this Act and the accounting therefor shall be made as prescribed by 
Act Numbered eleven hundred and eighty-nine, as amended, and the regulations of the 
Collector of Internal Revenue issued thereunder. 

Sec. 20. {a) Before any imported opium shall be released from the custom-house there 
shall be paid thereori an internal-revenue tax as follows: On crude opium, two pesos and 
fifty centavos a kilo., net weight; and on prepared opium, seven pesos and fifty centavos 
a kilo., net weight. Beginning with the first day of November, nineteen hundred and 
seven, the internal-revenue tax on imported opium shall be increased each month hy an 
amount equal to twenty per centum of the original tax imposed herein until March first, 
nineteen hundred and eight, on and after which date the said tax on opium permitted to 
be imported by the Act of Congress of March third, nineteen hundred and five, shall be 
as follows: On crude opium, five pesos a kilo., net weight; and on prepared opium, fifteen 
pesos a kilo., net weight. The date of payment of this tax shall for the purpose of this 
section be considered the date of importation.' This tax shall be paid to the Collector of 
Customs, under regulations prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue, with the 
approval of the Secretary of Finance and Justice. 

On all opium cooked or prepared in the Philippine Islands every wholesale dealer 
shall pay to the Collector of Internal Revenue at the time of such cooking or prepara- 
tion an additional internal-revenue tax of five pesos on each kilo., net weight, of such 
cooked or prepared opium. Beginning with the first day of November, nineteen 
hundred and seven, the internal-revenue tax on opium cooked or prepared in the Philip- 
pine Islands shall be increased each month by an amount equal to twenty per centum of 
the original tax impo.sed herein. The burden of proving that the internal-revenue tax 
hereby imposed has been paid shall be upon the wholesale dealer. 

Net weight shall be determined by the customs laws and regulations covering the 
importation of opium into the Philippine Islands. 

Befoi-e any opium is withdrawn or remoyed from the place in which it is kept or 
stored, as prescribed by this Act, it shall be marked, branded, or otherwise identified in the 
manner prescribed by the Collector of Internal Revenue and approved by the Secretary of 
Finance and Justice. 

(b) The cooking or preparation of ooium, or the changing of its form in any 
manner, except for medicinal purposes by duly licensed and practising physicians, 
pharmacists, and second-cla.ss pharmacists, shall be done only under the supervision of the 
Collector of Internal Revenue, or his duly authorized representative, in a place to be 
designated and provided by the Collector of Internal Revenue, and all cooking or prepara- 
tion of opium, or the changing of its form, shall in any case be subject to the inspection 
of the Collector of Internal Revenue. 



38 International Opium Commission 

Opium so prepared shall be immediately returned to the place of storage as provided 
for by this Act and shall not be released except in the manner provided herein. 

The Collector of Internal Revenue is hereby authorized to make provision for the 
storage and preparation of opium, and to charge reasonable fees for such storage and place 
of preparation and for services rendered in connection with the records and the preparation 
of opium. Such charges shall constitute a lien upon the opium, which can be removed 
only by payment of all charges due. 

(c) Any dealer in opium failing, refusing, or neglecting to pay the internal- 
revenue tax as prescribed by this section, or who shall fail, refuse, or neglect to mark, 
brand, or otherwise identify opium as required by this section, or who shall in any other 
manner violate the provisions of this section, shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
five iiundred pesos nor more than five thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a period 
not exceeding five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the 
court; and all goods on which such tax is due and not paid as required by this Act shall 
be seized and forfeited. 

Sec. 2 1. In case of the seizure of any property for the violation of an)- provision of this Act, 
the Collector of Internal Revenue shall publish a notice of such seizure once a week for 
three successive weeks in some newspaper of general circulation devoted to the publication 
of general news and published in the province in which the seizure was made, or if the 
seizure was made in the city of Manila, then in some newspaper published in said city. 
If there be no newspaper published in the province in which the seizure was made, then 
such notice ma)' be published in any newspaper in the Islands devoted to the publication 
of general news. The notice shall describe the property seized and state the time, cause, 
and place of seizure, and shall require any person claiming sucii property to appear and 
file his claim within twenty days after the first publication of such notice. 

Sec. 22. Any person claiming such seized property shall file his claim thereto as prescribed 
in the notice provided for in the preceding section, and shall deposit with the Collector of 
Internal Revenue a bond executed to the Government of the Philippine Islands in the 
sum of five hundred pesos, duly approved by said Collector of Internal Revenue, and 
conditioned that the claimant will pay all costs and expenses of forfeiture and sale of the 
property in case forfeiture and sale thereof are adjudged. On the filing of such a bond 
the Collector of Internal Revenue shall proceed against such seized property in the same 
manner as is prescribed b)- Act Numbered eleven hundred and eight)'-nine, as amended, 
for the forfeiture and sale of property seized thereunder. 

Sec. 23. The books, blank forms, certificates, and registers necessary to carry out the 
provisions of this Act shall be prepared by the Collector of Internal Revenue and 
furnished to wholesale dealers and dispensators of opium at cost plus ten per centum. 

Sec. 24. The Collector of Internal Revenue is hereby authorized and empowered to prepare 
and distribute regulations, directions, and instructions for the carrying out of the provisions 
of this Act ; and such regulations, directions and instructions, not inconsistent with this 
Act, whether general or specific in character, shall have the force and effect of law when 
approved by the Secretary of Finance and Justice. 

Sec. 25. The Collector of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of Finance 
and Justice, may compromise any civil or other case arising under the provisions of this 
Act instead of commencing or prosecuting suit thereon, and, with the consent of the 
Secretary of Finance and Justice, he may compromise such case after action has been 
begun thereon. 

Sec. 26. The registration tax required to be paid by this Act shall be covered into the 
treasury of the municipality, township, or settlement in which collected, or if collected in 
the city of Manila then into the Insular Treasury to the credit of said city, and shall be 
deposited and disposed of as are all other deposits to the general fund of said muni- 
cipalities, township, settlements, or city of Manila, as the case may be. 

The license ta.x and the internal-revenue tax required to be paid by this Act except 
licen.se taxes upon wholesale dealers and opium dispensaries, shall be covered into the 
Insular Treasury and shall constitute a special fund to be devoted solely to the following 
purposes: 

First. The printing and dissemination among the people of information as to the 
evils resulting from the use of opium; 



Report i<rom the United States of America 39 

Second. The payment of the reasonable expenses, in some reputable hospital, of 
those desiring to cure themselves of the opium habit ; 

Third. The payment of salaries of Filipinos who have been appointed Insular 
teachers; 

Fourth. The construction of schoolhouses and school buildings in the various muni- 
cipalities of the Islands ; Provided, That twenty-five per centum of all fines imposed by 
reason of violations of this Act shall be paid to the person who furnished the original 
evidence, properly substantiated, which led to the detection of the offense and the imposi- 
tion of the fine. The name of the informer shall be specified in the judgment of the court 
when conviction is had in a court: Provided, That in all cases in which no fine is imposed 
but where the sentence is one for imprisonment or deportation, or when compromise is 
effected as provided in section twenty-five hereof, there shall be paid to the informer an 
amount approved by the Secretary of Finance and Justice, not exceeding one thousand 
pesos in any one case, and said moneys are hereby appropriated for the purposes of this 
section and shall be expended therefor on the approval of the Governor-General. 
Sec. 27. The license taxes on wholesale dealers and opium dispensaries and storage charges 
and fees for services rendered as provided for herein shall constitute a special fund, which 
is hereby made available for expenditure in the temporary employment of special internal- 
revenue officers, renting of buildings, furnishing supplies; and for such other purposes as 
may be necessary in the carrying out of the provisions of this Act, and said moneys are 
hereby appropriated for the purposes of this section and shall be expended therefor on 
the approval of the Governor-General. 
Sec. 28. No person shall inhale, snuff, chew, swallow, inject, or otherwise use or permit to be 
used in or on his body any cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation 
of such drugs or substances, except upon the prescription of a duly licensed and practising 
physician or except as otherwise specially provided in this Act. 

Sec. 29. The possession of any opium pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus, instrument, or 
paraphernalia for using or smoking opium or any hypodermic syringe for using cocaine, 
alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such drugs or substances, or any 
other apparatus or instrument especially designed for using any of said drugs or substances 
in or on the human body, shall be deemed prima facie evidence that the person in 
possession of such opium pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus, instrument, paraphernalia, 
or articles, has used some one of such prohibited drugs or substances, or the drug or 
substance for the use of which such apparatus, instrument, and paraphernalia are especially 
designed, without the prescription of a duly licensed and practising physician, unless 
such prescription is produced by such person. 

Sec. 30. On and after March first, nineteen hundred and eight, it shall be unlawful for any 
person to hold or to have in his possession or under his control or subject to his disposi- 
tion any opium, cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such 
drugs or substances: Provided, however, That Government Bureaus or officers of the 
Government duly authorized by law or designated in writing by the Governor-General 
may have, hold, and dispose of any such drugs or substances in accordance with law : 
And provided further. That duly licensed and practising physicians, pharmacists, and 
second-class pharmacists, or persons holding and having such drugs and substances on 
the prescription of a duly licensed and practising physician, may have, hold, possess, and 
dispose of such drugs and substances for medicinal purposes only : And provided further, 
That on and after March first, nineteen hundred and eight, whenever opium, cocaine, 
alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such drugs or substances, is 
found on, about, in the possession of, or under the control of, any unauthorized person, 
such opium, cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such 
drugs or substances, shall be seized and forfeited to the Insular Government. 

Sec. 31. Any unauthorized person owning, carrying, holding, having, controlling, having 
possession of, or knowingly having on his premises, any opium, cocaine, alpha or beta 
eucaine, or any derivative or preparation of such drugs or substances, on and after March 
first nineteen hundred and eight, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding ten thousand 
pesos, or by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment, in the discretion of the court : Provided, however. That in the case of 
the commission of a second offense under the provisions of this section, any person so 
convicted, if other than a citizen of the United States or a citizen of the Philippine Islands, 
may, by order of the court, be deported. 

[Continued on page 42 



IMPORTATIONS 







OPIUM, 


CRUDE 




SMOKING OPIUM 


„ 














xear ■ 


Pounds 


Value 
Total 


Value 

per 
Pound 


Duty 

per 

Pound 


Duty 
Total 


Pounds 


Value 
Total 


Value 

per 

Pound 


Duty 

per 

Pound 


Duty 
Total 


1907 


444,121 


11,134,681 


$2,555 


1 


$444,121 


151,916 


$1,460,400 


•19.613 


>. 


$911,496 


1906 


514,424 


1,207,856 


2. .348 




514,424 


1.39,106 


1,305,283 


9.383 




834,636 


1905 


456,564 


913,770 


2.001 




456,564 


144,997 


1,316,096 


9.077 




869,982 


1904 


535,048 


1,165,385 


2.178 




535,048 


164,611 


1,191,055 


7.236 




987,666 


1903 


486,614 


972,587 


1.999 




486,614 


182,629 


1,133,182 


6.205 




1,095,774 


1902 


548,674 


1,262,369 


2.301 




548,674 


163,441 


1,190,493 


7.284 




980,646 


1901 


491,448 


1,030,209 


2.096 


$1 1- 


491,448 


139,519 


1,141,518 


8.182 




8.37,114 


1900 


537,004 


1,137,762 


2.119 




537,004 


129,335 


938,524 
19,676,551 


7.257 


$6 - 


776,010 




4,013,897 


^8,824,619 


$4,013,897 


1,215,554 


$7,293,324 


1899 


343,283 


^833,751 


$2,429 




$343,283 


127,081 


$837,453 


$6,589 




$762,486 


1898 


57,873 \ 
14,414/ 


130,312\ 
32,340/ 


2.250 


- 


57,873 


117,298 


791,379 


6.748 




703,788 


1897 


t[ 1,073,999 


2,186,763 


2.027 






124,099 


904,885 


7.290 


. 


744,597 


1896 


364,268 


683,347 


1.876 






123,544 


905,515 


7.329 


^ 


1,482,528 


1895 


357,981 


729,074 


2.036 






115,709 


734,598 


6.349 




1,. 388, 508 


1894 


716,883 


1,691,914 


2.350 


Free - 




51,648 


340,933 


6.601 




619,776 


1893 


612,511 


1,178,305 


1.924 






66,679 


471,658 


7.074 


$12 


800,148 


1892 


587,122 


1,029,203 


1.753 






78,526 


558,857 


7.117 




942,312 


1891 


621,749 


1,582,461 


2.545 


- 




61,341 


453,369 


7.391 




736,092 


1890 


380,621 
5,130,704 


923,007 


2.425 




380,621 


58,983 


428,860 
$6,427,507 


7.271 


' 


589,830 




$11,000,477 


$781,777 


924,908 


$8,770,065 


1889 


472,937 


$1,068,374 


$2,259 




$472,937 


79,851 


$544,392 


.$6,818 


•$10 - 


.$798,510 


1888 


290,878 


835,690 


2.873 




290,878 


72,856 


615,535 


8.449 




728,560 


1887 


468,153 


1,069,918 


2.285 




468,153 


60,902 


549,040 


9.015 




609,020 


1886 


351,193 


798,489 


2.273 




351,193 


49,733 


447,840 


9.019 




497,330 


1885 


351,609 


914,601 


2.601 




351,609 


37,465 


335,383 


8.978 


J 


374,650 


1884 


264,746 


661,044 


2.497 




264,746 


1,066 


10,124 


9.497 


^ 


10,660 


1883 


229,011 


747,794 


3.265 




229,011 


298,153 


2,684,589 


9.004 




1,788,918 


1882 


227,126 


881,023 


3.839 


$1 ■ 


227,126 


106,221 


1,038,305 


9.775 




637, .326 


1881 


385,059 


1,791,415 


4.652 


385,059 


76,446 


761,349 


9.959 




458,676 


1880 


243,211 


858,225 


3.529 




243,211 


77,196 


773,796 


10.024 




46.3,176 




3,283,923 


$9,626,573 


$3,283,923 


859,889 


$7,760,353 


$6,366,826 


1879 


278,554 


1929,894 


$3,331 




$278,554 


60,648 


1643,774 


$10,613 


S6 


$363,888 


1878 


207,752 


712,624 


3.430 




207,752 


54,805 


617,160 


11.261 




.328,830 


•1877 


230,102 


997,692 


4.336 




230,102 


47,428 


502,662 


10.598 




283,568 


.1876 


228,742 


913,078 


3.992 




228,742 


53,189 


577,289 


10.853 




319,1.34 


1875 


188,239 


953,429 


5.065 




188,239 


62,775 


662,066 


10.548 




.376,650 


1874 


170,706 


945,232 


5.537 




170,706 


55,.344 


556,844 


10.062 




332,064 


1873 


152,770 


734,797 


4.809 




152,770 


63,0.59 


582,656 


10.963 




318,354 


J872 


189,355 


769,750 


4.118 




189,355 


49,375 


5.35,597 


10.848 




296,250 


1871 


105,689\ 
52,929/ 


574,291 \ 
,344,683 j 


5.434 1^ 
6.513* 


1 


238,012 


25,270 \ 
12,5.54/ 


239,6991 
113,635/ 


9.485 \ 
9.051/ 


-\ 


265,255 


1870 


121,185 


805,734 


6.649 




302,962 


12,603 
487,050 


111,949 
.$5,143,.331 


8.875 




111,949 




1,926,023 


$8,681,204 


12,187,194 


2,995,942 


1869 


91,825 


$348,930 


$3,800 


$2.50 - 


$229,562 


17,941 


$168,719 


.*9..381 


100% 


•$168,719 


1868 


94,580 


331,144 


3.516 




236,450 


*35,500 


323,752 






323,752 


1867 


125,957 


440,792 


3.492 




314,892 


32,971 


290,623 


8.815 




290,623 


1866 


167,150 


444,084 


2.657 




417,875 


9,315 


167,618 


17.995 


J 


167,618 


1865 


92,099 


225,024 


2.443 




230,247 


31,918 


293,.393 


9.192 


80% ^ 


1 234,614 


1864 


76,058 


227,827 


2.995 




152,116 


20,585 


187,034 


9.086 


1 149,627 


1863 


56,266 


227,738 


4.047 


12 


112,532 


*34,220 


290,872 








1862 


179,270 


599,135 


3.342 


179,270 


*33,140 


281,706 








1861 


103,163 


397,629 


3.834 


- 


134,900 


*52,750 


448,351 








1860 


116,686 
1,103,054 


527,707 


4..-)22 


^ 


116,686 


*47,900 


1 407,041 










$3,770,010 


12,124,530 


316,240 


$2,859,109 






^ 


*OPIUM 




$1 








1859 


65,694 


$281,967 












1858 


125,458 


403,985 




J 








1857 


125,969 


443,324 




, - 








1856 


152,747 


465,976 












1855 


107,632 


390,883 












1854 


102,467 


249,953 












1853 


121,481 


315,274 






* T^iCihi'inntipH 






1852 


37,888 


114,500 






IUOIJxLHU/KjXjU. 






1851 


33,107 


75,531 




20% 


+ Includes Alaska 2 


,288 




1850 


116,390 


319,184 






















J ,, >i ' 


,116 and Ha 


waii 25,767 








988,833 


$3,060,577 






§ Owing to the he 


^vy duty of 


Ho and $12 per pound imports 


1849 


85,095 


$171,956 






were restri 


cted, but larj 


fe amounts were smuggled into 


1848 


43,864 


90,600 






this count 


ry 




1847 
1^46 
1845 


68,016 

54,889 
7,445 


160,197 

274,091 

18,799 




- 


** Prior to 1860 i 
morphine 


10 separate 


returns of smoking opium 01* 


1644 
1843 


20,830 
5,286 


38,653 
6,744 




.75 


H Excess due to ani 


icipated tari 


Bf 


1842 


*14,500 


29,303 




IfH Decrease. Imp 


Drtations for 


3 years only 


1841 


*135,000 


238,633 




Tree 


I 






1840 


»16,000 
450,925 


28,216 




/ §§ Light importatio 


ns due to eloi 


e of southern ports, 1861-1865 




$1,057,192 





VJJt^ ^Jr^iLlM 















Population compared with 




MORPHINE OR ITS SALTS 




POPULATION 


Opium imports — 














Per cent of increase 


Ounces 


Value 
Total 


Value 

per 

Ounce 


Duty 

per 

Ounce 


Duty 
Total 


Chinese 


All Others 


Population 


Smoking 
Opium 


Crude 
Opium 


5-24 


.?820 


$1.56 


~, 


1524 


* 120,000 


86,981,067 








4,132 


7,819 


1.89 




4,132 












21,391 


41,734 


1.95 




21,391 












20,762 


43,766 


2.11 




20,762 












12,251 


26,515 


2.16 




12,251 












38,002 


96,559 


2.54 




.38,002 












50,699 


147,384 


2.91 


11 1- 


50,699 












26,088 


75,135 


2.89 




26,088 


1118,746 


76,055,051 


21 


32 


t1I21.7 


173,849 


§439,732 


.•?173,849 




13,081 


*35,.357 


>;2.70 




■SI 3,081 












2,382\ 
13,409/ 


2,823\ 
32,836/ 


2.45 \ 
1.19 / 


■ 


9,086 












14,830 


30,171 


2.03 




7,415 












897 


1,083 


1.21 




449 












16,029 


18,507 


1.15 




8,014 












29,076 


36,452 


1.25 


50c. ]- 

1 


14,538 












23,580 


25,035 


1.06 




11,790 












38,758 


42,301 


1.049 




19,379 












27.5981 
1,966/ 


39,117\ 


1.417\ 
1.603/ 




15,765 












3,152j 


^ 














19,953 


27,701 


1.388 




19,953 


1 109,776 


62,977,452 


26 


§ 7.6 


56 


201,559 


.•;294,535 


SI 19,470 




20,725 


«27,710 


$1,337 




120,725 












19,154 


33,342 


1.740 




19,154 












14,311 


24,456 


1.709 




14,311 












17,612 


26,758 


1.519 




17,612 












20,710 


34,713 


1.676 




20,710 












27.850 


47,179 


1.697 




27,850 












16.782 


30,558 


1.820 




16,782 












23.239 


43,359 


1.866 




23,239 












22,358 


55,531 


2.484 


•Ifl 


22,358 












19,386 


38,376 


1.979 




19,.386 


105,465 


50,074,744 


30 


76.5 


70.5 


202.127 


.?.361,981 


$202,127 




3,490 


.•?6,376 


.SI. 827 




•13,490 












3,002 


7.123 


2.373 




3,002 












3,403 


8,083 


2.317 




3,403 












3.285 


9,097 


3.769 




3,285 












4.2.52 


1.3,102 


3.081 




4,252 












1,309 


4,. 349 


3. .323 




1,309 












589 


1,702 


2.890 




589 












240 


701 


2.92 




240 










215 \ 
22 J 


926\ 
140/ 


4.31 \ 
6. .36 j 


J 


270 












3,1S8 


15,613 

.*67,212 


4.898 




7,970 


63,199 


38,495,172 


22 


88 


74.6 


22,995 


$27,810 




1,485 


89,192 


S(i.l9 


.?2.50 


.S3,509 












64 


144 


2.25 




160 












688 


1,738 


2.59 




1,719 












2,098 


4,284 


2.04 




5,245 












172 


421 


2.47 


J 


4.30 












71 


171 


2.41 


12 1 


142 












175 


604 


3.45 


350 












1,1.37 


2,677 


2. .35 


u ;. 


1,137 












12 


35 


2.83 


12 






















34,933 


31,408,388 


34 




§§12.6 


5,902 


!? 19,266 


$12,704 





Compiled by 
THE UNITED STATES OPIUM COMMISSION 
Charles H. Brent, Chairman 
Hamilton Wright 
Charles D. Tenney 



3rd December, 1908. 



42 International Opium Commission 

Sec. 32. On and after March first, nineteen hundred and eight, it shall be unlawful for any 
person in the Philippine Islands to inhale, smoke, chew, swallow, inject, or otherwise use 
or permit to be used in or on his body any opium, except for medicinal purposes, and 
then only upon prescription of a duly licensed and practising physician. 

Any person violating any of the provisions of this section shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding ten thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for not exceeding five years, 
or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court : Provided, 
however. That in the case of the commission of a second offense under the provisions of 
this section, any person so convicted, if other than a citizen of the United States or a 
citizen of the Philippine Islands, may, by order of the court, be deported. 

Sec. 33. Act Numbered fourteen hundred and sixty-one, entitled " An Act for the purpose 
of restricting the sale and suppressing the evil resulting from the sale and use of opium 
until March first, nineteen hundred and eight, when its importation or use for any but 
medicinal purposes is forbidden by Act of Congress," is hereby repealed. 

Sec. 34. The public good requiring the speedy enactment of this bill, the passage of the 
same is hereby expedited in accordance with section two of " An Act prescribing the 
order of procedure by the Commission in the enactment of laws," passed September 
twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred. 

Sec. 35. This Act shall take effect on October seventeenth, nineteen hundred and seven. 

Enacted, October 10, 1907. 



APPENDIX C. 

The following is the Act of Congress of March 3rd, 1905, on which the Philippine 
legislation was based : — 

"AN ACT TO REVISE AND AMEND THE TARIFF LAWS OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, 

AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. 

Sec. II. (Rates on imports.) 

Class III. — Substances employed in pharmacy and chemical industries, and products 
composed of these substances. 
80. Opium : 

(a) Crude, N. W., kilo., four dollars ; 

(b) The same manufactured or prepared for smoking or other purposes, N. W., kilo., 
five dollars. Provided, however. That the Philippine Commission or any subsequent 
Philippine legislature shall have the power to enact legislation to prohibit absolutely the 

' importation or sale of opium, or to limit or restrict its importation and sale, or adopt 
such other measures as may be required for the suppression of the evils resulting from 
the sale and use of the drug: And provided further. That after March first, nineteen 
hundred and eight, it shall be unlawful to import into the Philippine Islands opium, 
in whatever form, except by the Government, and for medicinal purposes only, and at no 
time shall it be lawful to sell opium to any native of the Philippine Island's except for 
medicinal purposes. (33 Stat. L. 944.)" 



Memorandum on Opium from China 43 



Austria and Hungary. 



Opium not being produced either in Austria or in Hungary, no opium is exported 
from the Dual Monarchy. 

On account of the small imports of opium into Austria-Hungary the official statistics 
do not show the exact quantity of imported opium ; the yearly import of opium is estimated 
to vary between 1,400 and 2,000 kilogrammes; the average yearly consumption is therefore 
about 0.05 grammes per head of the total population. Nearly the whole of the imported 
opium is shipped from Constantinople to Trieste. 

The import of opium derivatives is not important. Kodein is imported from Germany 
and about 700-1,000 kilogrammes morphine is imported from England every year. 

The import duty for opium and its derivatives is Kronen 36 or about £1 12s. for one 
hundred kilogrammes. 

Opium, morphine and its derivatives are used for medical purposes only. 

In the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy opium for smoking purposes is 
not manufactured. 

The cultivation of poppy is insignificant and the poppy produced in Austria-Hungary 
is not fit for the production of opium. 

The same restrictions are in force for the trade with opium and its derivatives as for 
the trade with poisons. 

According to the Austrian Regulation dated 21st April, 1876 the box or bottle which 
contains poison has to be distinctly labelled with the word "Poison" and under § 361 Penal 
Code any person who sells poisons, in contravention to the existing rules and regulations for 
the trade of poisons, is liable to a penalty of 10 Kronen to 100 Kronen — los. to ;^8 — or of 
prison of one day to eight days. 

In Hungary similar laws and regulations are in force. 



44 International Opium Commission 



China. 



I.— HISTORICAL NOTE ON OPIUM. 

(Extracted from various sources.) 

Previous to the Tang dynasty (a.d. 6i8) the poppy was apparently unknown to the 
Chinese botanists and physicians. The first mention in literature is in the " Supplementary 
Herbalist" of Chen Tsang-CHI, an author writing in the first half of the eighth century, who 
quotes from an earlier lost writer, Sung Yang-tzQ a statement that " The poppy has four petals, 
white or red. . . . The seeds are in a bag (capsule described), . . . being like those 
of millet." At this time the Arabs had been trading with China for a full century. The second 
reference is in the " Book on the Culture of Trees," by Kuo To-TO, a writer of the latter part of 
the eighth century living in the inland province of Shensi. The poet YUNG Tao, a resident of 
Szechwan in the closing years of the Tang dynasty (ended 906), wrote a poem describing the 
poppy growing in the plains near his home. 

In the " Herbalist's Treasury," composed by order of the Emperor by a commission of nine 
in 973, is a reference to the medicinal use of the poppy: " Its seeds have healing power. When 
men . . . they may be benefited by mixing these seeds with bamboo juice boiled into gruel, 
and taking the mixture." About the same period the poet Su TUNG-PO says, in one of his 
poems : " The boy may prepare for you the broth of the poppy." His brother, Su Ch&, wrote "A 
Poem on the Cultivation of the Medicinal Plant Poppy," in which he says : " I built a house on 
the west of the city. . . . The gardener came to me to say 'The poppy is a good plant to 
have.' ... Its seeds are like autumn millet ; when ground, they yield a sap like cow's 
milk ; when boiled, they become a drink fit for Buddha." 

In the Herbalist of Su SUNG, prepared by order of the Emperor about the year 1057, 
it is stated that " The poppy is found everywhere. . . . There are two kinds, one with red 
flowers, one with white. . . . When the capsules have become dry and yellow, they ma\- be 
plucked. ... In cases of nausea it will be found serviceable to administer a decoction of 
poppy seeds made in the following way. . . ." 

A medical writer, LiN Hung, probably of the twelfth century, makes the first reference 



NOTE. 

As a rough guide, it may be mentioned that the Haikwan tael was in 1907 equivalent — 

in English money, to 35. 30?., 

,, America ,, ,, Gold $0.79, 
,, French ,, ,, Francs 4.09, 

,, German ,, ,, Marks 3-33, 

,, Indian ,, ,, Rupees 2.42, 

,, Japanese ,, ,, Yen 1.58, 
,, Mexican Dollars, ,, li'i-Si, 

at the average Sight Exchange on London, New York, Paris, Berlin, Calcutta, Japan, and Hongkong respectively. 
100 Haikwan taels are approximately equal to III. 40 Shanghai taels or 150 Mexican dollars. 



TABLE OF CHINESE WEIGHTS. 

I Tael (Liang) = 583.3 grains (i J oz. avoirdupois). 
= 37.783 grammes. 
16 Taels = I Catty (Chin) = i^ lb. avoirdupois. 

= 604. 53 grammes. 
100 Catties = I PicaL (Tan) = 133I lb. avoirdupois. 

= 60.453 kilogrammes. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 45 

to the use of the capsules, which contain the juice from which opium is prepared. He directs 
that the entire poppy head be taken, washed, and the juice pressed out and filtered, and then 
boiled and afterwards steamed ; the residue may then be taken out and " made up into cakes 
shaped like a fish." The result of this process is opium, mixed with the impurity of the 
vegetable substance of the capsule. Three other writers of the same period, Yang Shih-ying, 
Wang Chiu, and Wang Shih, refer explicitly to the merits of the poppy capsule in curing 
dysenterj^ Three writers on medical subjects of the thirteenth century, LiU Ho-KIEN, Ll Kao, 
and Wei I-lin, and one of the fourteenth century, Chu Cnf^N-HENG, also described the mode 
of preparing the "fish-cake" paste from the capsule and its use in the pharmacopoeia. The 
last-named states: "It is used also for diarrhoea and dysentery accompanied by local inflam- 
mation; though its effects are quick, great care must be taken in using it, because it kills 
like a knife." 

The first reference to scoring the fresh capsule in situ to obtain the inspissated juice, 
which by manipulation becomes opium, is in the writings of Wang Hi, who died in 1488. He 
says: "Opium is produced in Arabia from poppies with red flowers . . . after the flower has 
faded the capsule while still fresh is pricked for the juice." Wang Hi was Governor for 20 years 
of the province of Kansu, where he would come in contact with Mahommedans, from whom he 
could learn of Arab arts and industries. In the "Eastern Treasury of Medicine," a Korean work 
of the same period, is given an exact account of the method of scoring the capsule, gathering the 
exuded sap, and drying it in the sun, much as practised to-day; and there can be little doubt 
that the preparation of opium was introduced into China through Arab channels by the end 
of the fifteenth century. The "Introduction to Medicine" of Li TiNG, in the middle of the 
sixteenth century, gives an exact account of the method of preparing opium, under the 
name a-fit-vung. The Arabs, in taking the Greek name (oTrtoi/), transformed it into afyun. 
In China the provinces along the coast have transliterated the name opium into ya-pien, by 
which the drug is generally known; but in the inland province of Yunnan, where the Mahom- 
medan influence has always been strong, and the Mahommedan population predominated up 
to the Panthay rebellion f 1867) and the resultant massacres, opium of indigenous production is 
to this day referred to in official documents, tax receipts, etc., zs fu-yung, which, except as a 
truncated form of a-fu-yung. is unintelligible in Chinese. 

The poppy has therefore been known in China for at least 12 centuries, its medicinal 
use for nine centuries, and that the medicinal properties lay in the capsule for six centuries. 
The art of extracting opium from the capsule has been practised for four centuries — for its 
medicinal properties only and long before the vice of smoking the drug was introduced. Tobacco 
smoking was introduced by the Spanish at the beginning of the seventeenth century, and the 
smoking of opium mixed with tobacco, through the Dutch, in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. There is no record to show when opium was first smoked by itself, but it is thought 
to have originated about the end of the eighteenth century, and to have coincided with the issue 
of the Edict in 1796 prohibiting the importation of all opium. Foreign opium was first imported 
from Goa by the Portuguese in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the first prohibiting 
Edict against opium smoking was issued by the Emperor YUNG Ch^NG in 1729, enacting severe 
penalties on the sale of opium and the opening of opium-smoking divans, and from this time on 
the sale of opium for the purpose of smoking became a criminal offence. In 1729 the arrivals 
of foreign opium were but 200 chests, but a constant increase followed each year, and by 1790 
the importation had reached the figure of over 4,000 chests. In 1796 an Edict formally pro- 
hibiting the importation of all opium was issued, and in 1800 this prohibitory Edict was issued 
anew. From that date all trade in opium became contraband. Instead of diminishing, the 
trade flourished in spite of the prohibition, and by the year 1820 the importation amounted to 
5,000 chests. By 1830 it had increased to 16,877 chests, by 1838 to 20,619 chests, by 1850 
to 50,000 chests, and in 1858 to 70,000 chests. In November of the last-mentioned year the 
trade was legalised by China and a tariff rate of Hk. Tls. 30 per picul on opium was chargeable 
thereafter. While there can be little doubt that this legalisation of the opium traffic was 
contrary to the wishes of the Imperial Family and the enlightened classes in China, the country 
was then in the throes of the greatest rebellion ever experienced in its history and revenue was 
badly needed. It was recognised that as the contraband trade continued in spite of the Imperial 
disfavour, it would be best to legalise it as the choice of two evils, and this was accordingly done. 

The next step in the history of opium is found in the Chefoo Convention of 1876, by 
which the British Government accepted in principle a proposal that inland taxation (likin) on 
the drug should be collected simultaneously with the import duty, i.e., by the Imperial, and 
not the provincial, authorities. This was made effective lay an Additional Article signed on 
18th July, 1885, by which the amount of likin was settled at Hk. Tls. 80 per picul, making, with 
the import duty, a total of Hk. Tls. 1 10 per picul, which the Chinese Government now collects. 



46 



International Opium Commission 



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Memorandum on Opium China 



47 



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48 International Ofium Commission 

II.— FOREIGN OPIUM. 



(a.) TOTAL NET IMPORTATIONS FOR THE YEARS 1863 TO I908. 

The appended table gives the quantities of foreign opium imported through the various 
Imperial Maritime Custom Houses throughout China for the years 1863 to 1908. In 1863 
the amount was 50,087 piculs; in 1867 the quantity had risen to 60,948 piculs; in 1873, 
to 65,797 piculs; and in 1879, to 82,927 piculs — the largest importation of any year given 
in the table. In 1883 the quantity decreased to 68,168 piculs, to rise again to 82,612 
piculs in 1888 — only 315 piculs short of the record year. Five years later (1893) '^ decreased 
once more to 68,108 piculs, or 60 piculs short of the importation of 10 years before (1883). 
In 1898 the figure was 49,752 piculs, and in 1903 it had risen again to 58,457 piculs. 
For 1908 the quantity declined to 48,397 piculs. The following shows the average annual 
importations: — • 

1863 to 1870 56,226 Piculs. 

1871 „ 1880 68,765 „ 

1 88 1 „ 1890 72,012 „ 

1891 „ 1900 58,726 

1901 „ 1908 52,809 

Previous to 1887 it is estimated that the quantity of foreign opium entering China each year 
by unauthorised channels amounted to about 20,000 piculs. In that year the Kowloon and 
Lappa Customs were opened and stations established around Hongkong and Macao, to keep 
a check on the junk trade, with the result that opium smuggling was reduced by at least 
15,000 piculs yearly. For the Canton delta alone the average annual importation for the six 
years before the opening of Kowloon and Lappa was 1,265 piculs, whilst for the five years 
following their opening it rose to 1 5,207 piculs. Since 1 887, therefore, the amount of smuggling 
in the foreign drug may be considered as about 5,000 piculs annually; consequently, to 
obtain a more correct idea of the actual arrivals of foreign opium in China, 20,000 piculs 
should be added to each year's importation (given in the table) prior to 1887, and 5,000 
for each year's since that date. The importation for 1908 compared with that for 1907 
shows a decrease of 6,187 piculs, or a little over 11 per cent. The decrease in demand 
between the years 1 888-1906 is attributed generally to the replacement of the foreign by 
the native drug. 



Memoranduai on Opium from China 



49 



(b.) DISTRIBUTION. 



The following table, compiled from the Customs returns, gives the distribution (net 
importations from all sources) of foreign opium in the various Customs districts in the five 
years 1904 to 1908: — 



Province. 


Port. 
Newchwang 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 

Piads. 
98 


1907. 


1908. 

Piculs. 

2 
I 


Manchuria 


Picuh. 
6 


Piculs. 
25 


Piculs. 

9 

2 


Antung 




6 


25 


98 


1 1 


3 


Chihli 




Chinwangtao 

Tientsin 


'248 
248 


225 


10 
272 


150 


153 




225 


282 


150 


153 


Shantung 




Chefoo 


403 


440 


617 

lO 


364 
1 1 . 


246 
21 

267 


Kiaochow 




403 


440 


627 


375 


SZECHWAN 




Chunekine' 






I 
I 


I 










1 




HUPEH 




Ichang 

Shasi 


"67 

253 


I 

58 
263 


2 

55 
306 


"78 
338 


43 
196 


Hankow 




320 


322 


363 


316 


239 


Hunan 




Changsha 


1 10 

78 


240 


248 


276 

2 


139 


Yochow 




188 


240 


248 


278 


139 


KlANGSI 




Kiukiang 


2,418 


1,715 


1,459 


1,874 


1,494 




2,418 


1,715 


1,459 


1,874 


1,494 


Anhwei 




Wuhu 


2,360 


1,626 


1,633 


2,428 


2,042 




2,360 


1,626 


1,633 


2,428 


2,042 


KlANGSU 




Nanking 


997 

3,462 

15,203 


915 

2,351 

14,81 1 

18,077 


95° 

2,497 

15,937 


970 

3,302 

15,722 


375 
2,894 

13,727 


Chinkiang 


Shanghai 




19,662 


19,384 


19,994 


16,996 







50 



International Opium Commission 



Province. 


Port. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


Chekiang 


l-ranffchow 


Piculs. 

2,487 

2,209 

117 


Piculs. 

2,099 

1,814 

128 


Piculs. 

1,603 

1,408 

153 


Piculs. 

1,674 

1,458 

108 


Piculs. 

1,199 

1,323 

82 


Nin2fDO 


Wenrhow 




4,813 


4,041 


3,164 


3,240 


2,604 


FUKIEN 




Foochow 


3,851 
3,422 


3,301 
3,299 


3,362 
3,645 


3,194 
3,870 


2,869 
3,258 






7,273 


6,600 


7,007 


7,064 


6,127 








4,86s 
9,453 

245 
I 
629 
1,276 
450 
133 


4,129 

10,209 

298 

917 
1,783 
1,075 

176 


4,381 
11,146 

379 

I 

1,017 

1,650 

1,051 

193 


4,304 

10,404 

289 

1,040 
1,406 

1,133 
269 


4,233 
10,060 

383 

295 

953 

1,282 

847 

279 


Canton 


Samshui 








T*vinnPThnw 


Pakhoi 




17,052 


18,587 


19,818 


18,845 


18,332 


KWANGSI 






9 


22 


33 


8 


I 




9 


22 


33 


8 


I 






Total 


54,752 


51,920 


54,117 


54,584 


48,397 



This table shows that in 1908 the three northern provinces of China — Manchuria, Chihli, 
and Shantung — consumed 423 piculs of foreign opium, against 1,007 piculs in 1906; Kiangsu 
consumed 16,996 piculs, against 19,384 piculs; and Chekiang, 2,604 piculs, against 3,164 piculs. 
The southern coast provinces of Fukien and Kwangtung took 24,459 piculs, against 26,825 piculs. 
The total for the coast provinces is 44,482 piculs in 1908 and 50,380 piculs in 1906, a decrease 
of 5,898 piculs. Of the Yangtze provinces, Hupeh consumed 239 piculs, against 363 piculs; 
Hunan, 139 piculs, against 248 piculs; Kiangsi, 1,494 piculs, against 1,459 piculs; and Anhvvei, 
2,042 piculs, against 1,633 piculs. The total for the Yangtze provinces is 3,914 piculs for 1908, 
against 3,703 piculs in 1906, an increase of 211 piculs. Of the inland provinces, Szechwan took 
no foreign opium, against i picul in 1906, and Kwangsi took i picul, against 33 piculs in 1906. 
No other inland province consumes the foreign drug. The decrease for the inland provinces 
was 32 piculs. The total decrease since the Anti-Opium Edict of September 1906 has 
therefore been 5,720 piculs, or 10^ per cent. The only provinces showing an increase in the 
consumption of foreign opium are Kiangsi (35 piculs) and Anhwei (409 piculs). 



Memorandum on Opium from China 



51 



(c.) VARIETIES IMPORTED. 

The following table, compiled from the Customs returns, gives the kinds of foreign 
opium imported at the treaty ports during the past five years : — 



Description. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


Alalwa 


Piculs. 

22,098 

19,947 
9,612 

3.095 


Piculs. 

16,034 

22,901 

11,294 

1,691 


Piculs. 

14,368 

25,478 

13,475 

796 


Piculs. 

17,394 

24,129 

11,568 

1.493 


Piculs. 

15.691 

20,575 
10,818 

1,313 


Patna 


Benares 


Other kinds, chiefly Persian 


Total 


54,752 


51,920 


54,117 


54.584 


48,397 





In 1863 Chinese consumers preferred the Mahva to the Bengal variety, and the ratio of 
consumption v^as as 7 to 3. In 1873 the ratio was reduced as 8 to 5, and in 1879 almost 
equal proportions of each kind were used. From that time on the Bengal variety has been 
given the preference by Chinese smokers, and for the past four years the amount imported 
has about doubled the figures for Malwa. Consumers who are accustomed to smoke the 
foreign drug never change to the native article, unless forced to do so from pecuniary motives. 
The average net weight per chest of opium imported is as follows : — 

Malwa TOO catties. 

Patna 120 ,, 

Benares 120 „ 

Other kinds, chiefly Persian lOO ,, 

The net weight per ball is as follows : — 

Malwa 8 to 10 ounces (Chinese). 

Patna 46 „ 50 „ „ 

Benares 46 „ 50 „ „ 

Other kinds, chiefly Persian . . . Uncertain.* 



(d.) PRICES, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

The table on page 8, compiled from the Shanghai Customs returns for the years 1868 
to 1908, gives values of the different kinds of foreign opium imported. As Shanghai may be 
taken as the basis for values throughout China (other ports calculate prices on the cost of 
transportation from Shanghai), no attempt is made to give values ruling elsewhere. 



The size of the balls of Turkey and Persian opium vary so much that it is impossible to give weight. 



52 



International Opium Commission 



Table showing Shanghai Customs Values, 1868 to 1908. 



Year. 



Malwa, 

PER PiCUL. 



Patna, 

PER PiCUL 



Benares, 

PER PiCUL. 



Persian, 

PER PiCUL. 



Turkey, 

PER PiCUL. 



Boiled, 

PER PiCUL. 



1868. 

1869. 

1870.. 

1871 

1872. 

1873- 
1874. 

1875- 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

i88i. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897 

1898 

1899. 

1900 

1901 

1902, 

1903. 

1904, 

i9°S- 
1906, 
1907. 
1908. 



Hk. Tls. 

497 
516 
496 

SIS 
480 

47° 
475 
413 
411 
460 

SIS 
510 
S14 
560 
442 
378 
397 

39° 
388 

381 

417 
412 

378 
364 
380 

498 

S52 
S8i 
637 
665 

635 
649 

613 

700 

780 

792 

73° 
808 

64s 
610 
711 



Hk.Tls. 
487 
461 
417 

S°° 
420 
382 
400 
417 
414 
420 

36s 
370 
380 

405 
386 

384 
355 
355 
320 
296 

311 
316 
296 
298 
335 
455 
491 
535 
602 

536 
625 

575 
639 
670 

730 
806 

655 
595 
59° 
487 
724 



Hk. Tls. 
475 
451 
399 
490 
410 

372 
400 

405 
399 
405 
348 

343 
360 

405 
379 
367 
353 
344 
316 
289 
318 
316 
294 

273 
332 
458 
491 
529 
615 
542 
620 

570 
646 
670 
730 
794 
641 

577 
555 
476 
698 



Hk.Tls. 

425 
360 
360 
404 
375 
390 
385 
315 
37° 
365 
361 
380 
380 

444 
291 

313 
359 
364 
318 
322 

337 
328 
321 
246 
260 
375 
455 
514 
507 
510 
510 

284 

515 
535 
618 

538 
525 
588 

45° 



Hk.Tls. 

475 



400 
375 



269 



322 
33° 

260 



300 
500 

595 



Hk.Tls. 



834 

95° 
841 
850 
800 
1.071 

1-053 
920 

1,025 
95° 
95° 
95° 
747 
734 
744 

1,000 
800 

75° 

1,098 

goo 

987 



The Shanghai wholesale prices for the various kinds of foreign opium at present are-- 

Malwa Sh.Tls. 980 per chest. 

Patna „ gpg 

Benares „ gg6 

Persian „ 820 

The present retail prices for raw opium are : — 

Malwa , . . Sh.Tls. 10.50 per catty. 

Patna 26 per ball. 

Benares ,, 26 

Persian 9 per catty. 



Mkmokanuum on Opium from China 



S3 



The present retail price for the first quality of tiie prepared driic;- as sold localiv is 80 dollar 
cents per Chinese ouiice (Hang), and this is said to be made up in the fnllovvinL^ proportions: 

60 per cent. Benares or Patna. 

10 ,, Malwa. 

20 ,, native opium. 

10 ,, opium dross. 

The proportion of prepared opium \ielded b}- the sexeral kinds of foreign opium is said 
to be as follows:— 

Malwa gives 60 per cent. 

Patna „ 54 

Benares „ 54 „ 

Persian „ (figures unobtainable). 

The second quality of the prepared article is sold for $0.65 an ounce, and is made up of 
native opium mixed with opium dross. The third quality sells for from $0.50 to $0.55 per 
ounce, and is composed of native opium and dross — -adulterated with sesamum-seed cake. 
Wealthy smokers, who are particular as to the qualit)- of their opium, generally buy the raw 
material and prepare it themselves. 

The smallest quantity sold in the opium dens of Shanghai is 3 candareens weight (17 
grains avoirdupois), costing 38 cash (about 3 Mexican cents), and this gives about two pipes, 
the quantity of prepared opium required for one pipe being estimated at from i to 2 candareens. 
The yield of dross, or ashes, varies with the class of bowl used, but ranges from 40 to 70 per 
cent., and the amount of prepared opium that can be extracted from the dross itself averages 
about 55 per cent. 



(e.) DUTV ANr> LIKIN COLLECTED ON NATIVE AND FOREIGN OPIUM, 

1887 TO 1908. 



YEAR. 


NATIVE 


OPIUM. 


FOREIGN OPIUM. 


TOTAL. 












Duty, 


LiKIN.* 


DUTV. 


LiKIN. 






Hk. Th. 


Hk. Tls. 


Hk. Tls. 


Hk. Tls. 


Hk. Tls. 


1887 






2,218,057.584 


4,645,841.597 


6,863,899.181 


1888 






2,482,090.947 


6,622,406.066 


9,104,497.013 


1889 






2,283,327.214 


6,085,290.2 I 5 


8,368,61 7.429 


1890 






2,3°i>533 584 


6, 129,071.200 


8,430,604.784 


1891 






2.355643-849 


6,197,906.045 


8,553-549-894 


1892 


161,280.440 




2,125,127.629 


5,667,006.830 


7,953,414-899 


1S93 


164,238.844 




2,01 1,024.01 1 


5,362,733-375 


7,537,996-230 


1894 


363,151.808 




1,893,863 643 


5,050,302.990 


7,307,318.441 


1895 


711,947.496 




i.539.°54-267 


4,104,144.615 


6,355,146-378 


1896 


505,684.763 




1,469,909.687 


3,9'9,759o8o 


5,895,353-530 


1897 


647,665.723 


745-'5° 


1,480,073.347 


3,946,862.160 


6,075,346.380 


r898 


477.417-935 


4335° 


1,493,677-152 


3, 983, 138. 900 


5,954,277-337 


1899 


Q27, 750.199 


207.326 


1,780,513 59r 


4,748,036.080 


7,456,507-196 


1900 


828,222.669 


1,237-155 


1,485,069.930 


3,960,185.490 


6,274,715-244 


1 90 1 


1,199,530.188 


89.499 


1,488,915.725 


3,970,441.860 


6,658,977.272 


1902 


552. 964-304 


289.803 


1,537,692.937 


4,100,513.470 


6, 191,460.5 1 4 


1903 


467,906.617 


295.005 


1,764,290.728 


4,704,774-920 


6,937,267 270 


1904 


920,420,553 


177.270 


1,643,214.853 


4,381,906.240 


6,945,718.916 


1905 ... 


1,145,465.489 


67. 1 20 


1,557,720-484 


4,153,989-920 


6,857,243.013 


1906... 


7i4.73°-597 


36.200 


1,623,925 317 


4,330,046 609 


6,668,738.723 


1907 


150,196.403 


16.100 


1,639,072.744 


4,370,860,645 


6, 160,14^.892 


1908 


370,568.877 


363.729 


1,451,646.950 


3,871,058.520 


5,693,638.076 



* Collected in lieu of inland dues. 



54 International Opium Commission 

III._NATIVE OPIUM. 



(rt.) METHOD OK CULTIVATION. 

Opium has for many years been the principal and most profitable product of the 
western provinces of China. Its cultivation does not interfere with the production of rice, for 
the poppy there is a winter crop, sown usually in late autumn, after the rice harvest, and 
gathered before the ground is needed again for rice in the spring. Moreover, it thrives on 
sloping ground generally unsuitable for rice. 

Though cultivated chiefly for local consumption in the provinces of Kansu, Shensi, 
Shansi, Szechwan, Yunnan, and Kweichow, the amount available for export is considerable. 
Where conditions admit, it is grown for sale or barter by the aboriginal tribes, who form a 
considerable proportion of the population in these provinces ; but, generally speaking, these 
people are but little addicted to the vice. 

After the summer and early autumn crops have been harvested the land is ploughed 
and cleaned, roots are burnt, ashes spread, and the ground sown during the ninth and tenth 
moons (Szechwan) with poppy seeds, in drills or holes some i8 inches apart. No special 
attention is given to the selection of seeds, but it is said that the white poppy produces a 
stronger and superior quality of opium, and the kind with red or variegated flowers a larger 
quantit)'. 

The poppy is a gross feeder, quickly exhausting the fertility of the soil, and liberal 
dressings of liquid manure are required to ensure a full crop, so that wherever the soil is poor 
the poppy is grown near towns and cities capable of supplying the necessary fertiliser. In 
Kweichow and Shensi, however, valleys in remote districts where such manuring is impossible 
are frequently given up entirely to the poppy, and in Yunnan, where the white and red flowers 
may be seen covering the hillsides far from any of the big centres of population, some rotation 
of crops is practised, opium being produced from the same ground only once in every three 
years. 

When the plants are a few inches high, they are thinned out and earthed up, and some 
attention is thenceforth given to weeding and occasional stirring of the soil about the roots. 
The poppy blooms in the second moon (Szechwan). When the capsules begin to form, the 
plants receive frequent dressings of manure. During the third and fourth moons, as soon as 
the petals begin to fall, light vertical incisions are made in the capsules at sundown, and the sap 
that exudes during the night is collected in the morning. Mild, moist weather, with night 
dew, seems most favourable for the running sap. Dry weather diminishes the flow of the juice, 
and heav)' rains wash awa}- what has exuded during the night. 

In North China, and especially in Manchuria, opium is a summer crop. The poppy is 
generall)- sown during the third and fourth moons, and reaches maturity by the seventh moon. 
There the climate, with its short, hot summer months, seems generally favourable to its cultiva- 
tion; but the crops nevertheless vary greatly, requiring a combination of favourable conditions 
to ensure success — a late frost or too heavy rains at critical periods seriously injuring the 
harvest. There the incisions in the capsules are made horizontally, not vertically, and the sap 
as it exudes is collected at once, and not allowed to stand overnight, as is the practice 
throughout Western China. 

The collection of sap continues for some lo to 20 days, the plants being revived by 
fertilisation during this period, and the capsules retapped until exhausted. One pod, if of prime 
quality, will produce about i mace (58 grains avoirdupois) weight of crude opium, and inferior 
plants, about half that quantity. The \ield of raw opium per inou (about one-sixth of an English 
acre) varies from 32 taels (2 catties) to 80 taels (5 catties), according to soil and cultivation, 
but 56 taels (35^ catties) may be taken as an average (Szech\\'an). 

The farmer expects to realise about 120 cash per tael weight for his raw product, which 
would be 6,720 cash per mo7i. In addition, he gets 2,750 cash for the .seeds and dry' poppy 
plants. The former on being crushed yield an inferior sort of cooking oil, and the latter can 
be used for fuel and fodder. This brings the gross return per inou to 9,470 cash. Allowing for 
the cost of extra labour and fertilisers, it may be stated that the profit to the farmer on land 
under poppy cultivation is three to four times that which it would be with any other crop- but 
it must be remembered that opium is an uncertain harvest and a bad year means a big loss to 
the growers. 

The farmer disposes of his product to one or other of the many hundreds of collectors 
who, as agents for the large opium dealers, range the province (Szechwan) for the purpose.' 
A certain amount of skilled labour is understood to be necessary before the opium in its then 



Memorandum on Opium from China 55 

crude state is ready for the market. Before it appears in the form of balls, each weighing from 
32 to 36 taels, there is a loss by evaporation of from 30 to 40 per cent. 

The raw opium of commerce can scarcely be found in an absolutely pure state. It 
is extensively adulterated, sometimes by the cultivator, but more usually by the wholesale 
dealers who prepare it for the market Amongst the ingredients said to be mixed with opium 
the most frequently mentioned are glue, beancurd, eggs, sesamum-seed cake, boiled apples, and 
burnt sugar. 

The following extracts from the reports of the Commissioners of Customs give an idea of 
the interchange of native opium between the various provinces of China : — 

Manchuria. — Newchwang states that importations vary according to the outturn of 
Manchurian crops. The average annual importations through the Maritime Customs for 10 
years has been 176 piculs, and through the Native Customs the average for seven years has 
been about 1,050 piculs, mostly Manchurian opium from Kirin and Heilungkiang. Antung 
states that two-thirds of imported opium in that district are from Shensi, but gives no figures. 

Chihli. — Tientsin estimates, roughly, that in 1906 one-third of the opium consumed in 
the province was obtained from without, coming principally from Shansi and Honan, but also 
from Manchuria, Yunnan, and Szechwan ; and the estimated annual consumption being given 
as 15,000 to 20,000 piculs, the annual importations from other provinces would therefore be 
5,000 to 6,700 piculs. 

Shantung. — Chefoo gives no estimate of importations, but states that until recently 
the supplies of native opium at that port came from Western Shantung, Szechwan, and 
Manchuria. During 1908, however, the home production has been largely supplemented by 
Shansi opium, while the Szechwan and Manchurian kinds are now rarely seen. Kiaochow 
states that the native opium consumed in the province is nearly all locally produced, it being 
estimated that only one-tenth comes from Shansi (Hinganfu). 

Kiangsu. — At Shanghai the gross importations through the Foreign Customs in 1907 
(inclusive of Kiangsu opium) amounted to 10,550 piculs, of which less than half was retained 
for district use. The average annual quantity arriving under native control is estimated at 
13,200 piculs, and of this, assuming a proportionate re-exportation, some 6,400 piculs 
remained in the district, giving a total of some 11,500 piculs. Of the arrivals through the 
Customs, it is stated that 69 per cent, is from Szechwan, 15 per cent, from Yunnan, and 16 
per cent, from Kiangsu ; and, applying the proportion throughout, it would appear that 9,660 
piculs entered the province through Shanghai, of which 7,935 piculs were Szechwan and 1,725 
piculs Yunnan opium. Nanking estimates that "something like 10,000 piculs" of native 
opium are introduced annually into Kiangsu from other provinces. Besides Szechwan and 
Yunnan, the drug comes also from Honan, Anhwei, and Southern Shantung. 

Chekiang. — Ningpo and Hangchow together report 981 piculs as imported in three 
quarters of 1908. No estimate for province. 

FUKIEN. — Foochoiu reports arrivals via Shanghai, in three quarters of 1908, of 817 
piculs, mainly Szechwan drug, and states that there is no overland importation. Amoy states 
that in 1907 there were 1,082 piculs imported — half Szechwan and half Yunnan, — mainly 
through Shanghai, and that little, if any, opium from other provinces is used in the rural 
districts. 

Kwangtung. — Canton reports arrivals through the Customs, in three quarters of 1908, 
of 2,150 piculs, of which 80 per cent, was Szechwan, 15 per cent. Yunnan, and 5 per cent. 
Kiangsu opium. Swatow reports 2,100 piculs via Shanghai in three quarters of 1908, of 
which 1,892 piculs were Szechwan drug. A certain quantity also comes overland from 
Kiangsi and Hunan. Kongmoon reports some 30 piculs a year from Kweichow and Yunnan 
via Wuchow. Pakhoi also receives an unknown quantity overland from Kweichow and 
Yunnan. Kiiingchow states that arrivals are now only by steamer from Swatow, and 
amounted, in 11 months of 1908, to 1,085 piculs, of which 143 piculs were Yunnan, 901 piculs 
Szechwan, and 41 piculs Kiangsu, opium. 

HUPEH. — Hankow states that the province is supplied from Szechwan, Yunnan, 
Honan, Shensi, and Kiangsu — chiefly from the first two. No estimate of total importations 
into the province. Ichang gives a total of 2,821 piculs as the net importations for 17 
years — 1892 to 1908 — through the Customs, an average of 166 piculs a year. Of late years, 
however, importation through the Customs have dwindled to almost nothing. Through the 



S6 International Opium Commission 

likin offices it is estimated with comparative certainty that the annual importation averages 
170 piculs. The bulk of the opium consumed in Ichang is smuggled. The total quantity of 
opium, practically all from Szechwan and Yunnan, arriving at Ichang from up river in 1908, 
by likin junks and chartered junks, was 51,827 piculs, showing an increase of 12,285 piculs as 
compared with the figures for 1907. The greater part of this opium had been carried down 
river by steamer and likin junk before the end of the year. Some 7,000 piculs are stated to 
have passed overland to Shasi in 1907 by overland routes, chiel!Iy via Shihnanfu. [Judging 
the proportions of Yunnan and Szechwan opium annually imported at Ichang by chartered 
junk from Chungking from 1892 to 1907, and applying the proportion for 1907 to the whole 
arrivals by chartered and likin junks in 1908 — 51,827 piculs, — it would appear that of this 
total 11,920 piculs were Yunnan opium and 39,907 piculs Szechwan opium.] Shasi zt^aX^s 
that, as nearh' as can be ascertained, 14,000 piculs of opium were imported during 1908, the 
opium being of Yunnan and Szechwan origin, with some from Kweichow, and arriving in 
native junks. Overland arrivals not referred to. 

Hunan. — Yochow gives an estimate, made in 1 901, that 10,000 piculs annually were 
imported into the province from Szechwan, Yunnan, and Kweichow, while 10,000 piculs more 
passed through on the way to Kiangsi, Kwangsi, and Kwangtung. The imported drug is 
mainly the Kweichow kind, which is cheaper than the others. 

Kiangsi. — Kiukiang states that 12,000 piculs a year arc said to be imported at 
Kiukiang from Szechwan and Kweichow. 

Anhwei. — Wuhu gives as an approximate estimate of native drug arriving in the 
province annually : Kiangsu opium, 400 piculs ; Shensi opium, 400 piculs ; Szechwan opium, 
2,000 piculs; and Yunnan opium, 150 piculs. 

HONAN. — Hankow states that in the Siangcheng district, in the centre of Honan, no 
outside opium is imported, though it is believed that in the southern districts the drug is 
received from Szechwan and Shansi. 

Shansi. — No reliable statement. 

Shensi. — Chungking estimates importations into Shensi at 1,500 piculs a year. Out 
of 25 post offices in Shensi which have furnished statements, five mention Kansu opium as 
arriving in the province, and from one place (Shangchow) it is reported that several thousand 
piculs arrive in the province from Shansi yearly. 

KaNSU. — Chungking estimates importations at 1,000 piculs a year. 

Szechwan. — Chungking estimates the importations from other provinces at 7,000 
piculs. Although Yunnan opium enjoys a superior reputation and is smoked by the wealthy, 
dealers give only a total of 1,500 piculs as coming to Suifu, the ch\ei entrepot of the Yunnan 
trade, and admit that the so-called Yunnan opium sold and exported in Szechwan contains 
but 30 per cent, of that drug mixed with superior local opium. Some Kweichow opium enters 
by the Yungning, P'ingt'an, and Ch'i Rivers, and a little is heard of as coming from Shensi, 
but, the four provinces having such a redundance, there can be little profitable interchange. 
From the Wanhsien report it is gathered that all the opium consumed is of local growth. 

Kweichow. — Chungking estimates importations at 2,000 piculs a year. 

Yunnan. — Mengtsz states that the small quantity of opium which entered the province 
from Kweichow and Szechwan is sent to the Tonkin market. About 690 piculs of Kweichow 
opium arrives yearly at Mengtsz for Tonkin, and in 1907 for the first time, owing to the 
scarcity of Yunnan drug, some 300 piculs of Szechwan opium arrived en route for Tonkin. 

Kwangsi. — Wuchow states that the likin office had cognizance during the 33rd year 
of KUANG Hsu(l907) of 5,651 piculs of opium imported, as follows: from Yunnan, 971 piculs; 
from Kweichow, 4,519 piculs; and from Szechwan, 161 piculs, — in all, 5,651 piculs; and that 
of this total 976 piculs passed into Kwangtung via Wuchow, while a good deal more may 
have gone into Southern Kwangtung. This leaves out of account the opium smuggled in for 
provincial consumption. Manning states that in 12 months ending October 1908 440 piculs 
arrived at Nanning from Yunnan and 1,440 piculs from Kweichow, without reckoning what 
was smuggled. These figures show large reductions as compared with those of the year or 
two preceding. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 



57 



(b.) TOTAL PRODUCTION. 

The total production for all China during the year 1906 is roughly estimated to have 
been in the neighbourhood of 584,800 piculs, and for the year 1908 — -two years after the 
promulgation of the Anti-Opium Edict — the output is roughly estimated to have been about 
367,250 piculs, which shows a decrease in production of a little over T^y per cent. This 
decrease is ascribed partly to the restrictions enforced by the officials against the cultivation 
of the poppy and partly to the ever-growing public opinion, which is more and more 
condemning the habit of opium smoking as being both disreputable and unpatriotic. 

(c.) PRODUCTION PER PROVINCE. 



Province. 


Morse. 
1905- 


Leech. 
1907. 


Board of 
Revenue 

(K,H, 32ND Year) 
1906. 


Estimate 
BASED on 
Customs 
Reports. 
1906, 


Estimate 

BASED ON 

Customs 

Reports. 

1908. 


Manchuria 


Fields. 

15,000 
5,000 

10,000 

5,000 

5,000 

2,000 

500 


Piculs. 

1 5, 000 

10,000 

10,000 

S,ooo 

5,000 

2,000 

500 


Piculs. 

6,279 

3,870 
6,863 

9,9'9 
4.724 

1,514 

77 


Piculs. 

15,000 
12,000 
18,000 
16,000 
14,000 
5,000 
500 


Piculs. 

8,000 
8,000 
12,000 
5,000 
9,000 
3,000 
200 


Chihli 


Shantung 


KlANGSU 


Chekiang 


FUKIEN 


Kw.^NGTUNG 


Total, Coast Provinces 

HUNAX 

HUPEH 


42,500 


47,50° 


33,246 


80,500 


45,200 


3,000 

4,000 

500 

3,000 


3,000 

4,000 

500 

3,000 


158 

1,293 

74 

4,048 


1,000 

3,000 

300 

6,000 


500 
2,000 

100 
3,000 


KlANGSI 


.=\nhwei 


Total, Yangtze Provinces... 

H N A x 

Shansi 


10,500 


10,500 


5,573 


10,300 


5,600 


5,000 

5,000 
10,000 

5,000 

250,000 

30,000 

15,000 

3,000 


5, 000 

5,000 
10,000 

5,000 

200,000 

30,000 

15,000 

3,000 


5,283 

9,666 

10,815 

7,988 

57,463 
7,928 

9,950 


15,000 

30,000 

50,000 

34,000 

238,000 

78,000 

48,000 

500 

500 


10,000 
20,000 
33,000 
23,000 
159,000 
39,000 
32,000 

150 
300 


Shensi 


Kansu 


Szechwan 


Yunnan 

KWEICHOW 


Kwangsi 


New Territory 


Total, Inland Provinces ... 
Grand Total 


323,000 


273,000 


109,281 


494,000 


316,450 


376,000 


331,000 


148,100 


584,800 


367,250 





The foregoing table shows the estimated production for each province. The second 
column gives Morse's estimate of 1905; the third, Leech's estimate of November 1907, 
forwarded from the British Legation at Peking to the British Foreign Office; the fourth column 
gives the Peking Board of Revenue's return for the 32nd year of KUANG Hsu, i.e., 1906; and 
the fifth and sixth columns an estimate for the years 1906 and 1908 culled and joined together 
from reports sent forward by the Commissioners of Customs at the various treat)' ports of 
China. These reports are based on the personal investigations of the writers and assistance 
derived from inland postal officers, missionaries, and Chinese merchants, as well as an occasional 
recourse to official sources. It is acknowledged that accurate statistics about opium are most 
difficult to obtain in China, and it must therefore be understood that the figures given are in 
many cases only approximate and the result of sifting the scraps of information received here 
and there and the putting of "two and two together" in the minds of the framers of the 
estimates. This is more especially true in regard to the estimates for the inland provinces — 
the greatest opium-producing districts in China, — where the taxation is irregular and, for the 



58 International Opium Commission 

greater part, evaded, and where public or official returns are practically unknown. When, in 
addition, the percentage of an uncounted population, who locally consume the opium, is a 
matter of conjecture, the most carefully made computation may be easily controverted. 

The following notes explain how the figures of production per province are arrived at: — 

Manchuria. — The Newdnvang Commissioner, assuming the population of the three 
provinces — Fengtien, Kirin, and Heilungkiang — to be 10,000,000 inhabitants, estimates the 
number of opium smokers at 2 per cent, of the total, i.e., 200,000 consumers. The quantity 
of raw opium per smoker annually he takes at 4 catties, which gives a consumption for the 
province of 8,000 piculs yearly. Before the Anti-Opium Edict of 1906 the number of smokers 
was 50 per cent, greater, as since tiien there has been a decrease of one out of every three 
consumers. The local consumption was therefore at that time about 12,000 piculs yearly, to 
which should be added the amount exported, some 3,000 piculs, making a total output of 
15,000 piculs. The export of opium from Manchuria has now practical!)' ceased. 

Chihli. — Morse, in his book, "The Trade and Administration of the Chinese 
Empire," says that the opium produced in this province is probably 10,000 piculs per year, 
certainly, 5,000 piculs. The Tientsin Commissioner estimates that two-thirds of the opium 
consumed in the province is grown locally, and the total consumption before the Anti-Opium 
Edict was reported to be between 15,000 and 20,000 piculs \early. Taking the mean, 18,000 
piculs, gives some 12,000 piculs produced locally. Since the Edict the decrease in the number 
of smokers is said to varv from 20 to 50 per cent. Working on a safe average — 33/^ per 
cent., — the local outturn at the end of 1908 is about 8,000 piculs. 

Shantung. — In his report the Commissioner of Customs at Chefoo states that opium 
is extensively cultivated in the south-western and southern portions of the province, and that 
the area under cultivation in the spring of the year (1908) is reported to have been 100,000 
acres, viz., 600,000 nioii. No estimate of the outturn is given; but assuming the average yield as 
2 catties per mou, the same as for Manchuria, the total production should accordingly have been 
in the neighbourhood of 12,000 piculs. The Commissioner of Customs at Kiaochow reports that 
replies to letters of inquiry regarding production in the province give decreases in the area 
under cultivation during the last two years ranging from 40 to 70 per cent. It is therefore 
assumed that the decrease in the total land given to opium growing shows, since the Anti- 
Opium Edict, a falling off of fully 33}^ per cent. This makes an annual production previous 
to 1906 of 18,000 piculs. 

Ki.\NGSU. — The Commissioners of Customs at both Chinkiang and Nankino- estimate 
that the annual production of opium in Kiangsu varies from 10,000 to 20,000 piculs, the latter 
amount representing a full crop; and the Chinkiang Commissioner states that for 1908, owing 
to restrictive measures and dr_\' weather, the crop was reduced to 2,800 piculs, but the Nanking 
Commissioner estimates the quantity at 5,000 piculs. The Shanghai Commissioner quotes a 
letter from a Catholic priest to the effect that in certain districts in the north of the province 
the land under poppy cultivation some lO years ago aggregated as much as 40 per cent, of the 
agricultural area; but during the past three years this proportion has much diminished, and for 
1908 it was only 5 per cent. 

Chekiang. — The estimates of the opium production in this province in 1901 fj-ave the 
crop as amounting to 14,000 piculs, and the Commissioners of Customs at Ningpo and ]]'enchoii> 
estimate that the crop for 1908 was in the neighbourhood of 9,000 piculs. It is grown chiefly in 
the Taichow and Wenchow districts. 

FUKIEN. — The Foochow Commissioner gives no estimate of the annual production, but 
simply says it has been large. The -^wy Commissioner estimates that $2,000,000 worth of 
opium, at $500 per picul =4,000 piculs, is grown annually in the Amoy districts, and adding 
another 1,000 piculs for other districts, the outturn is some 5,000 piculs. In the sprino of 
1908 the Anti-Opium Society claimed that, owing to its efforts, the production of optum 
in the province had been reduced by 50 per cent.; so for 1908 the figure is put down at 
3,000 piculs. 

KWANGTUNG. — The Commissioner at Swatow reports that opium was formerly grown 
in eight districts, that the cultivation has been entirely stopped in five districts and reduced 75 
percent, in two, and that there has been little or no reduction in one. The Canton Commissioner 
reports that the poppy cultivation has practically ceased. MORSE gives 500 piculs as the 
annual production, and in consideration of what is stated above, the production for 1908 is 
estimated at not more than 200 piculs. 



Memoranduai on Opium from China 59 

Hunan. — The Commissioner at Changsha reports that the soil of Hunan is not suitable 
for poppy growing, though in a few districts a small amount is grown for private consumption 
only, none being for sale. An estimate made at Yochozv in 1901 gives the production of the 
province at 1,000 piculs. That amount is accepted as the estimate for 1906 and cut in half 
for 1908. 

HuPEH. — The Commissioner of C'ustoms at Hankow states that the cultivation of opium 
in the eastern portion of the province is inconsiderable, the soil generally not being suitable to 
its growth. One district, however, seven years ago produced from 900 to i.6oo piculs a year, 
while to-day both native and foreign sources report that very little, if an)', land is given over 
to the culti\'ation of the popp)'. Another district is reported to have formerly grown some 
opium, but of late years it has diminished very much in quantity. The eastern half may have 
therefore some \'ears back produced in the neighbourhood of 1,500 piculs annually. The 
Ichang Commissioner reports that he estimates the annual output of opium in that part of 
Hupeh as 1,500 piculs; but he is also informed that the area under cultivation is steadily 
decreasing. 

KiANGSi. — The Kinkiaug Commissioner states that very little opium is grown in the 
province. In some places, however, it is grown in gardens for private use. 

Anhwei. — The WuJiit Commissioner estimates the annual production to be not less than 
3,000 piculs at the present time. He states that since the Anti-Opium Edict there has been a 
reduction in the area under cultivation in some districts of from 50 to 80 per cent. His estimate 
is consequently doubled for 1906. 

HuNAN and Shansi. — No estimates are available. There can be little doubt, however, 
that the production in 1906 amounted, at the very least, to 15,000 piculs for Honan and 30,000 
piculs for Shansi, as the Board of Revenue's return gives 5,283 and 9,666 piculs respectively 
for these two provinces. These figures are reduced one-third for 1908. 

Shensi. — The Chungking Commissioner .states that before the famine of 1873 Shensi is 
said to have supplied 30 per cent, of the native opium in China, and he estimates the annual 
production as 50,000 piculs. 

Kansu. — The Chungking Commissioner says opium is cultivated everywhere in the 
Kansu province, the drug being of superior quality and flavour, and estimates the annual 
production to be 34,000 piculs. 

SZECHWAN. — The Chungking Commissioner also reports that the poppy for many years 
has been the principal and most profitable product of Szechwan, and estimates the quantity 
produced annually to be 238,000 piculs. While giving statistics showing an enormous decrease 
in the number of smoking divans in both Chengtu and Chungking {Oc\G.\-\%X.\i, over 7,000 in 1904 
and less than 100 in 1908 ; Chungking, over 1,600 in 1906 and 85 registered houses in 1908^, 
and stating that "The logic of the prohibitory Edict of September 1906 appealed strongly to 
the common sense of the people, and they are proving amenable to the enforcing regulations 
of the provincial officials," he gives no estimate of the decrease in the smoking habit. As the 
province of Yunnan reports a decrease since 1906 of fully 50 per cent, in the production of 
opium, the inference to be drawn is that Shensi, Kansu, and Szechwan, have likewise reduced 
their output. The estimates for 1908 have consequently been reduced, roughly, one-third of 
the figures for 1906. 

Yunnan. — The Mengtsz Commissioner estimates that the total production of opium 
in Yunnan two years ago amounted to 78,000 piculs, and that it has been reduced by not less 
than 50 per cent, since the promulgation of the Anti-Opium Edict in September 1906. This 
gives a total production for 1908 of 39,000 piculs. 

KwEICHOW. — The Chungking Commissioner states that opium is produced throughout 
the province. The Miaotzii tribes grow it extensively, but smoke little. He estimates the 
production to be 48,000 piculs annually. Kweichow is under the jurisdiction of the energetic 
Yunnan Viceroy; but being farther away from head-quarters, the 1908 estimate of production 
is reduced by one-third only instead of by one-half as in the case of the sister province. 

KWANGSI. — The Wuchow Commissioner states that opium is grown in minute quantities 
in certain districts; and the Manning Commissioner reports that the production, never large, 
has been reduced in recent years to zero. For 1906 the production is put down at 500 piculs 
and for 1908 at 150 piculs. 

New Territory. — The production for 1906 is placed at 500 piculs, and that for 1908 
at 300 piculs. 



6o International Opium Commission 

{d.) comparison with foreign opium. 

Opium as it appears on the market is not ready for use until it has been subjected to a 
boiling process, and all extraneous matter filtered from it, when it is known as prepared 
opium. The percentage of the drug in this prepared state yielded by the various kinds of raw 
opium is as follows : — 

Malwa 60 per cent. 

Patna 53 to 55 

Benares S3 » 55 

Native 62 „ 65 „ 

Patna and Benares opium is covered with a thick husk, the weight of which is included 
in the above figures, so that the yield is less than in the case of Malwa, which has no similar 
covering. Generally speaking, a ball of Patna or Benares opium, weighing on an average 
3 catties (48 ounces), will give 26 to 29 ounces of prepared opium. 

A rather remarkable exception to the above average is provided in the case of opium 
grown in Manchuria, i ounce of the first quality of which will yield, it is stated (Newchwang), 
as much as 8^ mace of prepared opium. In addition, it is averred, a further 7 mace of good 
opium can be obtained by reboiling i ounce of the first quality dross, i ounce of medium 
quality of the raw Manchurian drug gives 7 mace, and of third quality 5 mace, of prepared opium. 

It is usual everywhere to add a certain proportion of dross to raw opium before boiling 
it down. At Hangchow as much as 50 to 60 ounces weight of the dross are added to every 100 
ounces of the raw product ; but the actual quantity varies considerably according to place and 
circumstances. At Shanghai first quality prepared opium is said to be made up as follows : — 

Benares or Patna ...... .60 per cent. 

Malwa 10 „ 

Native 20 ,, 

Dross , . 10 „ 

Second-class quality is understood to be prepared entirely from native opium and dross in the 
proportion of 40 per cent, of the former and 60 per cent, of the latter, whilst lower qualities are 
adulterated with sesamum-seed cake, burnt sugar, etc. The amount of dross yielded by the 
various qualities of prepared opium varies, as a rule, from 40 to 70 per cent. 

The relative strength of Chinese and Indian opium is generally conceded to be in the 
proportion of 75 to 100, which means that 4 mace of native opium are required to produce 
the same effect as 3 mace of the Indian variety. In a recent number of "La Revue," a 
writer — a practical chemist — compares the harmful and other qualities of Indian and Chinese 
opium, taking the Benares as an example on the one side and opium grown in China on the 
other. The harmful constituent, and that which gives opium the specific qualities sought for 
by smokers, is, of course, the alkaloid morphine, of which, he says, the Benares variety contains 
about 7 per cent. He continues: "Chinese opium contains, however, another alkaloid known as 
th^baine, the action of which is directly contrary to that of morphine in the ratio of 25 to i." 
Assuming this analysis to be correct, opium which contained these two alkaloids in proper 
proportions would be practically innocuous. "Opium grown in China contains as much as 
0.06 per cent, of thdbaine, and but 5 to 6 per cent, morphine," and thus may be said to be less 
harmful than the Indian product. But this single experiment, whilst interesting, can scarcely 
be considered conclusive. The varieties of native opium appear to differ, and an analysis of 
Manchurian opium, for instance, might give altogether different results to that of the kind 
"grown in China" referred to by the writer of the article in question. The subject seems, 
however, worthy of further research. 

(e.) PRICES, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

During the past 12 months the price of native opium has risen in a very striking manner 
all over China. The reasons given for this are (i) diminished supply due to reduced cultivation, 
and (ii) increased demand, confirmed smokers laying in supplies for the future. 

Newchwang gives Hk.Tb. 960 per picul as the present wholesale price of Manchurian 
opium. The Kansu and Shantung varieties can be bought there for H/cTh. 533 a picul. 

At Tientsin the local product, which is of poor quality, is retailed at $0.70 to $0.60 per 
ounce (Hang). 

At Kiaochow the movement and sale of opium are under official control. The price of raw 
opium is given as $0,45 to $0.88 per ounce, according to quality. Prepared opium, consisting 
of Indian and native varieties mixed in certain fixed proportions, is retailed at the following 
rates per ounce: ist quality, $1.50; 2nd quality, $1.25; 3rd quality, $1. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 



6i 



884 
836 
follows: — 

$500 per picul 
810 
800 



The market price of raw opium at Chinkiang is now Tfe. 544 per picul; in 1907 it was 
Th. 352 only. 

Ningpo reports that the price of raw opium has risen lately from $4 to $8 a catty, and 
Hangchow gives the following rates:- — 

Chekiang opium $850 to $890 per picul. 

Yunnan „ 871 ,, 

Szechwan „ 

Kiangsu ,, 

Shensi ,, 

At Amoy wholesale prices for the raw product are as 

Fukien opium 

Yunnan ,, 

Szechwan „ 

Native raw opium realises jRs. 544 a picul at Canton, and when prepared it is retailed 
at Tfe. 0.60 an ounce. 

The price of Yunnan raw opium per picul at Hankow is Tts 672, and of Szechwan, 
Tfe. 544. In its prepared state the former is sold at $1.10 per ounce, other varieties costing 
only $0.95. 

At Shasi $928 is paid per picul for Yunnan opium, and $800 and $672 for the 
Szechwan and Kweichow varieties respectively. 

In Shansi poppy juice realises from 100 to 200 cash an ounce; and the price of the raw 
product in Shensi is stated to be from Tts. 180 to Tfe. 200, according to consistency and quality. 

The cultivator in Szechwan expects to get 1 20 cash for every ounce of his raw drug 
when he disposes of it to the middleman. 

At Mengtsz the present price of raw opium per picul is $560 to $608. 

The price of Kweichow opium at Anshun, in Kweichow, is Tfe. 3 or $4.17 a catty. 
Conveyed to Chingyuan, in Kwangsi, it realises Tfe. 5, or $6.95, a catty. At Chingyuan the 
sale of opium is a Government monopoly, and prepared opium is retailed at Tfe, 0.60 or $0.84 
an ounce, i.e., $13.44 per catty. 

The following table gives the Customs returns values of native opium at Shanghai for 
the years 1869 to 1908 : — 

Shanghai Customs Returns Values per Picul, 1869 to 1908. 



Year. 



< 
z 
z 

D 



869 
870, 
871 
872 

873 
874 

876 

877 
878 
879 
880 
881 
882 
8S3 
884 

88s 
886 
887 
888 
889 
890 



Hk. Tk. Hi. ris. 
: 275 ' ... 

30° , ••• 

240 i 

240 
250 
250 
244 
224 
290 

3°5 
290 
290 
290 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 

30s 
300 

35° 



Hk 



300 
349* 



Th. 



Z 

< 

z 

o 



o 
z 

H 
Z 

<; 
X 
en 



z 
< 



Hk. Th. Hk. Tls.Hk. Tls 



o 
z 
< 

3 

K 
U 



Hk. Tls. 



Hk. Tls. 



U 



Hk. Tls. 



a: 
o 
z 
< 



Poppy 

JOICE. 



Hk.Tls. 



Boiled 
Opium. 



Hk. Tls. 

983 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

700 

700 

550 

55° 

900 

900 

707 

73° 

55° 

712 

437 



1,200 
1,500 
1,205 



Appeared in Trade Returns as " Opium, other Provinces.' 



62 



International Opium Commission 



Shanghai Customs Returns Values per Picul, 1869 to 1908 — Continued. 



Year. 



1891. 
1892. 

1893 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

i8q8. 

1899, 

1900, 

I90I 

1902. 

1903, 
1904 

i9°5 
1906 
1907 
1908, 



2; 
< 

u 



Wt. Tls. 

27 r 
287 

337 
314 
296 
302 
320 
380 
33° 
327 
330 
460 

433 
432 
344 

405 
388 

45° 



2; 



Hk. Tls. 

271* 

260* 

301* 

316 

329 

356 
360 

365 
360 

364 
465 

447 
537 
482 i 
686 ■ 

591 
709 ; 



ID 

■n 

< 

t3 


•z. 
< 







z 

D 
H 
Z 

< 

s 

CO 


Hk. Vs. 


Hk Tls- 

' 

300 
294 


Hk. Tls. 


300 


300 


258 


320 






400 








472 








375 






465 


311 






400 


320 








346 








451 


453 


45° 


45° 


44 


7 


432 



z 

< 

en 



o 
z 

< 

5 
u 
a 
u 



Hk.Tls. Hk.Tls 



2S7 



33° 



433 
343 



443 



130 

504 
388 



X 
X 

u 



Hk. Tls. 



373 
465 



X 

o 

z 
< 



Hk. Tls. 



Poppy 
Juice. 



Hk. Tls. 



395 
39° 



Boiled 
Opium 



339 



Hk. Tls. 



i,°5o 



710 
712 

377 
732 
775 
853 
1,800 

750 
774 
773 



*Appeared in Trade Returns as " Opium, other Provinces.'' 



IV.— CONSUMPTION OF OPIUM. 



If to the figures showing the total production of home-grown opium we add the amount 
imported from India and elsewhere, and deduct what is exported to neighbouring countries, 
e.g., Burma, Tonkin, etc., we arrive at the quantity consumed within the Empire. The total 
production of native opium for 1906 is estimated as 584,800 piculs, reduced in 1908 to 367,250 
piculs. Thus we have : — 



1906. 

Piculs. 

Native opium 584,800 

Foreign opium 54,117 



1908. 

Piculs. 
367,250 
48,397 



Total . 
Less estimated exports 



638,917 
2 5 ,000 



415,647 
1 8,000 



Quantity consumed in China . 613,917 



397.647 



These figures, it is true, are merely approximate ; but they are based on reports received 
from observers in 16 of the 18 provinces of China proper, and may be regarded as an impartial 
attempt to estimate the quantities of opium produced and consumed during the years 1906 
and 1908 respectively. 

Dealing now with the different provinces. 

Manchuria. — The proportion of smokers throughout Manchuria is estimated {New- 

chwang) to be 2 per cent, of the total — ^or about 10 per cent, of the adult male population. 

In some parts of the province the proportion is very much larger than in others. Antuno-, for 
example, returns an estimated average of 20 per cent., that is, one in five of the population, 
and at many other places the proportion is calculated to be from 10 to 20 per cent. 

Chihli. — Between 20 and 30 per cent, of the adult male population of Chihli are 
calculated by the Tientsin Commissioner to smoke opium. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 63 

Shantung. — -The Cliefoo Commissioner thinks that one-third of the adult male 
population of his district are addicted to the vice ; whilst the number of smokers at Kiaochow 
is roughly estimated at 2,200 out of a total population of 44,400, or 5 per cent. 

KlANGSU. — Reports from Kiangsu vary somewhat ; but missionaries in touch with the 
people concur in believing that in rich communities in the neighbourhood oi Shanghai d.?, much 
as 20 per cent, of the population smoke, whilst among the peasantry the proportion is not 
more than 4 to 5 per cent. The Chinkiang Commissioner is of opinion that in cities about 
10 per cent, of the men and i or 2 per cent, of the women smoke, but that among the country 
people not more than i or 2 per cent, of the men use opium, and none of the women ■ whilst 
a report from Nanking, based on observation made by missionaries, states that only 5 per cent, 
of the adult population are considered to be consumers, as compared with nearly 20 per cent, 
previous to the issue of the prohibitory Edict and proclamations. 

Chekiang. — The Commissioner of Customs at Hangchow considers that 5 per cent, of 
the total population of Chekiang are addicted to the opium habit, but that it is on the decline. 
In the vicinit)' of Ningpo the number of smokers is thought to be nearly 2 per cent, of the 
total — or from 6 to 8 per cent, of the adult male — population ; whilst for the Wenchow and 
Chuchow prefectures, where a good deal of opium is grown, the proportion o{ habitues is given 
as 20 per cent, of the adult male population in urban and 10 per cent, in the country districts. 

FUKIEN. — In and around Avioy 25 per cent, of the population are slaves to the pipe, 
though the number of smokers is believed to be diminishing. The proportion in otiier places 
is not so heav\-. Information received from the Ch'uanchoiv prefecture is to the effect that 
in the cities and large villages between 2 and 3 per cent, of the people smoke opium, and in 
rural districts probably not more than 1 per cent.; and a resident of the Yungch'un prefecture 
reports: "i\bout one-tenth of the male adult population in this region smoke opium, swallow, 
or inject morphia." The Commissioner of Customs at Foochow writes: "Estimates vary very 
greatly as to the percentage of the population who use opium. The Anti-Opium Society has 
recently taken a census with a view to the registration and licensing of smokers, and by this 
means has arrived at the following estimate: — 

"I. Members of the gentry, teachers and students in Government 
schools, civil and military officials who still smoke but are 
under orders to stop within six months . , . . . . , • i j^ per cent, 
''2, People of the broader classes, who have owned to being smokers i „ 

"3. Those who have no opportunity, or are afraid to smoke, and who 

are swallowing opium or morphine pills i^ ,, 

"Total 4 per cent. 



"But there can be no doubt that an estimate arrived at in such a way must fall very far 
below the mark. For so long as opium is so readily obtainable as it is, and doubtless will 
continue to be for a long time to corns, the average smoker will probably refuse, from one 
motive or other, to admit that he is addicted to a habit which is legally forbidden to the 
vast army of office holders and office seekers, and which has become the object of popular 
denunciation and widespread fear and dislike amidst all classes." The report continues: "A 
native observer, who has made inquiries of retail opium dealers and others, gives it as his 
opinion that about 20 per cent, of the adult population use opium more or less. Classifying 
the consumers according to standing or occupation, he estimates the percentage as follows: 
officials, 5 per cent.; yam^n people, 20 per cent.; gentry, 10 per cent.; soldiers, 2 per cent ; 
merchants, 10 per cent.; shopkeepers, 5 per cent.; farmers, 10 per cent.; carpenters, 20 per cent.; 
masons, 25 per cent.; chair coolies, 80 per cent." There exists, of course, some foundation for 
these figures, but it is admitted that the estimate is little better than guesswork. 

KWANGTUNG. — Formerly, says a Canton report, 33 per cent, of the adult male popula- 
tion smoked opium; now not more than 10 per cent, do so. The Commissioner of Customs at 
Konginoon gives about 2^/^ per cent, as the proportion of opium smokers in that district. He 
considers that consumption is decreasing, and observes that moderate smokers are giving up 
the habit. Samshui reports that less than 10 per cent, of the population smoke, and that the 
proportion is constantly declining. The Pakhoi Commissioner is of opinion that "as many 
people use opium in China as whisky in England," and thinks the consumption in his district 
is not sensibly diminishing. By comparing all the figures obtainable, the Commissioner of 
Customs at Swatoiv arrives at the conclusion that the proportion of smokers is 25 to 30 per 
cent, of the population in the larger centres, and about 5 per cent, of the country people. 



64 International Opium Commission 

Hunan.— According to reports from Changsha, the proportion of confirmed smokers 
in Hunan is not more than l J^ per cent, of the total population; but there are occasional 
smokers, say, 40 to 50 per cent, of the adult male population. The Commissioner of Customs 
at Yochow observes that the estimates given vary considerably. Where opium is produced the 
proportion of smokers to the population is very high — the Chinese say 20 per cent., and 
the missionaries 40 per cent. Workmen apparently smoke most, next are the small traders 
and shopkeepers, then come merchants, and last on the list are the farmers. Less than 5 per 
cent, of those that indulge belong to the gentler sex. 

HUPEH. — Basing his opinion on local observations, the Hankow Commissioner thinks 
that a low average of the proportion of smokers to the total population in that part of the Empire 
is 20 per cent., whilst a Siangyangfu correspondent puts the percentage at " 15 for the smaller 
towns and villages, and anything from 45 to 60 for the big cities." Hupeh is, it would seem, a 
veritable hotbed of the vice, for the prevalence of smoking amongst all classes is further borne 
out by a report from Shasi, which says: "About 22 per cent, of the total population are opium 
smokers, amongst whom are many young women." The Ichang Commissioner estimates the 
number of habitual smokers in Ichang itself as one-third of the total adult male population; 
but he thinks the habit, on the whole, is decreasing. The medical officer of that port states 
that in the cases which come to him for treatment at the hospital not less than 50 per cent, 
of the men indulge in opium. 

KlANGSI. — "Before the Anti-Opium Edict," reports the Commissioner of Customs at 
Kiukiang, "40 per cent, of the adult male population smoked opium. Of these, 30 per cent, 
(mostly poor people) have given up the habit, 30 per cent, have substituted the drug in some 
other form, and 40 per cent, still smoke in their own homes." 

Anhwei. — Widely divergent estimates were given to the Wuhu Commissioner in reply 
to many inquiries made hy him regarding the percentage of the population that smoke, but he 
inclines to the belief that about five out of ten adults in the province of Anhwei use opium in 
one form or another. He adds that owing to the high price of foreign opium about 70 per 
cent, of those who smoke use the native drug. The consumption of opium has undoubtedly 
decreased amongst the middle and poorer classes, but only a very few of the well-to-do have 
given up the habit. 

HONAN. — For Honan the proportion of smokers in the total population is given as 15 
per cent, for cities, 5 per cent, for market towns, and 2 per cent, for villages. 

Shansi. — No information has come to hand with regard to the consumption of opium 
in Shansi, but as the province produces a considerable quantity of the drug, the percentage of 
smokers may be assumed to be proportionately heavy. 

ShensI, Kansu, and KweicHOW. — The Chungking Commissioner is of opinion that 
20 per cent, of the adult population of Shensi consume 2 mace of prepared opium a day. He 
also estimates that 12 per cent, of the adult population of Szechwan, Kweichow, and Kansu 
respectively smoke a similar amount, and he adds that these estimates, both as regards 
percentage and quantity, are lower than any supplied in answer to exhaustive inquiries. 
"Women," he says, "smoke as habitually as men, and youths of 18, especially in Shensi and 
Kansu, are frequently smokers." Referring more especially to Szechwan, the home of opium, 
the same report says: "Replies received to the query 'What percentage of the population 
smoke?' — from officials, gentry, missionaries, and the people — range from 20 to 75 per cent., 
with an average of 34 per cent. An official estimate supplied after due consideration gives 
30 to 40 per hundred of the adult population." 

Yunnan. — The Meugtsrj Commissioner estimates that two years ago, before the 
promulgation and enforcement of the Imperial Edict, SO per cent, of the adult male and 10 
per cent, of the female population were addicted to the opium-smoking habit ; but since then 
drastic measures have been taken, at the instance of the Viceroy, by the officials in most of the 
large centres to suppress the vice. These efforts have been so far successful that 45 per cent, 
of the smoking population are said to have given up the habit completely, i 5 per cent, have 
been nearly cured, and 40 per cent, continue to use the drug. In 1901 the Commissioner of 
Customs at Srjemao calculated that 50 per cent, of the total adult population of the province 
were more or less regular smokers, and stated that missionaries many years resident in the 
province usually place the percentage at a much higher figure, the number of men and women 
using the drug in many districts being almost incredible. Writing from Szemao in October 



Memorandum on Opium from China 65 

1908, the Commissioner of Customs reports that a house-to-house visitation in the town and 
suburbs had just been completed by the officials, who supplied him with the following figures: — 

Number of male opium smokers 529 

Number of female opium smokers 83 

This represents, roughly, 26 per cent, of the adult male and 4 per cent, of tim adult female 
population. 

In his report from Tengjueh the Commissioner says that he is informed that three- 
tenths of the total population are addicted to the vice ; but public opinion against the habit is 
making itself felt, and the demand for opium is diminishing. 

KwANGSI. — The ]Vucho:o Coinmissioner thinks that 33 per cent, of the adult male 
population of Kwangsi use the pipe with more or less regularity, and to an extent limited more 
by individual means than by actual craving for the drug. The percentage of smokers in the 
villages is much greater than in the cities, and there are more smokers in the northern and 
western prefectures than in the remainder of the province. In some parts the proportion is 
said to be as high as 50 and even 60 per cent, of the male population ; but at Wuchow it is 
believed to be now not more than 20 per cent. As to races, it is said that the proportion of 
smokers is about 20 per cent, among the Cantonese, 5 per cent, among the Hakkas, 30 to 40 per 
cent, among the semi-civilised " Ch'uang-ku," and only i to 2 per cent, among the Yao tribes, 

Whilst attempting no estimates for the whole of Kwangsi, the Commissioner of Customs 
at N'anning supplies some interesting information as to the number of smokers at that one 
centre. He writes: " According to the latest census, which was taken in 1907, the population 
of the city of Nanning consists of 22,91 1 males and 14,971 iemales. The garrison, amounting 
to 1,000 soldiers, should be added to the male figures, thus making 23,911, from which 2,500 
children should be deducted. Children do not smoke, and the number of women who do so is 
altogether insignificant . . . The net result of careful inquiry pursued in many directions 
and by various methods gives the number of smokers in Nanning at 4,000, that is, 10 per cent, 
of the population, or 18 per cent, of the males. Certainly the percentage is a very high one, 
and certainl}', too, the lowest that can be given. I gave the figures to one who has had a 
pretty extensive acquaintance with smokers here and asked him how he would classify the 
smokers. His classification is as follows : — 

" 400 in whom the vice is most deeply seated ; 

" 1,200 who smoke regularly and continuously, and are definitely committed to the 

vice; 
" 600 who have acquired the desire, but who do not yet indulge to marked excess; 
" 1,800 who smoke in moderation, or only casually and irregularly. 

"The course of the inquiry revealed more particularly the shopkeeping class and that section 
of the population given to sedentary pursuits as most prone to the evil." 



The conclusion that one draws from these reports is that opium smoking is not a 
practice of the comparatively few, but of a very large proportion of the population, and that it 
permeates all classes of the community throughout the Empire. In some districts the pipe 
claims most devotees amongst the well-to-do ; in others — Foochow, for example — the lower 
classes are conspicuously affected. That the percentage of smokers in the west is so great is 
due partly to the extensive cultivation there of the poppy many decades before it became 
diffused throughout China; but the depressing climate, and the existence of a strong 
Mahommedan element in the population, to whom opium offers a solace during the long 
religious fasts and interdicted use of alcohol, may also be cited as contributory causes for the 
spread of the habit. 

The proportion of smokers is usually greater in the cities than in the villages, but in 
one or two provinces where much opium is produced the reverse seems to be the case. But 
the impression left on one's mind by a perusal of the various reports is that there exists a 
preponderating number of irregular or casual smokers, who only "hit the pipe" (to use an 
expressive Americanism) when circumstances allow, which is equivalent to saying, when they 
can afford to do so. 

This question of means is an important one, and it should be taken into consideration 
in any attempt to estimate the number of smokers in a population from any known 
consumption of the drug. It is exceedingly easy to assume, for example, that each habitue 
consumes 2 mace weight of prepared opium per diem; but the cost of that quantity of 
the drug would be prohibitive in the case of many thousands of smokers amongst the lower 



66 



International Opium Commission 



classes, who by continuous labour only manage to gain a bare subsistence. At Shanghai the 
lowest quantity of prepared opium of the very poorest quality retailed is 3 candareens weight, 
which costs 38 cash— a trifle more than 3 cents, and this quantity affords sufificient for— at 
the most — three pipes. Another important factor that is not sufficiently allowed for in such 
calculations is the extent to which opium is adulterated. Even the best quality of the 
prepared article sold in Shanghai contains 10 per cent, of dross, that is, opium which has 
already passed through the pipe. 

In view of the fact that the individual consumption appears to range from one or two 
pipes to as much as i ounce and even more per diem, the proportion of smokers to the 
population is exceedingly difficult to determine. The ordinary smoker of the shopkeeper class 
usually sets aside $0.10 a day as the price of his indulgence, which is equivalent to saying 
that he consumes no more than i mace weight of prepared opium daily. A man who 
got through as much as 4 mace a day would be regarded as a confirmed and heavy smoker. It 
seems probable, therefore, that an estimate based on the hypothesis that half the total of the 
opium consumed is used by smokers who do not exceed i mace a da_\-, while the other half 
is used by smokers consuming 4 mace a day, would nearly approximate to the actual facts. 
Proceeding on these lines, and allowing for the practice of adulterating the drug, we arrive at 
the following results — assuming that the figures quoted at the commencement of this article 
are approximately correct : — 

Consumption of raw opium, 1906 613,917 Piculs 

Allowing a loss of 40 per cent., this will be 

equivalent to prepared opium 368,350 ,, 

Add one-third for dross and adulteration, i.e. . 122,783 ,, 

Total 49i>i33 Piculs 

One-half of this total divided by the daily rate for 

heavy smokers, i.e., 4 mace, gives 2,691,140 

One-half at the rate of i mace daily gives .... 10,764,559 

Total Number of Smokers. . 13,455,699 

The population usually assigned to China is 400 millions, of which it is fair to suppose that 
50 millions are adult males. The proportion of smokers to the total population at the end of 
1906 was, therefore, according to this estimate, a little over 3^ per cent, and to the number 
of adult males 27 per cent. During the past two years the consumption is believed to have 
diminished by about one-third. 



v.— MORPHIA. 



(a.) NET IMPORTATIONS OF MORPHIA FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES, 

1898 TO 1907. 



Port. 



Chinwangtao 

Tientsin 

Chefoo 

Hankow 

Shanghai 

Foochow 

Amoy 

Swatow 

Canton 

Antung 

Total. 



Ounces. 



75,748 

3,544 

11,774 

1,093 



92,159 



Ounces. 



132,964 

2,656 

16,629 

2,456 



154,705 



1900. 



Ounces. 



93,667 

1,698 

16,776 

2,627 



114,768 



1901. 



Ounces. 



113,944 
2,688 

12,435 
9,322 



138,389 



1902. 



Ounces. 



242 

157,931 

2 

19,906 

17,052 



195,133 



1903. 



Ounces. 

1,770 
2,872 

124 
89,118 

3,101 

9,163 



1904. 



Ounces. 



29 



3 
26 



62 



106,148 I 128 



1905. 



Ounces. 



39 
2 



54 



1906. 



Ounces. 



15 

I 

I 

402 



1907. 



Ounces. 



34 



419 



96 



Memorandum on Opium from China e-j 

(b.) CLANDESTINE TRAFFIC IN MORPHIA. 

That the clandestine importation of morphia is undoubtedly iucreasing to an enormous 
and alarming extent there can be no possible doubt, and the difficulties of controlling this 
illicit traffic is referred to in man}' of the reports received. Considerable impetus seems to 
have been lent to the trade in morphia by the action of the officials in carrying out the 
prohibitory Edicts, and by the anti-opium movement generally. The comparative cheapness 
of the drug, the facility with which it can be obtained, and the ease with which it may be 
administered — outbidding opium as it does on all three points,- — constitute a very serious 
danger to the people, especially to the lower classes. So easily indeed is it imported on the 
person and surreptitiously disposed of, that, failing the adoption of special measures for its 
restriction, the smuggling of morphia may be expected to flourish. Its use subcutaneously is 
not \'et to be found everywhere, and in the more distant provinces even the name of the drug 
is unknown; but there are strong reasons for fearing that morphia and instruments for its 
application are insidiously making their wa\' into the very heart of the Empire. V>\ reason of 
their cheapness the products of Japan have a virtual monopoly in Manchuria and along the 
lower part of the Yangtze Valley ; in the southern provinces they have to compete, it seems, 
with morphia and instruments manufactured in America, Great Britain, and on the continent 
of Europe. 

Passages from the various reports dealing with this important question are given below. 
Attention is specially called to one aspect of the trade, referred to by the Swatow 
Commissioner, viz., the percentage of emigrants addicted to the morphia habit, as it implies a 
possibility of the vice being spread b)' them to other countries. 

Manchuria. — At Newchwang, although the Customs statistics show practically no 
arrivals, morphia is being sold by Japanese hawkers and druggists, either openly or under 
such euphemistic names as chih-shui-yao (^ [g ^) or chih-fung-yao (jj; ^ ^). Chinese 
shops are forbidden to deal in the drug under penalty of two years imprisonment with hard 
labour. The use of morphia is on the increase. For this the anti-opium crusade is partly 
responsible. Many smokers honestly desirous of breaking off the habit have been deluded 
into believing that morphia would free them from the yoke; others, intimidated or hampered 
by official restrictions, have merely substituted one vice for the other; whilst many coolies resort 
to it on the ground of economy and convenience, $i worth going as far as $3 worth of opium. 

Japan is stated to be the chief source of supply, and the Japanese to be mainly 
responsible for its sale in Manchuria. The high tariff duty of Hk.Tls. 3 per ounce hinders 
open importation, but smuggling is comparatively easy. In particular, the traffic across the 
extensive Korean frontier is reported by the Antung Commissioner to be very large. As 
proof of this he mentions that one Japanese merchant at Antung openly retails morphia in 
quantities of from one to 100 bottles, containing one-eighth of an ounce each. The price, 
roughly, is Yen 7 an ounce ; but the wholesale price in Japan is about Yen 4.80 an ounce, to 
which must be added Customs duty, Hk.Tls. 3, or Yen 3.90, and cost of carriage I The 
retail price at Newchwang, as given by a Japanese druggist, is $1.05 for a small bottle, 
containing about one-eighth of an ounce. European morphia is stated to be just double these 
rates. 

In the interior of Manchuria the use of the drug is not generally known, but, having 
in mind the quantities of morphia pouring into the coast ports, one may surmise that this 
happy ignorance will not long continue. The Antung report states "that there arrived at 
Shin Wiju by parcel post during the three months of August, September, and October 1908, 
498 ounces of morphia consigned to Japanese merchants in Antung . . . and 213 ounces 
for Shin Wiju merchants." The Commissioner is unable to say positively that all these 
consignments were smuggled across the river into Antung, but investigations point to that 
conclusion. 

Instruments for the subcutaneous injection of the drug can be purchased from Japanese 
druggists for from $1.50 to $2 a set. 

ChihlI. — The Commissioner of Customs at Tientsin reports that the subcutaneous 
injection of morphia is not generally prevalent in the province, but that in the few cases 
observed by missionaries the needles were of Japanese make. 

Shantung. — According to a report from Ckefoo, morphine is said to be unknown in 
that district, whether as a substitute for opium or as a cure for smoking. None is imported 
into the province, and there are no means of ascertaining to what extent it is used in 
the various remedies sold. No morphia is openly imported into Kiaochow. 



68 International Opium Commission 

KlANGSU.— The following figures are adduced by the Shanghai Commissioner as 
proving that considerable quantities must be smuggled into the port: 

Home cost of morphia per lb Hk.ih. 37.00 

Import duty per lb 48.00 

Total Value (excluding freight or postage) Hk.Tls. 85.60 

Yet the market price is otify Hk.TLs. 64. per lb. Since the beginning of the anti-opium 
campaign, morphia has become the one remedy for curing the opium habit---with inevitable 
and disastrous results. "The coolie class pay as little as 14 cash for an injection, of sufficient 
strength to satisfy the ordinary consumer": whereas the least quantity of opium retailed costs 
38 cash. The syringes met with are usually of Japanese make. There are some Chinese 
needles copied from a foreign model, and terrible wounds are sometimes the consequence of the 
use of non-sterilised needles by the morphinomaniac. Morphine and hypodermic syringes are 
hawked all over the country by petty Japanese traders. Large stocks are kept in smugglers 
private houses, and gradually disposed of to small Chinese medicine shops. Glass syringes cost 
$50 a dozen; those made of hornware cost $20 a dozen; while a native-made variety is obtain- 
able at $5 a dozen. 

With regard to the sources of supply, a writer in the "London and China Express" of 
the 3rd July 1908 says: "By those who know, morphia can be bought in any quantity. It 
apparently comes in great quantities from the Austrian firm of MelixdroT, but some also is 
sent by German, English, and Scottish manufacturers." And again: "Orders for i,ooo-lb. 
weight have been given in one transaction. . . . This smuggling is wholesale, while Chinese 
returning from Borneo, Java, Malaya, and Siam in a large number of cases bring morphia 
back as savings to China." Dr. W. H. JEFFERYS, editor of the "China Medical Tournal," 
writes: "The real fire business is conducted by Japanese largely — almost entirely, — although 
I know of at least one Shanghai British firm which sells morphine to Chinese in quantity and 
without prescription. ... I believe that Korea is the centre of the most active doings in 
this respect." 

Morphine is so easily concealed, owing to its small bulk, that in spite of very energetic 
measures in searching vessels and suspicious-looking persons the result at Shanghai has been 
almost nil. 

The Soochow Commissioner remarks that morphia has but few devotees in that district. 
It is used to a certain extent by the coolie class, and from the nature of the marks on their 
arms it would appear that very crude instruments, probably of native manufacture, are employed. 

At Chinkiang morphia is not much used, and its import and sale are both clandestine. 

Nanking reports similarly that morphia is not appreciably in favour there. Some 
smuggling goes on, but not much. 

Chekiang. — The morphia that finds its way to Hangchozu is all from Shanghai, and 
usually smuggled. It is not used as a solution for injecting, but in the form of pills. In most 
places in the neighbourhood of Ningpo it appears to be unknown. Where it is found, it is 
invariably smuggled from Shanghai by local carriers. In the Weuchow district morphia is not 
in general use. 

FUKIEN. — Prior to 1902, and the increase of duty on morphia, the recorded importation 
at Foochow averaged 2,700 ounces per annum. During the following three years only 
8 ounces were imported, and since 1905 none whatever has been declared at the Customs. 
There is reason to believe that large quantities are smuggled in along the coast in junks from 
Formosa and into the open ports by steamers from Hongkong. The consumption of the drug 
is reported to be just as great as ever Upwards of 30 medicine shops at Foochow deal openly 
in morphia, and some of these are believed to carry stocks of as much as 1,000 ounces. Most 
of the iDottles bear the labels of British firms. Instruments for subcutaneous injection are also 
found, but are not in great demand. 

The Commissioner of Customs at Anioy states that morphia is not manufactured locally. 
It comes chiefly from Germany, Japan, and Great Britain, and is all smuggled. 3 ounces 
only were declared at the Customs in 1908, as against 16,776 ounces in 1900. It can be 
bought in the Yungchun prefecture, where it is a terrible curse, from at least eight dealers, at 
$8 an ounce. Instruments for injecting are made there of bamboo, pewter, or glass, and cost 
20 cents or so each. The points of these locally-made syringes are very crude. It is 
estimated that 70 per cent, of the morphia sold is used for subcutaneous injection purposes, 
and the remainder for anti-opium remedies. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 69 

Amoy also reports that during the first nine months of 1908 cocaine hydrochlorate, to 
the extent of //■^.r/j-. 21,000 worth, appeared — nearly all through the German post office. A 
good deal of morphia and cocaine brought into Amoy is smuggled out again to the Straits and 
Burma, as it is supposed that steamers from Amoy trading to those places will not be suspected 
of carrying such articles. Thus, lately, at Singapore 448 bottles of cocaine and 298 packets 
of morphia (weighing Jo-lb.), were seized from the s.s. Hongmoh, running from Amoy and 
Swatow to that port. 

KwANGTUNG. — Morphia can be bought at Sivatoiv from respectable Chinese medicine 
and other shops for $6.80 an ounce, and hypodermic syringes at 90 cents to $1 each. The drug 
is mostly smuggled in by passengers, and the sources of supply are given as Japan, America, 
and Europe. The subcutaneous use of morphia is not so general in Swatow, it is said, as a 
few years ago; it has, however, been replaced by the habit of taking morphia pills — a vicious 
practice, said to be increasing largely. All reports received by the Swatow Commissioner from 
inland districts are unanimous in declaring that no morphia is used; but medical officers of the 
port assert that in every batch of emigrants examined by them there are about 10 per cent, 
who bear the marks of hypodermic needles. 

Morphia is imported clandestinel_\- at Canton, and may be purchased at most druggists, 
but the quantity consumed is not ascertainable. It is mainly used and sold by native shops 
dealing in European medicines and anti-opium remedies. 

HUNAN. — -At Changsha morphia is said to be practically unobtainable, but hypodermic 
syringes can be purchased at $3.50 each from the native shops dealing in foreign drugs. The 
Yochow Commissioner states that very little morphia enters Hunan, but what does is supposed 
to be Japanese, imported under the guise of quinine, etc. 

HUPEH. — Licit importations of morphia into Hankow are small, and generally for foreign 
drug stores or hospitals. "But it is known," says the Commissioner, "that the drug is smuggled 
in from Japan in no inconsiderable quantity." It can be obtained comparatively easily by those 
who want it, and the practice of subcutaneous injection is considered to be on the increase. 
" The drug mostly found here (in the form of morphia hydrochloride) comes from Japan in 
small I -drachm bottles of cheap-looking glass, and is valued — before payment of duty — at 
$1.50 or so per ounce." Its retail price is given as $9 per ounce. The profits to be made by 
smuggling morphia are so great as to be well worth the slight risk of detection run. "Instruments 
for use when injecting the drug . . . now come mostly from Japan," many bearing the 
name of the manufacturing firm in Osaka. The cost of a set of instruments varies from $2 
to $5. Drug and instruments are no longer sold openly, but it is only a question of "knowing 
the ropes" to obtain both easily. In all the cities and towns on either side of the Han River 
the people are largely addicted to opium smoking, being, in fact, the best customers of the 
Hankow dealers ; but at Hanchwanhsien the morphia habit is also very prevalent, and the 
drug can be obtained on the streets. 

Further up the Yangtze, at Sliasi, morphia, said to be of Japanese manufacture, is 
imported surreptitiously and in apparently no small quantities. It is made up in packets of 10 
grains, and is for sale at the opium shops at the rate of i cent a grain. Its use hypodermically 
is not common, though syringes made in Japan are for sale at the medicine shops at 3,000 
cash per set. 

Morphia is apparently not known at Iclinng, except as entering into the composition 
of anti-opium remedies. 

KlANGSI. — The Kiiikiang Commissioner think.s that the subcutaneous injection of 
morphia has not yet been introduced into Kiangsi. But in the form of powder and pills 
morphine and other alkaloids of opium are being largely substituted for that drug. Cigarettes 
are also impregnated, he says, with some preparation of opium, and freely indulged in. 

AnhwEI. — No reliable information can be obtained as to the extent to which morphia 
is used in Anhwei, but the Wulin Commissioner says that there is no disguising the fact that 
it is sold secretly by those who smuggle it into the port from Shanghai. This applies also to 
hypodermic syringes, which, like morphia, are easily concealed. Only those who are 
personally known to the dealers can obtain the drug or syringes. The drug is retailed at $0.07 a 
candareen, and a syringe set costs $2.50. The medical officer of the port thinks, from his 
own ob.servation, that the number of those who use morphia hypodermically is on the decrease. 

HoNAN, — It would appear that very few of the people of Honan know anything about 
morphia for injection purposes, though enormous quantities of the pills containing the drug 
are sold. 



^o 



International Opium Commission 



To the western and more distant inland provinces of China, e.g., Shansi, Shensi, Kansu, 
Kweichow, Yunnan, and Szechwan, morphia has not yet seemingly found its way. In 
Kwanosi it is "known in name only to readers of Canton newspapers," and there is no 
present demand for either drug or instruments. 

LIST OF SAMPLES OF ANTI-OPIUM PILLS. 



Name of Pills. 



Shen-p'ien 



Ou-chia-yiian "\ 

P'ing-ho-wan J 



I-li-chin-tan 



Value. 



%o. 60 per tin . . 

.fo. 10 per bottle 
10.50 ,, 



Wen-ming-wan ' .?i ,, 

Ssii-ko-ts'ao S0.20 per pkge. 



Tzu-hsin-wan . 



Ya-chih-nai-wan, 

Li-ch'iang-wan , 
I-shou-chin-tan . 

Ning-shen-wan . 



ifo.03 



$1 per box. 



$0.03 per pVge, 
•fo. 10 

4 cash per piece 



Seller. 



III! Te T'ai Shanghai 



Pr.ACE OF 

Origin. 



Kuang Ho Tung 
Hua Te T'ai 



Jui Chun 

Hua Te T'ai. 

Jui Chun 



Fu Shun T'ai ... 



Tung Yii Ho . 



Canton. ,. 
Shanghai. 



Shanghai. 
(Japan.) 

(? Japan.) 



Shanghai.. 



Japan . 



( ?Japan. ) 
Szechwan. 



Remarks. 



Contains morphia. A dose of three tablets corres- 
ponds to 3 grains= i mace of opium. 

/Contain morphia. The label gives no prescription, 
\^ only the name of the Canton apothecary. 

Said to be made in Chefoo. Morphia pills. One 
pill to be taken at a time. Price high ! There- 
fore high proportion of morphia ! 

Made in Japan. 10 pills cerrespond to I mace of 
opium ; nine pills to be taken after five days, etc. 

Saturated with solution of morphia. One packet 
corresponds to I mace of opium. Gradually to 
be taken less. 

Eight pills correspond to i mace of opium. After 
seven days seven pills to be taken, and so on ; 
weekly one less. 

Shows morphine reaction. One box corresponds to 
\ mace of opium. 

15 pills correspond to I mace of opium. 

10 pills correspond to I mace of opium, ard 18 pills 
to 2 mace. 

Contains morphia. Inscription on label insignificant. 



VI.— ANTI-OPIUM REMEDIES. 

Not less important than the spread of the morphia habit is the manner in which the 
so-called aiiti-opium remedies are gaining a hold on the people. The consensus of opinion 
from the provinces is that nearly all these nostrums — chiefly pills — contain opium in some 
form or other ; and so great is the consumption that opium eating is clearly in danger of 
becoming a regular substitute for opium smoking, one vice thus disappearing only to make 
room for another equally deleterious in its effects. 

The following are a few extracts from reports received, dealing with this subj'ect. In 
almost all, concern is expressed at the extension of tiie evil. 

Newchwang (Manchuria). 

Anti-opium remedies of various kinds are freely sold. Here again the Japanese take 
the lead, although some of the Shanghai nostrums make a good second. All of them probably 
contain morphia. 



Tientsin (Chihli). 

Reports from all sides agree that these so-called remedies, containing morphia, or more 
frequently opium, are used to an enormous and increasing extent, and that they are a greater 
curse to the people than opium itself The pills can be purchased of any trader, and their 
source of supply is said to be, largely, foreign chemists of Tientsin. A large quantity is also 
probably smuggled in through this port. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 71 

KiAOCHOw (Shantung). 

Most of the pills imported come from Shanghai. An attempt is being made to analyse 
them, with the view of discovering how much morphine they contain. The result will be 
reported later. 

Shanghai (Kiangsu). 

Dr. R. H. Cox gives the following information : " All effective remedies contain opium 
or its derivaties, e.g., morphia, the quantity of morphia varying from one-fourth to one-eighth of 
a grain to each drachm of opium smoked. . . . Since the recent Edicts, a remedy known 
as ' Peking Tea' has been largely used by Peking officials. It seems to be ordinary black tea 
impregnated with morphia. It is taken as an infusion three times daily, and at the end of a 
fortnight it is replaced by a syrup made of opium ash. The prescriptions of foreign doctors 
vary very little: opium or morphia, with belladonna to counteract its ill effects, and nux vomica 
and quinine as tonics, given generally in the form of a pill." 

Nanking (Kiangsu). 

Several kinds of medicines containing morphine — so-called anti-opium remedies in the 
shape of pills, draughts, cakes, and other preparations imported from Japan — -are sold openly 
in the numerous druggists shops in the principal cities. 

NiNGPO (Chekiang). 

Morphia is said to appear in all the anti-opium preparations in the market ; but the fact 
is not rnade apparent in any one of the advertisements concerning these nostrums. The 
directions say nothing about gradually decreasing the dose, and give no hint that smokers 
attempting to cure the opium habit may enslave themselves, by taking pills that contain 
morphia, to a habit more harmful than the one they wish to throw off, 

Hangchow (Chekiang). 

Morphia is not used here in the form of powder or in solution for injection, but is sold 
in the form of pills as an anti-opium medicine. These pills are made locally to some extent, 
but the greater number are manufactured :n Shanghai. 

Amoy (Fukien). 

Any pills manufactured to remove the craving (opium smoking) may certainly be 
regarded as containing morphine or one of the alkaloids of opium. 

SWATOW (KwANGTUNG). 

The anti-opium pills prepared by . . . shop, which enjoy a high reputation for 
efficacy in Swatow, have been tested by the Customs medical officer, and found to give a slight 
morphia or meconic acid reaction, proving the presence of opium or its derivatives. 

Canton (Kwangtung). 

There are different kinds of opium remedies : the average quantity of morphine used in 
each tael weight of such medicines is about o.oi tael. 

YocHOW (Hunan), 

Remedies of all sorts are in great demand ; only experience and education will teach 
their unreliability. Mission doctors say that no remedy will cure without firm determination 
on the part of the patient, medicine alone being of no avail. Given the will, even 
opium containing remedies may effect cures ; without it, the "pill" habit will supersede the 
opium habit, and the last state will be no better than the first. 



72 International Opium Commission 

Hankow (Hupeh). 

Anti-opium pills containing a small percentage of morphia, and of Japanese origin, are 
imported at Hankow. Native-made pills, containing opium, opium dross, treacle, etc., are 
exported in considerable quantities, and are valued on export at TU. 150 a picul. 

From Siangyang a correspondent writes: "Any amount of anti-opium pills, of all sizes, 
names, and colours, are for sale. All contain raw opium or opium ashes, flour, treacle, and 
native drugs." 

Ichang (Hupeh). 

Anti-opium pills -contain a minute quantity of morphine, as well as of a drug called 
codeine, which is also an alkaloid extract of opium. 15 per cent, of the pills come from Japan, 
the remainder from Hankow, Shanghai, and Canton. 

KlUKIANG (KlANGSl). 

The Customs medical officer took great pains to elicit reliable information concerning 
the opium habit generally, and to verify facts for himself as much as possible. He obtained 
samples of so-called anti-opium remedies, both foreign and Chinese, but they all appeared 
to contain too much of the drug to be the genuine cure they claim to be. Several men 
who have taken these pills in good faith, and with the firm intention of curing themselves 
of the habit, have derived no benefit after giving them a fair trial, and have found the efTect, 
in some cases, worse than smoking. That these so-called anti-opium remedies are only 
a substitute for the pipe is well known to all Chinese. Manj- drug stores, foreign and Chinese, 
are doing a lucrative business by the sale of these remedies. 

WUHU (Anhwei). 

Anti-opium pills are sold and largely purchased by the poorer classes in order to satisfy 
the craving for the drug, as they contain either opium or morphia. The officials frequentl}- 
test samples of anti-opium remedies, and thus check to a certain extent the open sale of those 
containing opium or morphia. 

SlANGCHENG AND JUCHOW (HoNAN). 
Multitudes are said to be sustaining themselves on anti-opium pills containing morphia 
TUNGKWAN AND SlANFU (SHENSI). 

A proclamation issued during the 9th moon orders smokers to register themselves, and 
adds that smokers have been effectively cured in other places by anti-opium pills, which are 
now on the market for sale at very cheap rates. 

SiNINGFU (KaNSU). 

Anti-opium pills are stated to be in great demand, 

KWEICHOW, SZECHWAN, AND ShANSI. 

Reports from these provinces make no reference to anti-opium remedies. 

Mengtsz (Yunnan). 

Anti-opium remedies are being distributed gratis at Yunnanfu by the officials. 

Wuciiow (Kwangsi). 

Anti-opium pills come from Canton, Kweilin, and Japan. It is said that some are 
made of opium dross and that some contain prepared opium. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 73 

The following list gives the names of the remedies most frequently mentioned : — 

Japanese Remedies : 

Ya-chih-nai-wan (3g ;j^ ju) ^). 

Ya-^rh-wan (3g ^ %). 

Dr. Eden's gold and silver coated anti-opium pills. 

Shanghai Pills : 

Shen-p'ien (^ )^). 
I-li-chin-tan (- ^ ^ ^). 
Wen-ming-wan (^ |^ JQ. 
P'ing-ho-wan (^ ;^ -)Q. 

Canton Pills : 

Ou-chia-yiian (jg ^ g). 

Remedies of which the origin is not stated : 

Ssii-ko-ts'ao (HjlII BJI ^). 
TzLi-hsin-wan (Q ^ %). 
Li-ch'iang-wan (:ij!: 3S JQ- 
I-shou-chin-tan {^%j^ fl-). 
Ning-shen-wan (^ jfi$ %). 

Other Remedies : 

O-lang-ts'ao {% % ■^) or Chung-hsing-ling-ts'ao {r^ ^ "^ '^.), also called 

Yang-nai (^ jff)), a kind of grass. 
Lu-so-kao (^ ^ ^). 



VII.— ANTI-OPIUM MEASURES. 

In order to show how the crusade against the opium habit is being conducted all over 
the Chinese Empire, translations of certain Imperial Edicts (Appendix A), Government 
Regulations (Appendix B), and Provincial Proclamations (Appendix C), are appended. 
These have been selected from a mass of similar documents and could be multiplied ad 
infinitum ; but in giving the proclamations of one province it practically means giving the 
proclamations for all China, as everywhere they resemble each other both in style and 
phraseology. In addition to translations of proclamations issued for the Fukien province 
(Foochow), a summary of those issued at Ningpo (Chekiang province) and at Tengyueh, in the 
far-away province of Yunnan, are added. There are also included some Memorials and 
Telegrams from the provinces re poppy cultivation and measures taken to suppress the same. 



VIII.— EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORTS OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF 

CUSTOMS RE RESULTS OF THE ANTI-OPIUM MOVEMENTS. 

Manchuria. — Newchwang reports : " The official measures taken in closing all opium 
dens, thereby lessening the temptation to indulge, and the growing public opinion, which is 
more and more condemning the habit, have undoubtedly had a deterring effect. Confirmed 
smokers now seek the privacy of their own rooms and conceal as much as possible the vice 
they are indulging in. This fact in itself is a very favourable indication of the public feeling 
against the habit, and the younger generation, no longer seeing examples of their elders 
smoking, are subjected to much less temptation than formerly. It is stated that during the 
past 18 months there has been a decrease of fully one-third in the number of opium smokers." 

Antung reports : " From each source of information comes the report that the smoking 
habit is diminishing, worded in varying degrees from 'perhaps a little' to 'much diminished'." 
The Commissioner adds that Mr. Acting Vice-Consul RUSSEL'S statements under this heading 
have a valuable interest : " In the month of March of this year I travelled through Antung, 



74 International Opium Commission 

K'uantien, Huaijen, Tunghua, and Linchiang districts and also tiirough Hsingchingting and 
Fenghuangting, I found that public opinion was generally favourable to the anti-opium 
movement. Opium smokers now as a rule indulge in the habit surreptitiously and as if they 
recognised that there is a certain moral and social stigma attaching to the habit. I did not see 
any opium dens open, but on one or two occasions noticed opium being smoked in the more 
remote country inns." 

Cnui'Ll.— Tzenistn reports: "It seems to be generally agreed that the number of 
smokers and the area devoted to poppy cultivation are decreasing, and it is admitted that the 
decrease is due almost entirely to the Opium Edict and official pressure ; but whereas in some 
districts the local officials have taken stern measures to put a stop to both consumption and 
growth of opium, in others the thought of the loss of revenue that will follow the curtail- 
ment of poppy cultivation has been too strong, and little attention has been paid to the Edicts. 
The main hope for the future would appear to be that under official pressure the growing of 
opium may be entirely suppressed in a few years, and that the younger generation may learn 
the evils of the habit and have the opportunities for indulging in it curtailed." 

Shantung. — Chefoo reports : " Undoubtedly the number of smokers has greatly 
decreased, particularly amongst those who were formerly the worst victims of the habit — the 
educated class. It is said that only those retain the habit who cannot give it up (a consider- 
able number it must be admitted), and none take to it for the first time. To the Imperial 
Edict of 1906 belongs, of course, the whole credit of initiating this reaction on the part of the 
intelligent section of the nation against a habit which had come to be regarded as part of the 
established order. But its force and duration must be ascribed to the prevailing temper and 
spirit of the oeople and the press, eager to revolt against abuses, real and imaginary, of 
all kinds." 

Kiaochow reports: "The number of smokers amongst the respectable resident population 
has decreased since the issue of the Imperial Edict. Smoking is no longer considered right or 
proper, and there is a general consensus of opinion amongst them that it must be stopped and 
will be stopped as soon as the growth of the poppy is suppressed." 

KlANGSU. — Shanghai reports: "Since the Edict was promulgated against the poppy 
cultivation and opium habit, the effect produced has been to create an active movement on 
the part of the officials, civil and military, who have constantly exerted themselves by issuing 
proclamations embodying the Imperial Orders. The gentry, with the co-operation of the new 
student element, have also been very energetic in their efforts to exercise good moral influence 
on the public mind. Pamphlets that opium smoking tends to deteriorate the race have not been 
spared by the anti-opium leagues and societies. Opium apparatus has been burnt publicly." 

Nanking reports: "The habit seems to be decreasing. This is due to the effect pro- 
duced by the anti-opium Edicts and official pressure, and to the moral influence exercised by 
well-thinking newspapers and pamphlets. Such publications profusely distributed impress 
the minds of the readers — 

" The moral effect of the use of opium, which is of the most pernicious kind, which 
tends to paralyse the moral sentiment and prostrate the will. 

" The physical effect which impoverishes, often leads to crime and family feuds, 
causes untrustworthiness leading to loss of place and confidence, and lazy habits 
leading to financial embarrassment and beggary. 

"There is a praiseworthy effort made on the part of some confirmed smokers to get rid 
of the evil practice, and the closing of the opium dens has proved very inconvenient to the 
consumers and lessened their number. The younger generation is almost free of the habit, and 
the future looks hopeful. The high authorities of the capital came to the conclusion that a 
Government monopoly of the trade in opium was the only remedy to save the people from 
degradation and ruin, and hoped, by having the full control in their hands, to diminish 
gradually the use of the drug. Unfortunately, the scheme of the Government had to be 
abandoned for political reasons, and the question now remains how will China extricate 
herself from the pitiable situation and eradicate from her soil the curse inflicted on her 
teeming millions? The problem seems too arduous to be solved by the Chinese alone." 

Chekiang. — Ningpo reports: "The smoking habit is undoubtedly on the decrease. In 
many places a strong public opinion supports the proclamations issued against opium smoking, 
and numbers of those who had recently formed the habit have thrown it off*. The effect of the 



Memorandum on OriUM from China 



75 



Anti-Opium Edict is seen in the closed opium dens and restricted areas used for poppy cultiva- 
tion. The results obtained var\' in proportion to the energy displayed by local officials and 
gentry, and is largely influenced in different localities by the extent to which poppy growing has 
become an established industry, and the hold the smoking habit has obtained on the people at 
large. In Taichow, for instance, where young people in their teens are addicted to the pipe 
and where farmers depend greatly upon the opium crop, little has been accomplished in the 
way of reform." 

Hangchow reports: "In this district the Edicts have undoubtedly produced some 
effect, but chiefly indirectly. In a few places they have produced a direct effect, i.e., have 
been enforced by the officials. iMainly, however, the Edicts have been used by the gentry and 
merchants, who haxe in places called on the officials to enforce some of the regulations of the 
Edicts. In Hangchow cit\' and neighbourhood the officials have done little, beyond closing 
(nominally at least) all the smoking dens and slightly reducing the number of shops selling 
boiled opium. From Kashing it is reported that before 1906 it was the custom among all 
classes to discuss business in opium divans; this is now not done. It is also said in that city 
that it is now considered ' bad form ' to offer opium to guests." 

FUKIEN — Foochow reports : " It is beyond all doubt that the increase in the ranks of 
opium smokers has been practically checked by the combined influence of the Imperial Edict 
and popular will. Opium smoking is no longer a fashionable pastime — a rakish habit which 
youth felt urged to acquire. It is now regarded as 'bad form,' and is distinctly out of favour 
with )-oung men. All opium-smoking establishments have been closed; overt smoking at 
least has been suppressed in restaurants, inns, drinking houses, and brothels ; and in private 
houses, as well as business places, the opium pipe is no longer kept in the reception room or 
offered to visitors. That many light smokers have succeeded in ridding themselves of the 
habit is unquestionable; but it must be feared that the greater part of the vast army of 
confirmed smokers will lack the will power to break it off, and that many in their pathetic 
efforts to find a cure are deluded by unscrupulous vendors of remedies containing morphia, 
and thus become the victim of this even more deleterious form of the drug. In the attainment 
of these results the influence, vigilance, and unremitting efforts of the Anti-Opium Society 
have been of inestimable value. The society has many prominent and influential men among 
its members; it has branches in almost every town and even in many villages; it is greatly 
trusted by the authorities in carrying out anti-opium measures, and it has, in the main, made 
good use of its influence. Small hospitals have been established by the society for the free 
treatment of opium smokers, and already, in March last, the society could report that over 
2,300 persons had stopped smoking through the help of their hospitals alone." 

xliiioy reports: "Over 25 per cent, of the total population in and around Amoy are 
reported to smoke, though the habit is said to be diminishing owing to Anti-Opium Edicts 
which, backed up by direct official action, have caused — («) opium dens to be closed ; {b) 
hotels and brothels to be prohibited from furnishing customers with the drug ; and (<:) an 
Anti-Opium Association to be established, which is said to have relieved many people of 
the craving." 

KWANGTUNG — Swatow reports: "In Swatow itself the practice of opium smoking is 
discredited and is no longer indulged in in public. It is said that many smokers have already 
reformed and many more are breaking off a habit which has fallen into disrepute. In 14 out 
of 19 districts in this prefecture smokers are decreasing considerably, which seems to be due 
as much to their own efforts and the influence of local Anti-Opium Societies as to official 
pressure. In the remaining five districts smokers are decreasing very slowly, or not at all, in 
spite of proclamations, which, however, are not seriously enforced." 

Canton reports; "The effects of the Anti-Opium Edict are as follows : (i) all opium 
dens have been closed up, and the consumption of prepared opium suddenly diminished by 50 
per cent.; (2) prior to the prohibition, implements for opium smoking could at any time be got 
in restaurants, shops, and both foreign and Chinese vessels; now this practice is at an end, 
which has largely contributed to decrease the number of opium smokers; (3) all officials, 
military and civil, as well as official servants, have been trying ardently to knock down the 
evil habit ; and (4) all young men not having acquired the habit are afraid of doing so, and 
many old smokers show a strong desire to diminish their allowance." 

Samshui reports: "The smoking habit is diminishing constantly. The Anti-Opium 
Edicts have certainly had a moral effect, but the diminution of the habit should mostly be 
attributed to the energy of the officials in carrying out instructions." 



■jd International Opium Commission 

Kongmoon reports : " Opium smoking is gradually diminishing, especially among the 
better classes. It is estimated by the Anti-Opium Societies that some 30 per cent, of the 
opium smokers in this district have given up the habit, which good result is to be attributed 
more to moral influence than to official action or pressure. At present, among the better 
classes, it is considered degrading to be known as an opium smoker, and serious efforts are 
being made to lessen the evil." 

YiXi'i'im—Changsha reports: "The opium habit is greatly decreasing in Changsha, 
perhaps by as much as 20 per cent, such results having primarily been brought about by the 
Imperial Edicts, which have been taken seriously by the Hunan Governor, who, besides closing 
all opium shops, has given the anti-opium movement his strong support. All officials, and all 
those vast numbers who hang on to and get their living from or through officials, have 
been obliged to at least outwardly forego or modify indulgence in the habit. The so-called 
opium dens have been wiped out completely, and neither I nor my agents have been able to 
discover a single one in Changsha." 

Yochoiv reports: "The Imperial Edicts have undoubtedly been the means of creating 
a strong public opinion against the use of the drug. Officials are removed from office for 
continuing to smoke, dens are nominally closed, and the evils of the habit are set out by the 
newspapers. There seems to be no doubt in the minds of the people that the Government 
is sincere in its avowed intention of putting down the practice ; but it is only to be expected 
that the orders are not always given effect to by all the officials, and that the new regulations 
are often evaded." 

HUPEH — Hankow reports: "There is no evidence of any popular feeling against the 
smoking habit such as has been so pronounced in other provinces, and until quite recently no 
steps were taken by the authorities to carry out the Opium Edicts; but in the principal cities 
measures more or less successful have lately been adopted to close the dens. These measures 
are, however, confined to the cities, and in the country districts the Edicts are a dead letter." 

Shasi reports: " Evidence has been sought for, but none can be brought forward, 'to show 
that the opium habit has decreased among either the official class or the people. Personal 
observation helps to substantiate the fact. On every side in the streets and purlieus of Shasi 
the opium couch with its lamps will be found in the houses of the rich as well as in the hovels 
of the poor. The man who smoked opium last year continues to smoke it. No pressure has 
been brought to bear on him to cause him the forego the habit." 

Ichang reports : "On the loth .September (1908) the opium shops in Ichang were closed 
by the officials, but the consumption of the drug still continues. Since the issue of the Imperial 
Decree forbidding the use of opium, a good many smokers have given up the habit ; but amongst 
the lower classes there has been no abatement, owing to there being no moral influence brought 
to bear on them. The interest of a very large section of the Ichang community being so much 
bound up in the growth, sale, brokerage, and shipment of opium, it is vain to expect a sudden 
change. In other places in the province, however, the people are bestirring themselves to 
combat the evil." 

KlANGSI. — Kiukiang reports: " Since the Anti-Opium Edicts were issued opium smoking 
has certainly decreased, but it is difficult to state how far this is due to either direct or indirect 
official pressure or to moral influence. A considerable number have had to give it up owing 
to the increased cost. A large number have always had a great desire from a moral standpoint 
to give up the habit, but have not had the strength of mind to do so without some incentive. 
The Edicts have supplied this incentive. While the smoking habit is diminishing, the amount 
of opium sold during the year has increased. This is said to be due to the fact that well-to-do 
people have bought more than they consumed, fearing it might be difficult to obtain the drug 
in the near future." 

Anhwei. — IVuhu reports: "That the consumption of opium has decreased since the 
Anti-Opium Edict of September 1906 there is little doubt, but to what extent cannot be stated 
with even approximate accuracy. The decrease appears to be only among the middle and 
poorer classes, while among the well-to-do there has been no appreciable falling off. It should 
here be noted that the importation of foreign opium into Wuhu during 1907 showed a large 
increase over the figures of the two previous years, but this fact does not necessarily indicate 
an increasing consumption, it being well known that wealthy smokers have been laying in 
large private stocks for future use ; some of them are said to be burying it, in view of further 
and more stringent legislation. Although all opium dens have long ago been closed in Wuhu 



Memorandum on Opium from China 'j'j 

small shops have been opened (not publicly) where opium can be smoked. Only those who 
are personal!}' acquainted with the owners are admitted, strangers having to be guaranteed 
before gaining entrance. In most of the country districts opium shops and dens appear still 
to be open, the officials evidently being more concerned in suppressing the traffic in the larger 
towns and cities. It is difficult to form an opinion as to what is bringing about the diminution 
in smoking, but it is believed to be attributed to no small extent to the influence of those of 
the officials and gentry who have at heart the real welfare of the people." 

HoNAN. — Hankow reports: "Several correspondents state that the smoking habit is 
decidedly on the decrease, and of late more rigorous measures have been taken to enforce 
prohibition." 

SiiENSi, Kansu, Szechwan, Kweichow, — Chungkmg x^^ox'i's, : "The measures taken 
by the provincial officials in the four provinces point to an honest determination to suppress 
the cultivation of the poppy, and a confiscation of the land producing it is threatened if their 
exhortation be ignored. Its suppression is only a question of time. 

" Reports received from postal employes scattered through the provinces of Kansu and 
Shensi are rather conflicting. In places where the officials themselves are opposed to opium 
restrictive measures have been put into force with promising results; in other parts the 
Anti-Opium Edicts have produced no effect. The information received may be summarised as 
follows: In 12 of the reports it is stated that the officials and a large proportion of the popu- 
lation have broken off the habit, and the area devoted to poppy cultivation is being much 
reduced. Eight reports from other districts assert that the smoking habit is not diminishing, 
owing chiefly to the apathy of the local officials. Three other reports are of a neutral nature. 
On the whole it may be said that whilst prohibition is moving more slowly in these two provinces, 
something is certainl}' being done, and so far the results may be considered encouraging." 

Yunnan. — Mejigtsz reports: "Since the promulgation of the Anti-Opium Edict in 
1906 the total production of opium has been reduced by not less than 50 per cent. Much has 
been done by the Viceroy to suppress the smoking habit, and drastic measures have been taken 
to prevent the cultivation and sale of the drug on the market. Places far away from the direct 
eye of the Vicero)' move in the suppression movement according to the energy and ability of 
the local officials. The efforts of the Viceroy have succeeded, inasmuch as 45 per cent, of the 
smoking population are said to have given up the habit completely, 1 5 per cent, have been nearly 
cured, and 40 per cent, still smoke. It is admitted by everybody, and it seems beyond doubt, 
that the Viceroy is in earnest about the abolition of opium in his province and that he has 
obtained very favourable results within a comparatively short period. " 

Tengyueh reports : " Since the publication of the opium Edict and the circulation of 
the regulations concerned, the smoking habit has appreciably diminished and the demand for 
opium has declined. Public opinion against the vice seems to be gradually making itself felt 
here, and the local official action, too, has been generally correct. The influence of the native 
press is also apparent in this remote part of the Empire, and all things considered the results 
to date are upon the whole encouraging. It is evident that the Viceroy is taking a very active 
and enlightened interest in the question, and that the ultimate success of the anti-opium 
movement in this province will be mainly due to him. At the same time it may be doubted 
whether events will completely justify the somewhat precipitate action taken, and it will be a 
matter for congratulation if friction is avoided." 

Szemao reports : " It is thought that little or no land in this province will be placed 
under poppy this year ; but in case such cultivation should be attempted, the authorities are 
deputing officers to make tours of inspection with a view to enforcing the Viceroy's mandate. 
The anti-opium campaign has been very actively conducted at Szemao by the officials since July 
1907. All opium resorts have been closed and opium smoking has much diminished. It is 
thought that 80 per cent, of the smokers are making strenuous efforts to overcome the habit 
from a personal recognition of the evils accruing from the vice. The remaining 20 per cent., who 
comprise the old and the diseased, will, it is suspected, continue to use the drug surreptitiously. 

Kwangsi. — fi^«c;^(?w reports: "In the villages where newspapers are never seen and 
proclamations never read, but little is yet known of the crusade against opium smoking, and 
therefore no change is as yet apparent. But in the cities where prohibitory notifications have 
been issued and where the people, stimulated by the reading of newspapers, have established 
societies for the curing of opium smoking, there is undoubtedly a tendency towards diminution 
among old smokers, who, for fear or for shame, curtail or conceal their habit. The younger 
generation, checked by parents and Magistrate, refrain from becoming smokers. The fact that 



78 International Opium Commission 

smokers in the cities have to take out licences has sufficed to cause a decrease among such 
smokers as possess a regard for pubHc opinion, and as far as those who care not for the qu'en 
dira-t-on or who fear not the Magistrate's threats, the increased price of the drug will force a 
diminution of smokers." 

Nanning reports: "Speaking very broadly the people who were addicted to smoking 
pursue the unbroken tenor of their way apparently untouched and unmoved. Does this mean 
that the Anti-Opium Decrees have been fulminated in vain? Far from it! They have on the 
one hand achieved some very definite results, and on the other hand have created, away in 
these remote parts, a feeling of uneasiness and inquietude, such as would be produced had like 
Decrees been addressed by a Western potentate against any analogous pernicious habit of his 
subjects. Many who smoked only occasionally or who smoked very moderately discover a 
disposition to abstain altogether. There is not a particle of doubt that officials are awake to 
the importance of being up and doing. The Governor, a young and active man of enlarged 
views, recognises the need of energetic action, and during the current year has deprived of 
rank more than lo officials on the ground of their having failed to take adequate steps to 
overcome the vice. All opium divans in the city were closed in April last year (1907). 
Teachers and pupils in the public schools are forbidden to smoke. It is an open secret, however, 
that several of the teachers indulge in private; but it is credibly stated that there is no 
contravention of the regulations on the part of any of the scholars. As to the garrison, there 
has been a good deal of smoking in that quarter, and it is not an unusual thing for an officer 
to make surprise visits with the object of apprehending offenders. In the course of the current 
year quite a number of 'braves,' detected ilagrantly in the act, have been dismissed from the 
colours. The prohibition is rigorously and strenuously enforced in respect of the new 
regiment, which is being formed and trained on modern lines." 



APPENDICES. 



Appendix A. — No. i. 



imperial DECREE: DATED 20TH SEPTEMBER, I906. 

Since the restrictions against tlie use of opium were removed the poison of this drug 
has practically permeated the whole of China. The opium smoker wastes time and neglects 
work, ruins his health, and impoverishes his family, and the poverty and weakness which for 
the past few decades have been daily increasing amongst us are undoubtedl)' attributable to 
this cause. To speak of this arouses Our indignation, and, at a moment when We are striving 
to strengthen the Empire, it behoves Us to admonish the people, that all ma\' realise the 
necessity of freeing themselves from these coils, and thus pass from sickness into health. 

It is hereby commanded that within a period of 10 years the evils arising from foreign 
and native opium be equally and completely eradicated. Let the Government Council (Cheng- 
wu Ch'u) frame such measures as may be suitable and necessary for strictly forbidding the 
consumption of the drug and the cultivation of the poppy, and let them submit their proposals 
for Our approval. 



Appendix A. — No. 



IMPERIAL DECREE: DATED 7TH FEBRUARY, I907. 

A Memorial has been received from the Board of the Interior devising general arrange- 
ments foi' the prohibition of opium ; and whereas opium is injurious to the public health. We 
have already issued an Edict commanding every province to fix a limit of time for its strict 
prohibition. The Board having now recommended in their Memorial the extension of branch 
Anti-Opium Societies, and that the opium dens throughout the provinces should be uniformly 
closed and prohibited as laid down in the new regulations, it is hereby commanded that all 
Tartar Generals, Viceroys, and Governors shall take part, with their subordinates, in conscien- 
tiously carrying out these steps. But strict as must be the prohibition against smoking, it is 



Memorandum on Opium from China 79 

even more necessary to forbid the cultivation of the poppy, in order to sweep away the source 
of evil. The responsibility is therefore placed upon all Tartar Generals, Viceroys, and 
Governors to see to it that cultivation is diminished annually, as prescribed by the regulations 
submitted to Us, and that within the maximum term of 10 years the supply of foreign and 
native opium is completely cut off. There must be no laxity or disregard for this beneficial 
measure, which the Throne so ardently desires. 



Al'l'ENDIX A. — No. 3. 



IMPERIAL EDICT: DATED 26TH JUNE, I907. 

Opium is in the highest degree detrimental to the people. In an Edict of last year 
prohibiting the use of it the Council of Government were commanded to frame regulations 
and to direct all yamens throughout the country to put a stop to it. 

In the third month of this year a further Edict was issued, commanding that general 
instructions be given to act in strict accordance with the regulations, which had been sub- 
mitted to the Throne, alike in respect of the cultivation, sale, and consumption of opium. 

The welfare of the people is a matter of great concern to the Court, and this is a matter 
which must positively be put through. The Governor of Peking and the Tartar Generals, 
Viceroys, and Governors of the provinces are commanded to issue strict instructions to their 
subordinates to put the prohibition into actual effect, to make it a matter of familiar knowledge 
in men's houses, to get completely rid of the evil. The Maritime Customs should keep a 
strict watch on the foreign opium which is imported, and the places in the interior which 
cultivate native opium must annually decrease the amount cultivated, in accordance with the 
dates sanctioned. It is further commanded that the relative merits of officials in' this respect 
must be recognised. If the instructions are zealously carried out by an official in his own 
jurisdiction, it is permitted to memorialise the Throne, asking for some encouragement to be 
shown him. If an official merely keeps up appearances and, while outwardly obeying, secretly 
disregards these commands, he is to be denounced b\' name for punishment. 

It is also commanded that an annual return of the land under opium cultivation be 
made, by wa\' of verification and to meet the desire of the Court to relieve the people of this evil. 



Appendix B. — No. i. 



regulations prohibiting opium smoking, compiled by the government council. 

Article i. 

To limit the cultivation of the poppy is the way to eradicate the evil. The poppy 
obstructs agriculture, and its effect is very bad. In China, in the provinces of Szechwan, 
Shensi, Kansu, Yunnan, Kweichow, Shansi, and Kianghuai, the poppy is widely cultivated, 
and even in other provinces there are places where poppy cultivation is largely pursued. Now 
it is decided to prohibit and root out the habit of smoking opium within 10 years. It is 
therefore necessary to limit the cultivation of the poppy so as to effect the prohibition. 
Viceroys and Governors of provinces have to instruct the Magistrates of departments and 
districts to report upon, after registering, the actual area of land used for cultivation of poppy. 
Unless land has been hitherto used in the cultivation of the poppy, it is not to be used for 
that purpose in future. For the land already being cultivated with the poppy special title- 
deeds must be obtained. Of the land at present in use for the cultivation of the poppy, 
one-ninth must be annually withdrawn from cultivation, and, if land is suitable, other crops 
are to be cultivated thereon. Magistrates of departments and districts are to pay surprise 
visits, in order to ascertain whether there is any violation of this regulation. 

By this means the cultivation of the poppy will be exterminated in nine years. 

Any person violating the rule will forfeit his land, and any person ceasing to grow the 
poppy and adopting some other crop before the time required in the Decree shall be 
considered as meriting special reward. 



8o International Opium Commission 

Article 2. 

The issuing of certificates will prevent the possibility of new smokers. The bad habit 
of opium smoking has now been indulged in for such a long time. About three-tenths or 
four-tenths of the natives smoke opium. Therefore we must be lenient to those who have 
already acquired the habit, but must be strict for the future. First of all, all the officials and 
gentry and licentiates shall be prohibited to smoke opium, so as to show example to the 
common people. Those who smoke opium, without distinction, whether he be an official, one 
of the gentry, or a servant, shall report the fact at the local yamen. If the place of their 
living is remote from the local yamen, they may report themselves to the police bureau or to 
the gentry of that place, who will collect such applications and send the same to the local 
yamen. The local officials will then issue a proclamation ordering them to fill up a form with 
their names, age, residence, profession, and the amount of opium each smokes per day ; such 
forms will be ordered to be sent in at a fixed date, according to the distance of the residence 
from the yamSn. After the forms have been collected at the yamen a list will be compiled, 
and one copy of the same will be handed over to the higher yamen, and certificates will be 
issued under the official seal. Such certificates will be of two kinds : one for those who are 
over 60 years of age and the other for those who are under 60 years of age. Those who 
receive the second kind of certificate are not allowed to receive the certificate of the first kind 
when they reach 60. In the certificate the name, age, native address, amount of daily 
consumption of opium, as well as the date of the issue of the certificate, are mentioned, to 
certify that they are allowed to buy opium. If there are any who, having no certificate, bu 
opium secretly, such persons will be duly punished. Once a registration has been made and 
certificate been issued, no future application will be allowed. 

Article 3. 

By ordering gradual reduction of the amount of smoking opium, a cure of such habit 
may be effected. Those who are over 60 years old are treated leniently, because of their age ; 
but those who are below 60 and have received a certificate of the second kind are ordered to 
redure the amount of smoking annually either b)' two-tenths or three-tenths, and to determine 
the date of ceasing to smoke opium. Those who cease to smoke and obtain the guarantee of 
their neighbours will be presented to the local officials, who will also inquire into the case, and 
then the name will be erased from the book of registration and the certificate will be returned 
to the officials. A list of such withdrawals will be sent to the higher yamen for record. The 
date of prohibition of opium is quite lenient, and, therefore, if there is anyone who does not 
give up the practice within term, such person shall be severely punished. If there is anyone 
who has a certificate of the second class and does not stop smoking, if he be an official, he will 
be cashiered ; if he be a licentiate, his title will be taken away ; and if he be an unofficial 
person, his name will be registered. These names will be sent up to the higher yamen to be 
placed on record, their names and ages will be put up in the street, and their residence will be 
made public, and no honorary positions will be given to them. They are not allowed to be 
reckoned as equals of the general public. 

Article 4. 

By closing the opium-shops, the source of the evil can be cleared away. Until the 
terms for the date of prohibition come it is impossible to close the shops where opium is sold. 
However, there are opium-shops where are many lamps for smoking opium, and many young- 
sters are induced to come there and gather together with many bad characters. Therefore such 
shops shall be closed by local authorities within six months, and the owners shall be ordered 
to change their occupations. If they do not close their shops in time, these shops shall be 
officially closed by sealing the door. The restaurants and bars shall not keep opium for the 
use of their customers, and the guests shall not be allowed to bring in any opium pipe in order 
to smoke opium in these places. If there are any who violate the rule, they shall be severely 
punished. Those who sell opium pipes, opium lamps, or other utensils for opium smokers shall 
be prohibited from selling these goods after six months, or they shall be severely punished. 
The taxes on opium lamps shall not be collected three months after date. 

Article 5. 

By registering each shop where opium is sold, the exact number of them can be known. 
Though the shops where opium is sold cannot be closed at once, yet they can be gradually 
closed and no new shops be allowed to be opened henceforth. In every city, town, or village 
the shops where opium or opium dross is sold are to be investigated by the local officials, and 



Memoranduim on Opium from China 81 

their numbers shall be duly registered and kept on record. Certificates shall be issued, which 
certificates will be reckoned as permits to follow that business, and no more new shops shall be 
allowed to be opened. These shops shall show the certificates whenever they buy their 
merchandise, or they are not allowed to sell the same. These shops shall report upon the 
quantity of opium and opium dross they sell at the end of each year, and report the same to 
the local officials, who will keep tlie same on record. After calculating the total amount of 
opium and opium dross consumed in a district, annually, the proportion of annual reduction 
necessary for the abolition of opium smoking in 10 years shall be calculated. Any surplus 
at the end of that time shall be destroyed and double its value forfeited as a fine. 

Article 6. 

The government shall manufacture medicine to cure the bad habit. There are many 
prescriptions for curing the habit of smoking opium, and each province shall select the best 
medical students to undertake research for the best cure suited to the circumstances of each 
province. Such cures shall be made in pills, and shall in no case contain opium or morphia. 
After being manufactured, such pills will be distributed to each prefecture, sub-prefecture, 
department, and district at reasonable prices, and then these will be handed over to the 
charitable societies or medicine shops, where the cure will be sold at cost price. Whenever 
they are any poor people whc cannot afford to buy the medicine, the cure may be given 
to them gratis. It is also granted to local gentry to manufacture the cure in accordance with 
the official prescription, so as to have the cure distributed as widely as possible. If there is 
anyone who will distribute the cure for charity's sake, and if such cure has the proper effect, 
the local officials shall give him reward. 

Article 7. 

The establishment of Anti-Opium Societies is a worthy proceeding. Lately, many 
persons cured have voluntarily organised an Anti-Opium Society, and have endeavoured t6 
eradicate bad habits. This is really praiseworthy. Therefore the Viceroys and Governors of 
provinces shall instruct the local officials, with the local gentry, to organise Anti-Opium 
Societies, and to endeavour to stop the opium-smoking habit in the locality. Then prohibitions 
will surely have better effect. Such society shall be purely for the anti-opium smoking, and 
the society shall not discuss any other matters, such as political questions bearing on topical 
affairs or local administration, or any similar matter. 

Article 8. 

The local officials are relied upon to use their utmost endeavour to carry into effect these 
regulations, and with the effective support of the local gentry there should be no difficulty in 
carrying out the prohibition. The Tartar Generals, the Viceroys, and the Governors of provinces 
shall make up a list of people who smoke opium, and those who cease, to smoke, annually, and 
the number of pills which are used as cure, together with the number of Anti-Opium Societies. 
These lists, when compared, will easily give the comparative results of each province, by which 
the responsible officials will be either rewarded or reproved accordingly. The annual statistics 
shall be sent to the Government Council, where they will be duly dealt with. In the city of 
Peking the police authorities, officers of gendarmerie, and the officials of the city are held 
responsible. If in any district opium smoking is stamped out before the expiry of the 10 years 
limit, the officials of that district should be duly rewarded. The petty officials are to be 
warned to have no irregularities in reducing the area in which the poppy is cultivated, in 
issuing certificates for opium shops and shops where opium and opium dross are sold, or 
in dealing with those who smoke opium. Any such irregularity will be followed by severe 
punishment, and any who receive bribes will be punished on a charge of the crime of fraud. 

Article 9. 

The officials are strictly prohibited from smoking opium, so as to set example to others. 
The prohibition within 10 years is for the general public. The officials shall be examples to 
common people, and, therefore, they shall stop such bad habits before the general public ; and 
such prohibitions shall be strictly enforced upon the officials, and the punishments upon them 
shall be more severe. From now all officials, without distinction of rank, metropolitan or 
provincial, military or civil, who are over 60 and suffering from opium-smoking habits, are 
exempted from the prohibition just as are the common people, for they are too far gone for 
cure. However, those who have not reached 60 years of age, princes, dukes, men of title, high 
metropolitan officials, Tartar Generals, Viceroys, Governors, Deputy Lieutenant Military 



82 International Opium Commission 

Governors, the Provincial Commanders-in-Chief, as well as Brigadier Generals, being all officials 
who are well treated by the Throne and high in rank and position, are not allowed to conceal 
their affairs, and if they smoke opium, they shall report themselves and the dates when they 
should stop the same. During the cure of the habit these officials shall not retire from their 
official duties. IMoreover, they shall not be allowed to take opium under the pretence of illness 
longer than the terms promised. The rest of the officials in metropolitan or provincial service, 
either military or civil, substantive or expectant, shall report themselves to their principal 
officials in regard to these matters, and they shall cease to smoke within six months, at the end 
of which time they will be examined. If there are any who cannot be cured in time, they shall 
give reasons; and if they are hereditary, they shall retire, and if they be ordinary officials, they 
will retire with original titles retained. If any conceal their actual conditions, such officials 
shall be impeached and be summarily cashiered as a warning to others. If there are any who 
are misreported by higher officials, they may memorialise and the case will be tried accordingly. 
Those who are professors and students of ordinary schools and colleges, or of military or naval 
schools and colleges, are also hereby ordered to cease smoking within six months from date. 

Article io. 

The prohibition of the import of foreign opium is one of the ways to root out the source 
of opium smoking. The prohibition of cultivation of the poppy and of the opium-smoking 
habit is within the jurisdiction of the internal administrations. Foreign opium, however, 
concerns Foreign Powers. The Wai-wu Pu is hereby instructed to negotiate with the British 
Minister to Peking to enter into a convention to prohibit the importation of opium gradually 
within a certain term of years, so as to stop such importations before the term for the prohibition 
of opium smoking. Opium is imported from Persia, Annam, Dutch Colonies, and other places 
besides India, and the Wai-\\-u Pu shall also open negotiations with the Ministers of these Treaty 
Powers. In case of a Power where there is no treaty, China can prohibit the importation by 
her own laws. The Tartar Generals, Lieutenant Generals, Viceroys, and Governors shall order 
the Commissioners of Customs to find a way to stop such importation from the frontiers either 
by water or by land. It is also known that morphia is injected, and the habit is worse than 
opium smoking. It is mentioned in Article XI in the Anglo-Chinese Commercial Treaty, and in 
Article i6 of the American Chinese Commercial Treaty, that except for medical purposes no 
morphia shall be imported to China, and it is also strictly prohibited to sell or manufacture 
morphia or syringes for injecting the same by Chinese or foreign shops, so as to stop the 
bad habit. 

These Regulations shall be promulgated by the local civil and military officials in cities, 
towns, and villages for the information of the general public. 



Appendix ]?. — No. 2. 



MEMORIAL BY THE MINLSTRV (JV THE INTERIOR PROPOSING REGULATIONS FOR STRICT 
SUPERVISION OVER ANTI-OPIUM MEASURES AND FOR CAREFUL INVESTIGATION 
INTO THE DEGREE OF SUCCESS ATTAINED THEREBY. 

On the 20th day, 2nd moon (22nd March) the Grand Secretariat received the following 
Imperial P>lict: — 

" We are in receipt of the Memorial of the Wai-wu Pu setting forth the arrangements 
made with the Foreign Powers for the suppression of opium and suggesting measures for raising 
revenue to make up the loss of opium duties. 

"Since the consumption of opium has become general, it has played disastrous havoc 
among the people. Those who are addicted to opium smol<ing waste their money and property 
shorten their lives, become habitually idle, and neglect their work. Moreover, numerous cases 
of suicide by taking opium occur in the provinces every year. It is also the cause of much 
theft and litigation. It violates nature's productive principal and is much to be deplored. 

"It furthermore weakens the people of our ancient Empire and wrecks their ambitions, 
rendering the work of national regeneration almost hopeless. 

"Recently the officials, gentry, literati, and people have been awakened to the danger 
of this vice and have formed societies to aid the people to get rid of it. Even smokers reproach 
themselves and resolve to get rid of it. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 83 

"Even foreign philanthropists have organised societies to preach against the opium 
trathc and its cultivation, besides prescribing cures for the craving. They deeply deplore the 

tact that China is not rid of opium. How much more, then, should those who arc personally 
mjured by opium smoking vigorously determine to eradicate the evil habit? 

"Since the issuance of the Imperial Edict promulgating the Anti-Opium Regulations 
and fixing 10 years as the limit of time for carr\Miig out opium suppression, the British Govern- 
metit has agreed to the reduction of opium importation year by year, and other friendly Powers 
have also assured Us of their support. This has given Us much satisfaction. Great Britain 
has not put the reduction of opium import into operation, and it is agreed that it shall be 
experimentall)' carried out for three years. If substantial decrease in the plantation and 
consumption of native opium in China should be observable at the expiry of this period, 
then the import would be further reduced. 

" Unless we try our best to suppress opium smoking and cultivation, three years will 
ere long have elapsed and we shall have accomplished nothing in return for the good intentions 
of the friendly nations or the pains taken by the foreign philanthropists in the matter. This 
opportunit}- once lost will not return, and should we allow ourselves to be for ever hindered 
with this curse, we shall not be able to stand as a nation. In thinking of this, how ashamed 
and discomforted should we the whole nation feel, and how much ought we to blame ourselves. 

" Let the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Finance formulate without delay 
regulations for supervising anti-opium measures and investigating the successful results in 
carrying out such measures. Our consent to put them into general practice should then be 
obtained. 

"At the same time let Viceroys and Governors of the different provinces direct their 
subordinates to carry out the anti-opium measures as memorialised by the Council of State 
Affairs and sanctioned by Imperial Decree, and report on the actual steps taken to reduce 
plantation and smoking. A statistical report of this reduction should be sent Us at the end 
of each year. The Ministry of Finance will consider means as to find the money to make up 
for the opium duties. 

" As this is a matter affecting the strength or weakness of the nation and the longevity 
of its people, let all officials, metropolitan and provincial, together unite to carry it out 
effectively in spite of all difficulties, in order that opium may be entirely suppressed within the 
fixed limit of time." 

With reference to the above Edict, the Memorialists Ministry would observe that the 
success of the prohibition depends on the strictness of the rules and regulations and proper 
supervision of their enforcement. In order to prevent all malpractices such as deception and 
subterfuge, it would be necessary to draw up minute regulations for the supervision of opium 
suppression and for ascertaining the degree of success attained. 

It is most important at the beginning of opium suppression to ascertain the area in 
riioii under cultivation and to arrange for its reduction at intervals, as this affects the root of 
the matter. To ascertain the number of smokers, close all opium dens, and restrict the traffic 
should then immediately follow. 

■This Ministry will draw up regulations as above mentioned for Imperial sanction and 
for adoption by the Viceroys and Governors of all the provinces, who are to report results to 
the Ministry. They should also study local conditions with the view of curtailing the period 
in which to enforce total prohibition. 

The rewards for success attained in opium suppression as mentioned in the regulations 
are merely broad ideas, the details being left to the Ministry of Civil Office, who will decide 
on a uniform scale. Any high official smoking opium shall be dealt with by the Anti-Opium 
Commissioners. 

The above is submitted by the Ministry of the Interior, in which the Ministry of 
Finance joins. 

The following regulations in 23 Articles are submitted for approval. (Approved by 
Decree on the 24th day, 4th moon, 34th year of KUANG HstJ (23rd May, 1908.) 

Section I. — Reduction of Plantation. 

Art. I. — All the provincial authorities shall direct the local officials to ascertain and 
make returns within six months of the area in mou of land on which poppy is planted in their 
jurisdiction, with the name of owner and the amount of crop, and submit them to their 
Viceroys and Governors for transmission to the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Interior 
to be kept for reference. 



84 International Opium Commission 

Art. 2. — The limit of 10 years in which to enforce prohibition is reckoned from the 
32nd year of KuANG Hsu. The reduction of plantation in the provinces should be carried 
out according to the regulations of the Council of State Afifairs approved by the Throne. No 
land on which poppy has hitherto not grown shall be allowed to be planted with poppy. ^ The 
amount of land which has hitherto grown poppy shall annually be reduced by one-eighth, 
based on the returned figures for the 34th year of KUANG Hsu. The plantation of poppy 
should be eradicated by the 41st year of KUANG Hsu. Reports from time to time should be 
made to the Ministry, giving particulars of the land on which, instead of poppy, something 
else has been planted. 

Art. 3. — The provincial authorities should print licenses permitting plantation of 
poppy, to be given to planters by the local officials, and to be renewed every year. All 
clandestine plantation without licenses shall be interdicted. Planters on applying for a 
license shall pay a fee of 150 cash per mou, in addition to which nothing extra should 
be exacted. 

Section II. — Opium Farms. 

Art. 4. — Since a farm duty on native opium has been instituted, opium farms have 
been established in Anhwei, Honan, Shansi, and other provinces. Their licenses are granted 
by the sub-office of the Opium Duty Bureau, in conjunction with the local authorities, without 
charge. They are responsible for the payment of duty on all opium. All retail shops must 
purchase and planters must sell their opium through them or the transaction will be illegal, 
Stores must also collect opium through the farms, and are not permitted to do so direct from 
the villages. 

The farms will enter into books the quantities of opium collected from the villages, 
and present the books from time to time to the Bureau's sub-offices for inspection. On any 
customer buying opium for transportation elsewhere the required duty will be paid through 
the farm. 

All provinces should establish these farms, and the Duty Bureau's sub-offices should 
issue to the farms printed books, in which should be entered daily the quantity of opium dealt in 
in catties and taels, with the dealers names. These books are to be submitted to the Bureau's 
sub-offices for returns to be compiled and submitted at the end of the year to the Director 
General of the opium farm, to enable him to compile a general and concise table, showing the 
reduction in the native opium traffic every year, and present it to the Ministries concerned 
to be placed on record. 

With regard to the opium in the provinces of Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow, New 
Dominions, and Manchuria, which are not under the control of the Farm Dut}' Collectorate, 
the Viceroys or Governors in the respective provinces should follow the same plan. Stores 
collecting opium should also be given a license free by the sub-office of the Opium Duty 
Bureau and the local officials, as proof to enable them to collect the opium through the farm. 
Without a license, they should not be permitted to do so, and any violation when discovered 
should be fined. 

Section III. — Opium Shops. 

Art. 5. — Orders should be given by all provinces to the local officials to ascertain 
throughout their jurisdiction the number of opium shops existing, with their addresses, amount 
of capital, and names of owners, and to make returns within six months for submission to their 
respective Viceroys or Governors to be presented to the Ministries for record. No more new 
shops of this nature are allowed to be opened. 

Art. 6. — The provincial authorities should print licenses for dealing in opium, to be 
given to retail opium shops by the local authorities, and to be renewed every year. Any 
retail shop opened without a license shall be prohibited. On application for such license, 
opium shops are divided into three classes — ist, 2nd, and 3rd — according to their amount of 
capital. Capital of $10,000 or over to be ist class, and to pay an annual fee of $6 ; under 
$10,000 and over $S,000 to be 2nd class, to pay an annual fee of $4 ; and under $5,000 to be 
3rd class, to pay an annual fee of $2. No other exactions of any amount should be made. 

Art, 7. — All retail opium-shops shall report monthly to the yamen concerned the 
actual quantity sold. They shall neither falsely report this quantity nor sell to any person not 
licensed. The yamen concerned will at the end of the year compile returns and submit them 
to the Viceroys and Governors, who will transmit them to the Ministries for record. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 85 

Art. 8. — A time shall be fixed for the retail opium shops to engage themselves in other 
trades, which they should undertake gradually in place of the opium business, so as to entirely 
supplant it within the limited period. 

Section IV. — Opium Houses. 

Art. 9. — In the 33nd year of KuANG Hsu the Council of State Affairs obtained 
Imperial sanction that all public opium houses should be closed by the local authorities in six 
months and they should be made to take up other business. Any remaining houses or tea- 
shops, restaurants, and brothels having opium divans should be prohibited on heavy fines. 

Section V.— Opium Paraphernalia. 

Art. io. — The Council of State Affairs obtained Imperial sanction to close all shops 
making opium paraphernalia in six months. This period having expired, the Viceroys and 
Governors should order all their subordinates to strictly enforce the prohibition. 

Section VI. — Smoking. 

Art. II. — -The provincial authorities should give general orders to their subordinates 
to ascertain correctly, within a fixed time, the number of smokers in their jurisdiction, with 
their names, addresses, and age, and submit them at the end of the year to their Viceroys and 
Governors for transmission to the Ministries for record purposes. 

Art. 12. — The provincial authorities should print licenses for purchase of opium, to be 
issued to smokers and renewed yearly. All smoking without license shall be prohibited. 
Smokers on apphcation for a license shall state truly the quantity they smoke a day, which is 
to be stated in the license. They are only allowed to buy the fixed amount or less, but no 
more, so that within the limited time their smoking may be broken off. 

Section VII. — Curing the Opium Habit. 

Art. 13. — The provincial authorities shall give general orders to the local authorities 
to establish official Anti-Opium Institutes, which will prepare medicines according to the foreign 
and Chinese prescriptions issued by the Ministry of the Interior, and send them to druggists 
and philanthropic institutions for sale at cost price. Poor people who are unable to pay for 
them will be supplied free. If any one conversant with therapeutics make up any other good 
medicine for curing the smoking habit, such prescription and medicine should be presented to 
the Viceroy or Governor of the province, who will transmit them to the Ministry of the Interior 
for examination. 

Art. 14. — All local officials should instruct reputable gentry and merchants in their 
jurisdictions to organise Anti-Opium Associations and to publish pamphlets and magazines in 
simple language to exhort people to break off opium smoking. These publications should not 
interfere with politics or subjects outside of their province. 

Art. 15. — All local officials should take steps to examine the medicines at all druggists 
in their respective jurisdictions and prohibit the sale of any of them found containing morphia. 
The sale of morphia surreptitiously is also to be prohibited. 

Section VIII. — Determination of Success. 

Art. 16.— All local officials who do not fail to submit the returns called for by these 
regulations shall, after every three years, be recommended to be referred to the Ministry for 
consideration of a reward. 

Art. 17. — All local officials who are found to have carried out the prohibitions set out in 
these regulations within due time shall be recommended by the Viceroys or Governors concerned 
to the Throne, to be referred to the Ministry for consideration of a reward. 

Art. 18. — All local officials who are found to have reduced the area of plantation of 
poppy in their district, the shops dealing in opium, or the number of smokers by 30 per cent, 
or over in a year, without any attending trouble, shall be recommended by their Viceroys or 
Governors to the Throne, to be referred to the Ministry for favourable consideration of a reward. 

Art. 19. — All local officials who fail to submit returns as called for by these regulations 
in due time shall be referred to the Ministry for determination of a penalty, and for mis- 
representation in the returns, for a severe penalty. 



86 International Opium Commission 

Art. 20. — All local officials who fail in enforcing prohibition of the various matters set 
out in these regulations within due time shall be referred to the Ministry for determination of a 
penalty, and for falsely representing that they have done so, shall be referred for a severe 
penalty, so also with superiors who connive at the offence. 

Art. 21. — All local officials who fail to reduce in their respective districts the area of 
plantation of poppy, the number of shops dealing in opium, and the number of smokers by 
one-eighth, in anyone year, shall be referred to the Ministry for determination of a severe 
penalt}'. 

Section IX.— Supplementary. 

Art. 22. — These regulations shall be adopted in conjunction with the regulations by the 
Council of State Affairs and sanctioned by the Throne. All the Viceroys and Governors may 
consider the requirements of local circumstances and obtain approval of the Throne to detail 
regulations in regard to operation. 

Art. 23. — Reports of the amounts of license fees fixed under these regulations shall be 
regularly submitted to the Ministry, so that the moneys may be appropriated for expenses in 
connexion with the opium prohibition. No other sums besides these fees shall be allowed to be 
exacted. If future circumstances warrant an increase in the fees, the Ministry of Finance and 
the Ministry of the Interior will jointly memorialise the Throne on the matter. 



Appendix B. — No. 3. 



MEMORIAL FROM THE MINISTERS APPOINTED FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF OPIUM FOR- 
WARDING TEN PROPOSED SUPERVISORV REGULATIONS FOR THE PROHIBITION OF OPIUM 
SMOKING. 

In obedience to the Edict of the 7th day, 3rd moon, 34th year of KuANG HsiJ, 
declaring that a strict surveillance over the prohibition of opium smoking is necessary, public 
houses are therefore to be established wherein opium smokers ma)' break off their habit within 
three months, under the regular supervision of inspectors. 

Tire great harm that opium has done to our Empire has lasted a long time, but to-day 
there must be a turning point. With this in view, a Decree was recently issued commanding 
}'our Ministers to establish institutes for the entire suppression of opium smoking in the capital, 
as an example for the whole Empire to follow. 

In order to effect a complete eradication of the opium evil, cultivation of the poppy 
must be discouraged, while in the breaking off of tiie smoking habit, officials should take the 
lead, so as to set a good example for the people to follow. 

Having received such great favours from Your Majesties, )'our Ministers cannot but use 
their best endeavours to supervise the prohibition of opium, regardless of resentment or com- 
plaint, with the hope that the eradication of opium may be effected at an earl)' date, if not at 
once, thereby mitigating Your Majesties anxiety. The appended 10 regulations have been 
drawn up for Your Majesties approval. 

Rescript dated the lOth day, 4th moon, 34th )'ear approves of same. 

I. Special Surveillance to be enforced. — All high officials in the capital of the second rank 
and upwards, and all high officials of the provinces abo\'e the rank of Commissioners, who have 
received such favours from their Majesties, should show a good example to their subordinates. 
Those who are accustomed to opium smoking ought to have long ago bi'oken off their habit in 
obedience to the Iinperial commands. Since a second order has been issued, all are required, 
whether they have got rid of the habit entirely or not, to report themselves, and if an)'one 
deceives the Throne, he also deceives himself Should anyone be discovered to have false!)' 
reported himself, a strict inquiry will be instituted against him, and the offender will be 
severe!)' punished. 

In the capital the inspectors are to prepare a list, within one month after receipt of 
the order, of all the opium smokers, while in the various proxinces the Viceroys, Governors, 
etc., are to find out, within two months after receipt of the order, the number of opium smol<ers 
and also of those who have given up the habit, which lists are to Idc sent to your Ministers. 
Whoever is suspected of smoking will be called upon to undergo a test whenever deemed 
necessary. 



Memorandum on Opium fkom China Hy 

2. Surveillance to be strictly carried oat. — Whoever lias given up the smoking habit 
cannot be sure that he has already done so until he has been tested by a doctor. He is there- 
fore required by the inspector to go to the opium refuge and remain there for not less than 
3 to 5 days nor more than 6 to 7 days, where he is provided with food, etc. He is to be under 
strict supervision, so that whether he has really broken off his habit or not can be easily detect- 
ed. A certificate will be given as soon as anyone has really broken off his smoking habit, so 
that he ma)- return to his duties again; but those who are not entirely rid of the habit are 
required to remain. Should any inspector be found conniving at opium smoking, he shall be 
severely dealt with, as well as the offender; but those who diligently attend to their duties, 
without showing the least favouritism, will be promoted as an encouragement. 

3. Institutes for Inspection to be established in all Provinces. — In supervising the 
suppression of opium smoking concerted action should be taken, as better result comes from 
uniformit)- of operation. It is therefore suggested that the Viceroys and Governors of all the 
provinces be written to and a copy of these Regulations sent them, with an order that institutes 
be established and reliable officers appointed over them for the inspection of opium smokers. 

Civil and military officials, both substantive or expectant, shall be under the supervision 
of the inspectors in charge of the institutes. Whenever there are suspicions against any official, 
his case should be carefully looked into, and should he not be able to get rid of his habit of 
smoking within the fixed limit of tiine, or should he have no intention of doing so, he is to be 
reported for impeachment, and no favour whatever is to be shown him. All cases are to be 
referred to your Ministers for investigation. Should any provinces be found without any 
institutes for the prohibition of opium smoking, your Ministers will report such negligence as 
soon as the matter comes under their cognizance. 

4. Stipervision to be carried out at fixed periods. — Should officials who are sent by their 
superiors to the institutes show suspicion of smoking, the inspector must compel them to come to 
the institute for examination within 10 days, if in the capital, and if in the provinces the time 
shall be fixed according to the distance from the institute. Failing in their attendance at the 
fixed period, they shall be suspended from duty pending sentence from the capital. 

5. Distribution of Forms in ivhicJi Particulars shall be filled. — Printed forms will be 
issued by the head institutes to the various )-amens in the provinces for them to fill in the 
particulars without any misrepresentations. As an example for others, your Ministers, as well 
as the officials of the institutes in the capital, have filled in all the particulars in these forms, 
which they have already submitted to the Grand Council for transmission. All the high officials 
of the various yamens in the capital, as well as all high officials in the provinces above the rank 
of Taotai, shall fill in these forms within one month after receipt of same, which are to be re- 
turned to the head institute for reference. Failing to send in these forms within the time fixed, 
they will be reported for impeachment, and should any official be guilty of evasion or of non- 
compliance, he shall be reported for cashierment according to his rank. 

6. Suggestion for prohibiting the Cultivation of Poppy under severe Penalties. — Your 
Ministers have received Imperial commands to establish institutes for the suppression of opium 
smoking, but prohibition of the cultivation of poppy is even mure urgent, which measure must 
be enforced throughout the country in order to make the reform complete. Besides the 
measures taken by your Ministers for the inspection of all officials, with a view of making them 
get rid of their habit, your Ministers request that an Edict be again issued enjoining the 
Viceroys and Governors of all the provinces to carry out the 10 regulations which have been 
approved, and also put a stop to the cultivation of poppy, in order to effect its complete 
eradication.. Inquiry shall be made as to the quantity of opium produced within their 
jurisdiction, and whether its cultivation is to be reduced gradually in several years or altogether 
at once. Honest and impartial gentries shall be appointed to go round exhorting the people 
to discontinue the cultivation of opium. Such work must not be placed in the hands of \'anien 
runners, for in waging such a crusade against opium we must tak-e care not to entail an)- 
trouble on the people. Besides the cultivation of grain in lieu of opium, the cultivation of 
other commodities, such as tea, mulberry, wood oil, varnish, etc, shall be encouraged, so as to 
make up the loss in their income. Vicero\'s and Governors of all provinces shall be called 
upon from time to time to instruct their local authorities to carry out the above reforms with 
their whole heart, so as to achieve real success. 

7. All Anti-Opiuui Medicines to be prepared in consultation with the i\ finis try of the 
Interior.— TUf^. present Edict commanding the establishment of institutes calls for the inspection 
of officials. Opium smoking, however, cannot be broken off exclusively by doctors without 



s 



88 International Opium Commission 

the help of anti-opium medicines. As hospitals have been established by the Ministry of the 
Interior both in the capital and the provinces, anti-opium medicines can be prepared by the 
hospital doctors for general distribution. Other anti-opium medicines will be prepared from 
time to time for distribution in the most economical way. 

8. Discrimination between the Officials and Commoners. — All officials in the capital and 
provinces shall be under the charge of your Ministers as far as regards inspection of opium 
smoking, while the suppression of opium will be carried out by the Ministry of the Interior 
among the people in the capital. In the case of the gentry and people in the provinces, the 
suppression of opium will be conducted by the Ministry of the Interior in concert with the 
Vicero)'s and Governors of the various provinces. 

9. Bond to be required. — All officials, other than those already holding substantive 
posts, are, on being appointed to office, required to offer a bond, guaranteed by their colleagues, 
that they are not opium smokers. Such officials cannot mutually guarantee each other, to 
prevent fraud. 

10. Rewards to be issued to Anti-Opium Institutes. — The names of all promoters of 
Anti-Opium Institutes, and doctors who are interested in the suppression of opium in the various 
provinces, are to be reported for record. Those in charge of institutes where a large number 
of persons have been cured of their smoking habit are to be reported by the Viceroys for the 
bestowal of brevet ranks, honorific titles, medals, etc., as rewards, but such rewards must 
conform with the regulations of the Ministry of Appointments. 



Appendix B. — No. 4. 



REGULATIONS ISSUED BY THE MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR IN REGARD TO 
LICENSES FOR PURCHASING OPIUM. 

I. — These regulations are based on what has been memorialised to the Throne, and 
before anyone is permitted to purchase opium (prepared or raw) printed licenses are to be 
first obtained. 

II. — Opium licenses are divided into two kinds, raw and prepared opium licenses, 
which are to be renewed every three months. 

III. — Opium smokers are to apply personall}' for the license from the nearest station 
not later than , after which date no licenses will be granted. 

IV. — After the date of issuing the licenses, anyone who purchases prepared or raw, 
opium must present the license. 

V. — When applying for a license, one has to give the following particulars: name, age 
family home, business address, and the quantit)- of opium taken dail)'. Failing to give full 
information, no license will be granted. 

VI. — -When getting a license for prepared or raw opium, it is necessary to pay a license 
fee, calculated on the quantity taken daily, e.g. — 

For 5 candareens 5 cents. 

.,10 „ 10 „ 

Above the quantity of i mace, the rate will be charged in due proportion. 

VII. — Those who are not habitual smokers are not to pretend to be such with the 
view uf (Obtaining a license for the buying of opium for others. 

VIII. — Holders of a license should observe the following details : — • 

1. When buying opium, it is compulsory to carr)- the license. 

2. On every occasion of purchasing, the license should be handed to the 

shopkeeper for recording the quantity bought, and stamped by a chop of 
said shop. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 89 

3. From the date of issuing license, smokers should reduce yearly at least 

one-eighth of the quantity the\' take daily. 

4. At the expiration of the license the holder must bring it to the station 

concerned to be renewed. 

5. The license holder may, at his option, purchase opium for several days or for 

one month, but the quantity can in no case exceed what is allowed for 
three months. 

6. The Ucense will not ha\e any retrospective value for L;elling opium. 

7. Those who obtain a license for buying prepared opium are not allowed to buy 

raw opium, and vice versa. It cannot be altered, even at the time of 
renewing the license. 

8. If opium dross is taken in exchange for prepared opium, it is necessary to 

present a license, in which the quantity obtained therewith is to be entered. 

IX. — In spite of having obtained a license, it is forbidden to place opium-smoking 
appliances in drinking houses, brothels, etc., and holders are not allowed to smoke in such 
quarters. 

X. — With the exception of those staying in hotels, strangers who arrive in the capital 
can at any time report themselves to the station concerned, and a license will be issued after 
inquiries made prove them to be satisfactory. 

XI. — Travellers who are residing in hotels can purchase opium after obtaining a license 
from the station concerned. 

XII. — Hotel-keepers should inform strangers of the regulations and apply for a license 
for them. 

XIII. — -Licenses for travellers hold good for one month, and the fee charged will be 
calculated on the same basis as the foregoing table. 

XIV. — Licenses for travellers will serve for purchasing prepared opium only. 

XV. — Travellers who apply for a license should observe the following : — 

1. Anyone applying for a traveller's license should provide a statement giving his 

name, age, family home, and the quantity of opium taken daily, verified by 
the chop of the hotel. Without a chop, licenses will not be issued. 

2. When a traveller arrives at a late hour, he is allowed to smoke until the next 

day, to enable him to have time to apply for a license. Anyone who 
obtains no license on the next day after his arrival will be fined and 
punished. 

2. When a traveller leaves the capital, the hotel-keeper should present his license 
to the station concerned for cancellation. 

4. When leaving the capital, should a traveller want to get opium for use on his 
journey, the quantity allowed will in no case exceed that for three days. 

XVI. — If a license has been lost, a duplicate may be obtained from the station 
concerned. The original one will then be cancelled. 

XVII. — After the death of a holder the license should be handed, by his relatives or 
others, to the station concerned for cancellation. 

XVIII. — -Anyone who breaks Regulations VIII (paragraphs 2, 5, 6, and 7) and XV 
(paragraphs 2 and 3) shall be punished with imprisonment not exceeding five days and not 
less than one day, or fined not exceeding $5 or less than $r. He who breaks Regulations 
VII, XIV, and XVII shall be punished with 10 days or not less than five days imprisonment, 
or fined not exceeding $10 or less than $5. Any violation of Regulation IX will cause the 
hotel-keeper and the smoker to be fined $30. 



go International Opium Commission 

{^Continuation of Regulations adopted by the Ministry of the Interior 
in regard to Licenses for purchasitig Opiuin?\ 

REGULATIONS FOR DEALERS IN PREPARED AND RAW OPIU-M. 

I. — The object of these regulations is to place a limit on the sale of prepared and 
raw opium. 

2. — Dealers in prepared or raw opium should apply for a license of the kind to be dealt 
with, and this license should be renewed once a year. No opium-shop will be allowed to open 
without first obtaining a license. Dealers when applying for a license should give these 
particulars: name of the .shop and proprietor, address, amount of capital, sale of raw opium 
(or both prepared and raw), and the actual balance in stock. 

3. — Dealers in prepired or raw opium who apply for a license have to p.iy a )'early fee, 
which is calculated on the amount of their capital : — 

Capital above $10,000 Fee, $6 

$ S.ooo „ $4 

,, under ,, „ $2 

4. — Dealers are not allowed to do other business beside selling opium. 

5. — Dealers who have changed their birsiness will be given three months time to ;_;'«[ 
rid of their balance of stock before having their license withdrawn and cancelled. 

6. — Dealers whose capital is under Th. 1,000 are to have their business closed and to 
take up another trade. 

7. — No new opium-shops are allowed to be opened. Existing shops are not to change 
names and addresses. Those who have their business closed should hand in their license for 
cancellation, without the option of handing it over to successors. 

8. — Dealers should report to the central station the quantit\' of foreign or native opium 
they import into Peking. 

9. — Foreign or native opium, when sold in wholesale or retail to customers, should be 
accompanied by a certificate, the form of which will be issued b\- the central station. The 
counterfoils are to be presented for inspection once a month. Foreign or native opium 
transported without certificates will be treated as smuggled articles. 

10. — Smokers are [)i-rivided with a license, attached to which a record of the quantity 
of opium purchased is to be kept up to date Liy the seller. 

II. — Beside keeping up the record attached to the license, shopkeepers are to prepare 
a journal for inspection. 

12. — After filling in the qu;intit_\' sold on the record form of the license, shopkeepers 
ha\'e to affix: their chops on the same. 

13. — Shopkeepers shall be fined and punished for any of the irregularities mentioned 
belnw : — 

.Selling opium to anyone without a license; taking no notice of the quantil\- he 
should bu\' ; or neglecting the dut)- of keeping up the record. 

14. — No opium is to be sold to an\'one whose license has expired, or to one who has 
a) read)' obtained his full fixed supp]\', 

15. — When opium ash is to be taken to be exchanged for opium, the quantity supplied 
should also be filled in the remarks column of the license. Without a license, opium ash is 
not to be accepted for exchange. 

16. — Dealers should make a monthl}' return of opium purchased and sold for the 
archives of the central station. 

17. — A list of the market prices of different kinds of raw and prepared opium should 
be [)osted up at the counter of the shop for the information of the public. 

18. — Opium pipes are not allowed to be kept in dealers shops. Shopmen who are 
addicted to the opium habit, and have even obtained a license, are forbidden to smoke in their 
opium shops. 



Mkmokandum on Opium from China 91 

Appendix B. — No. 5. 



PROPOSAL liV THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE TO INVF.STICATE THE ACTUAL CONDITION 

OF THE SUPPRESSION OF OPIUM CULTIVATION. 

Some time ago the Ministry of Finance received a communication fi-oni Ko Fll;Nf;-SHlH, 
C^ommissioner of the Native Opium CDUsolidated Tax, inquiring as to when the branch tax 
offices in the provinces may be abolished. The Ministry has repHed that thi.s inatter will 
depend upon the degree of success attained by the various provinces in the suppression of 
opium. In the provinces of Kiangsi, Anliwei, Honan, Shantung, and Shansi it has been decided 
that no opium shall be cultivated next year. Those who have already planted their winter 
crops ma_\-, however, reap them next spring. In the fear that some among the people, in their 
desire for gain, may continue clandestinely to plant the poppy, it is necessary that in the 3rd 
and 4th months of next year, when the crops have come up, the matter shall be investigated 
ever}'\vhere in order to ascertain its real condition. It is proposed by the Ministry, therefore, 
that when the time arrives // ivill appoint special officials to travel tlirough the various districts 
for tJie purpose of inspectioti. If any local officials are found indifferent in the matter of opium 
suppression, they, together with tlie superior authorities, shall be handed to the Ministry 
concerned for the determination of penalties, in accordance with the fixed regulations. On the 
other hand, those officials who have thoroughly carried out the orders for opium suppression 
shall be recommended for the bestowal of rewards, as an encouragement to others. The ques- 
tion whether the branch tax offices in the provinces shall be abolished or not will be decided 
after the receipt of the report from the special officials to be appointed to tour the provinces 
for the purpose of investigation. 



Appendix B. — No. 6. 



MEMORIAL FROM THE GOVERNMENT COUNCIL REPORTING ON A PROPOSAL PA' 
VICEROV HSI LIANG FOR THE PROMPT TOTAL SUPPRESSION OF OPIUM. 

On the 3rd day of the 3rd month copy of a Memorial from Viceroy Hsi LlANG, of the 
Vun-Kwei provinces, advocating tiie total suppression of opium within a short period, was 
handed to us by the Grand Council, with the Imperial command that we should consider and 
report on the same. 

According to the memorialist Hsi LlANG, after his arrival in Yunnan, he forthwith 
issued instructions to his subordinates to carry out our measures of opium suppression, and 
these measures, except in the remote districts near the borders, were to a large extent successful. 
He also states that in the opinion of the people the limit of time allowed for total suppression 
is too long. He recommends that, taking advantage of the present opportunity, when the 
popular mind is so eager for reform, the time limit should be greatly reduced, so that smokers 
shall cease the habit and farmers shall stop growing native opium by the end of this year. 
At the same time, the sale of opium will also not be permitted after this year, so that beginning 
from the first of next year tliere will be no more smoking, sale, or cultivation of opium 
throughout the whole country. 

With reference to the above we beg to observe that, owing to the great importance 
which our Government attaches to the question of opium suppressicjn. Edicts of the most strmgent 
character have been repeatedly issued against smokers. The object of fixing the limit of 
time at 10 years has regard to the difference of local conditions and the var\'ing progress of 
the people, the idea being to avoid undue severity and to manifest the clemency of the 
Government. Nevertheless, it is set forth most clearly in the first and eighth articles of the 
adopted regulations, that wherever local officials succeed in totally suppressing opium within the 
10 years limit, they shall receive a reward; so that the wish on the part of the Government for 
a prompt suppression of opium is known to all, and should be carried out accordingly. In the 
matter of reducing the area of popp)' plantation, instructions have been repeatedly sent to the 
various provinces to have this carried out and submit returns to the Ministry concerned ; but 
although a \'ear has since elapsed, only a few provinces have submitted reports. In view of the 
great extent of China's territor}', it is inevitable that many localities should be given over to 
poppy cultivation, and unless strict investigation be made as to the actual reduction of 



92 International Opium Commission 

production, it would be vain to hope for eradication of the evil. Instructions should therefore 
be sent to the high authorities of all the provinces that they carry out the regulations proposed 
by the Government Council, and approved by the Throne, by ordering the officials under their 
jurisdiction to conduct a personal inspection of the localities devoted to poppy plantation. In 
those localities where opium production is prevalent, the elders should warn the people as to the 
seriousness of the situation and order them to plant grain in lieu of opium. This matter, however, 
should be carried out by exhortation as well as by prohibition. After returns of the reduction 
of production have been made out and submitted, the high authorities of each province should 
send officers annually to verify the returns, and rewards or penalties should be given to the 
local officials in accordance with their merit. At the same time, returns are to be sent to 
the Ministry concerned for facility of reference. An understanding has been made that the 
importation of foreign opium is to be gradually decreased for three years, and if at the expiry of 
this period China has made substantial progress in reducing the production and consumption of 
opium, the importation will be further decreased. This is, therefore, of the greatest importance, 
and it will depend on the results to be accomplished by the different provinces. 

The province of Yunnan being noted for its earnestness in the matter of opium suppres- 
sion, it is natural to expect that it will not require lO years for its accomplishment. This matter, 
however, rests entirely with the Viceroy of that province. 

Rescript dated the 22nd day, 4th moon, 34th year of KUANG Hsu approves of the above. 



Appendix B. — No. 7. 



MEMORIAL BY THE BOARD OF LAWS AND THE IMPERIAL COMMISSIONERS FOR LAW 
REFORM REPORTING ON A MEMORIAL BY THE GOVERNOR OF KIANGSU RECOMMENDING 
THE ENACTMENT OF SPECIAL PENAL LAWS AGAINST THE SALE OF MORPHIA. 

(Extract from the Official Gazette of joth July, igo6.) • 

On the 14th December, 1907 a Memorial was submitted by Ch'EN chih-t'ai Governor 
of Kiangsu, in which he proposed that special laws should be laid down providing for the 
punishment of those convicted of selling morphia or of manufacturing needles for its injection. 
In accordance with the Imperial Rescript, " Let the proper department consider the matter 
and report," the Memorial was referred to the Board of Laws. 

The Memorial of the Governor was as follows: — 

" Morphia contains poisonous substances fatal to human life, but foreigners use it in 
compounding medicines for treating certain diseases, and its use has now spread to China, 
where it is taken by injection to satisfy the craving for opium. Its effects are verj' similar to 
those produced by opium, but whilst there is more chance of curing the opium habit, when 
recourse has once been had to morphia its use cannot be abandoned, and as time goes on, and 
more injections are constantly made, the whole body finally becomes corrupted and death 
ensues. In view of the fact that this drug is still more pernicious than opium, clauses were inserted 
in the commercial treaties with Great Britain and America prohibiting its importation except 
under special Customs permit and for medical purposes, and the lOth Article of the Rules for the 
Prohibition of Opium, submitted to the Throne by the Government Council last year, provided 
that instructions should be sent to Customs authorities to call attention to this treaty provision, 
and that shopkeepers, whether native or foreign, should be strictly prohibited from manufactur- 
ing morphia or instruments for its injection. 

"Unfortunately there are still unprincipled persons who, in their greed for gain, delude 
people into using morphia, and as all the opium saloons have been closed owing to the enforce- 
ment of the prohibition of opium, and the poorer people cannot procure the utensils for opium 
smoking, when they find that they can satisfy their craving with morphia at a fraction of the 
cost there are few with sufficient strength of mind to resist doing so. This being the case 
in Kiangsu the same conditions are probably to be found in other provinces, and it therefore 
appears advisable that special laws should be provided so that one man's punishment may act 
as a deterrent to a hundred others. 

" By law it is an offence punishable with decapitation to manufacture or cause others to 
manufacture poisons dangerous to human life, and further, if a man be poisoned, the seller, if 
aware of the purpose for which the poison was bought, is liable to the same penalty as the 
murderer. Now if a person manufactures morphia, which is poisonous in its effects, and sells it 
to another to satisfy his craving for opium, if the latter finally dies through inability to abandon 



Memorandum on Opium from China 93 

the use of morphia, the case is really similar to that of a man who manufactures poison 
for the purpose of committing murder. The law formerly in existence against opium provided 
for the death penalty, and as morphia is much more dangerous than opium the death penalty 
in accordance with the law against the manufacture of poisons would not be excessive. As, 
however, the object of its manufacture is not murder but gain, and as, too, the victims of the 
craving voluntarily bring their death upon themselves, the conditiuns are somewhat different, 
and I would therefore venture to suggest the Board of Laws should be directed to consult 
with the Commissioners for Law Reform with a view to drawing up special enactment on the 
subject." 

We were instructed by Imperial Decree to report on this Memorial, and have the 
honour to observe, in the first place, that morphia is a natural salt, forming the essential 
constituent of opium, from which it is extracted by chemical processes and made into 
medicines for treating diseases. It possesses the property of producing sleep, whence its 
name morphia, from Morpheus, the god of sleep, is derived, and its effects are still more 
powerful than those of opium. 

Last year an Imperial Decree was issued ordering the entire abolition of opium, and 
the regulations prepared by the Government Council contained a provision that arrangements 
should be made for the prohibition of the import of foreign opium, so that the evil might be 
cut off at the source. It was also provided that as morphia and the instruments for its 
injection were still more injurious than opium, full effect should be given to the iith Article 
of the British Commercial Treaty and the i6th of the American Treaty, and instructions be 
given to the Customs to prohibit the importation of any morphia not covered by a special 
permit and imported for medical purposes. Shopkeepers, whether native or foreign, should 
also be strictly forbidden to manufacture morphia or instruments for its injection, so that this 
evil might be completely eradicated. 

These regulations were sanctioned by the Throne and circulated, but in spite of the 
stringent nature of this prohibition, it appears that there are still unprincipled persons who 
delude people into using morphia, and the trade has not been entirelv' suspended. The prohi- 
bition of opium is now being enforced; opium saloons have been closed; and the poorer classes 
having no other means of allaying their craving have recourse to morphia, being attracted 
thereto in the first place by its cheapness. As time goes on their consumption of morphia 
constantly increases and they cannot abandon its use, their system becomes full of the poison, 
and in the end their bodies becoine covered with sores from the injecting needles and th^ir 
health is ruined. Seeing that the evils of morphia are so difficult to avoid even now before 
opium has been entirely eradicated, after the abolition of opium it is to be feared there will 
be still greater danger of falling a victim thereto, and we shall merely shift from Scylla to 
Charybdis. 

The Governor's suggestion that a special enactment against morphia, founded on the 
law against the manufacture of poisons, should be laid down, springs from an earnest desire to 
extirpate the evil and preserve the lives of the people. The original law against the manufac- 
ture of poisons provided that whether any person was actually killed or not the maker was 
liable to decapitation, the punishment being thus more severe than in the case of ordinary 
homicide, on the ground that this class of criminal made murder their trade. Now in the case 
of those persons manufacturing instruments for the injection of inorphia and selling them to 
people for the purpose of satisfying their craving for opium, the maker is on the same footing 
as a person manufacturing poisons, but as his object is merely gain, and not murder, and as, 
moreover, the victims of the craving bring about their own death, the conditions are, as the 
Governor has pointed out, somewhat different, and justice requires that the law should be 
made slightly less severe. 

As regards the sale of morphia by shops, the Customs should be directed to enforce the 
provisions of the British and American treaties prohibiting the import of morphia except under 
special permit for medical purposes, and a punishment must be fixed for any evil-disposed 
persons in the interior who may conspire to carry on an illicit trade in the drug. A person 
who knowingly sells poison is liable to the same punishment as the actual murderer, and 
a person who sells morphia, knowing its poisonous properties, should therefore be liable to the 
same punishment as the man who manufactures the instruments of its injections. Again, under 
the now obsolete law against opium, the person preparing and the person .selling the drug were 
liable to the same punishment — strangulation,— and therefore, although the death penalty 
need not be decreed either against the person making instruments for the injection of morphia 
or the person selling the drug, the two classes of offenders should be treated as being on the 
same footing. 



94 International Opium Commission 

After cat-efnl deliberation we venture to recommend that those convicted of manufactur- 
ing instruments for the injection of morphia should be sentenced in accordance with the law 
against the manufacture of poisons, the punishment being reduced from decapitation to banish- 
ment to the most remote and unhealthy regions of the Empire; those convicted of selling 
morphia except under a special Customs permit being liable to the same punishment in accord- 
ance with the law against knowingly selling poisons, and their shops will also be confiscated. 

We would also pray that instructions be sent to the Customs authorities to enforce the 
treaty provisions and put a stop to smuggling, so that the evil may be cut off at is root, 
and when definite regulations have been laid down we trust that the people will reverently 
obey them and that the prohibition of opium may then become really effective. 

On receipt of Imperial sanction the Board will issue the necessary instructions^ to the 
Governor of Kiangsu, as well as the high authorities of other provinces, the Revenue Council, 
the High Court of Justice, and the Governor of Peking. 

This Memorial has been drafted by the Board of Laws after consultation with the 
Imperial Commissioners for Law Reform, and the delay in submitting it has been due to the 
time required for exchanging correspondence on the subject. 

On the 1 6th July the following Imperial Decree was issued: "Approved." 



Appendix C. — No. i. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY THE ACTING PREFECT OF FOOCHOW: DATED KUANG 
HSiJ, 32ND YEAR, IITH MOON, 29TH DAY. 

Opium has been imported into China for several hundred years, since the middle of 
the Ming dynasty. At first it was used for curing sickness; now, inverseh', it has become the 
cause of sickness. Formerly only foreign opium was sold in China; now there is the native 
article also. Its poison is spread amongst our 400,000,000 people, and its malign influence 
amongst the 21 provinces. Firsl it devours the property of the individual, then it affects the 
race, and finally it will destroy the whole countiy. 

Svmpathising with the miserable condition to which our people have been reduced, the 
Throne has increased the duties on opium, in the hope that such increase might hinder 
the consumption; and now an Imperial Decree has been issued fixing a date for the entire 
prohibition of opium smoking. This will mean that a loss of revenue to the extent of several 
million dollars a year will be incurred for the welfare of the people. Both Eastern and Western 
countries will bear this loss, which fact ought to encourage our people. 

Now those who wish to better themselves are willing enough to stop smoking opium, but 
the more ignorant are entirely overcome by the vice. The fault lies entirely with the opium 
divans, which entice men to smoke and are pits for their destruction. 

Let us consider the reason why people become opium smokers. At first they accompany 
their friends to the divans, and play with the vice in their leisure hours; but they soon become 
habitual smokers. Trul\' we have but little wisdom in contracting a habit that will trouble us 
as long as we live. The poisonous effect of opium being so obvious, why will not the people 
bestir themselves? We repeat that the fault lies with the opium dens, and unless they are 
closed it will be exceedingly difficult to prevent opium smoking. 

Acting in accordance \\'ith the Anti-Opium Regulations received from the Board 
concerned, the authorities in Chihli, Shanghai, and some other places ha\e already ordered all 
the opium divans in their jurisdiction to close within a period of six months. I, the Prefect, 
hope that my people will, in the matter of opium, loyally obey the wishes of the Throne, in 
order that the eradication of the vice may be brought about. 

Besides issuing instructions to the Fu-fang T'ing, the Bureau of Police, and the Anti- 
Opium Society to forbid the opening of opium dens, I have now to direct the owners of all 
divans inside and outside the city to find other means of obtaining a livelihood. After the 
issue of this no additional divans ma\- be established, and all dens are to be closed before the 
end of the 3rd moon of next year. If the dens are not closed by that date, or if opium lamps 
are secretly lit, the owners will be punished and their properties confiscated. Owners of shops 
used for the purpose of opium smoking after that time will be fined and their shops confiscated. 
Restaurants and brothels burning lamps for the convenience of their guests, whilst not in the 
same category as dens proper, ought to stop the practice before the end of the year, otherwise 
the owners will also be liable to punishment. 

We hope this prohibition will have the necessary effect. If our words fail to have a 
STOod result, action will follow. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 95 

Appendix C. — Xo. 2. 



PUdCLANrATloN ISSUl'.D I'.V THE TARTAR tlENKRAL (il' KUKH'.N: DATED KUANG HSU, 

33R1> Vl'lAR, 2NI) MOUN, QTH \h\\. 

Opium, since it \\;is introduced intu China, has become une 1 if the principal causes of 
our -weakness. In consequence t!',e Throne lias determined, fur the streii;_;liiening of our 
countr}', 1(1 put an end to opium smoking witliin 10 \cars. Those having the habit ougiit 
therefore to awake and Ileal themselves. We have received from the Cheng-wu Ch'u Anti- 
Opium Regulations consisting of 10 Articles, which have been handed to the Provincial 
Treasurer, for publication in the various districts of this province, and all people must obey 
these directions. 

We further understand that the reason win- opium smoking is so prevalent amongst 
the people is that they are attracted to the opium dens ; also, those who wish to give up the 
habit cannot obtain the proper antidotes. The General Commercial Association of Shanghai 
has lately submitted to the Board of Agriculture for approval a list of anti-opium medicines, 
with drawings of the grasses required for making them, and a copy has been transmitted by 
the said Board to this province. As it indicates clearly the manner of taking these medicines 
and of breaking off this pernicious habit, we have now to publish it for general information, 
with the hope that those of our people addicted to the vice may free themselves from it at an 
earl\- date. All opium divans inside and outside the city walls and in the various departments 
and districts of the province are to be closed by the end of the 3rd moon of this year, and no 
additional dens must be opened. Anyone disregarding these instructions will be severely 
punished by the local officials and their divans sealed. House-owners who continue to allow 
their property to be used as opium divans will be liable to a fine. 



Appendix C. — No. 3. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED (( )^•JOINTL^• BY PREFECT CHANG AND SUB-PREFECT VAC, OF 
FOOCHOW, THE MINHSIEN YUAN, AND THE HOUKWAN MAGISTRATE CH'EN : DATED 
KUANG HSU, 33RD YEAR, 3RD MOON. 

We have now to jointly instruct \-ou owners of opium dens that opium has caused us 
great harm for several hundreds of years, and it is impossible for us to coiuit how man\' of 
our people have lost their property and their lives, all for the sake of opium smoking. The 
Imperial Decree of the 7th moon of last )'ear prohibiting the smoking of opium was welcomed 
by the whole world. During the loth moon of the same year we also received from the 
Cheng-wu Ch'u regulations for the suppression of opium, consisting of 10 Articles, one of 
which ordains that all opium divans shcjuld be closed within six months, and proclamations 
were issued by our several superiors ordering all divans to be closed 1)\' the 30th day of the 
3rd moon. In doing this they were only following Imperial instructirms, which forbid the 
smoking of opium. 

As the date on which all opium dens are to be closed is now drawing near, we have 
now to instruct the owners of all such establishment inside and outside the city walls, and in 
the various villages, that in addition to being a deadU' poison opium causes us to lose a great 
deal of money, and that the date for closing of all divans having once been fixed it can never 
be extended. It will consequently be best for you to find your livelihood by other means. If 
vou are unable to do this owing to loss of capital or outstanding accounts, we advise you to 
seek a suitable shop for the sale of opium in accordance with the regulations proposed by the 
Ts'ai Ch^ng Chii, for you will not be allowed to deal in opium at your original shop, or merely 
change your hong name. 

All opium divans, large and small, are to be closed before the 30th day of the 3rd 
moon, and any persons having their places open on the ist day of the 4th moon or secretly 
setting out lamps will be severely punished and their shops sealed. House-owners letting 
their premises as opium shops should request their tenants to close within a few days, 
otherwise we shall take necessary action, etc. 



96 International Opium Commission 

Appendix C. — No. 4. 



JOINT PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY THE PROVINCIAL JUDGE, THK FINANCIAL BUREAU, AND 
THE CENTRAL POLICE STATION OF FUKIEN : DATED KUANG HSU, 33RD YEAR, 3RD 
MOON, 26Tn DAY. 

Proclamation is hereby given that since opium has been imported into our country it 
has been the cause of much waste of money and a source of weakness to our race. An Imperial 
Decree was issued last year forbidding the smoking of opium. Proclamations have also been 
respectively issued by the Viceroy, Provincial Judge, Prefect, Sub-Prefect, and Magistrates to 
the effect that all opium dens are to be closed by the end of the 3rd moon, and an Anti-Opium 
Society has been formed by the local gentry for the distribution of anti-opium medicines to the 
public. Although the higher class of people, who know that the Imperial Decree must be 
obeyed and the habit of sinoking opium broken off, have one after another stopped their 
opium smoking during the last few months, those who smoke opium on account of sickness 
can hardly stop doing so at once. We have therefore decided, in consultation with the 
members of the Anti-Opium Society, that, although all opiuin dens ought to be closed at the 
appointed time, a certain number of opium shops should be allowed to exist, in order that 
those who have not yet stopped their opium smoking may obtain the drug from them. As 
this is a measure we are compelled to take, it is necessary to draw up regulations for the 
guidance of such shops. 

The regulations given by the Financial Bureau for such opium shops are as follows : — 

1. That all opium dens are to be closed by the end of the 3rd moon, after which 

time people are allowed to establish only opium shops for a period of 
three years and on the expiration of that period such opium shops also are 
to be closed. 

2. That no opium shop is allowed to be opened in a place where an opium den 

has formerly been established ; should it be found out by the Financial 
Bureau or the members of the Anti-Opium Society that an opium shop is 
established in an old opium den, the shop will be sealed by the Magistrate 
and its owner punished. 

3. That if an opium shop is to be established, the name and address of the shop 

and the name of its owner should be five days previously reported to the 
Financial Bureau for registration and license; if not, the shop will be 
sealed by the Magistrate. 

4. That the license given to the opium shop by the Financial Bureau should be 

examined quarterly and changed yearly. 

5. That the opium shop is only allowed to be established in a conspicuous place 

for the sale of opium only, and is not allowed to have any room for 
smoking opium ; should anyone disobey the above he will be severely 

punished and his shop sealed. 

6. That the tax on opium originally levied by the Financi-al Bureau is to be 

separately paid by the opium shops. 

7. That should any opium shop be established, it should be reported to the 

Financial Bureau for registration before the end of the 5th moon. 

8. That all opium shops are to be inspected by the police officers and the deputies 

of the Anti-Opium Society from time to time, who will ascertain if 
there are any opium lamps on the premises. 

9. That the opium shop is only allowed to sell opium, but is not allowed to boil 

opium for others. 

10. That when an opium shop is removed or closed, it should three days previously 

be reported to the Financial Bureau, Central Police Station, and the Anti- 
Opium Society, for a change of license ; and if not, the shop will be sealed. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 97 

Should any of the opium shops disobey the above regulations, the owner and the 
assistants of the shop will be punished accordingly as soon as the matter has been reported to 
us by any other shop ; and all properties of the shop will be confiscated and the proceeds 
handed to the man who reports the matter, as a reward. 



Appendix C. — No. 5. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY HIS EXCELLB:NCV CHU, SUPERINTENDENT OF POLICE STATIONS 
AND PROVINCIAL JUDGE OF FUKIEN : DATED KUANG HSU, 33rd YEAR, 3rd MOON, 
26th DAY. 

Since opium was first imported into China it has done great harm to the country. 
We have been instructed by our superiors to issue instructions for all opium divans inside and 
outside the city, as well as in the various districts of the province, to be closed at the end of 
the 3rd moon. Proclamations to this effect have already been issued by us, and all police 
stations inside the city and at Nantai have been directed to instruct all opium dens in their 
respective jurisdictions to close their establishments by the appointed time, and to inform those 
concerned that if they disregard these orders they will be punished. The area of this provincial 
capital is very extensive, and the opium divans numerous. The time for closing such divans 
is now approaching, and we fear that some of them will only make pretence of closing and still 
carry on their business inside. Should any of the dens do this, the owners of the houses or 
any of the public may report the matter to the nearest police station. If on investigation the 
report is found to be true, the dens will be immediately sealed and the proprietors punished. 
If the owners of houses do not report the misconduct of their tenant to us their shops will be 
confiscated ; those who do so report will be liberally rewarded. 

Besides instructing all the branch police stations to carry out these orders, I am issuing 
this proclamation hoping that all the proprietors of opium dens and refuse shops will obey and 
close their premises by the end of the 3rd moon, and turn to some other business. If they still 
dare to set out lamps clandestinely after the time limit has expired, or the house owners protect 
them, they will be arrested and punished and their premises sealed. When once they are 
detected or reported on no mercy will be shown them. Let this be obeyed. 



Appendix C. — No. 6. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY HIS EXCELLENCY CHU, PROVINCIAL JUDGE, SUPERINTENDENT 
OF POLICE OF THE PROVINCE OF FUKIEN, IN THE MATTER OF OPIUM SUPPRESSION : 
DATED KUANG HStJ, 33RD YEAR, STH MOON, 8tII DAY. 

The effects of the opium evil will impoverish a family, weaken the whole race, and 
cause people to waste their time. At present the Government is trying to strengthen the 
country and will suppress opium smoking within a period of 10 years. Therefore I hope the 
people who are already addicted to opium smoking will reform and try to abandon the vice. 
The habit of opium smoking is mostly contracted in the opium dens. Therefore the previous 
Acting Viceroy has sent me a proclamation and a number of regulations to be posted up, and 
has ordered all opium dens and opium dross shops, both within and without the walls of the 
provincial capital and in other districts of the provinces, to close their business at the end 
the 3rd moon. The time for such closing has arrived, so it is the duty of the proprietors of 
of the opium dens and opium dross shops in all districts of the province to close their business 
in obedience to tiie Viceroy's order and find their livelihood by some other means. It is 
difficult to prevent all the opium dens which are situated far away from the provincial capital 
from -setting out lamps privately, though outwardly they appear to be obeying the order. 
Therefore we again instruct the different local authorities to arrest and punish such offenders 
and to seal up their premises. House owners who allow their houses to be used as opium 
dens will be fined. 

Besides instructing the various Magistrates to inspect the different places, I now issue 
this proclamation, hoping that all the opium dens and opium dross shops will obey the order 
to close up and revert to some other trade. If they are found still doing business privately 
they will be punished and their premises sealed. 



98 International Oi'Ium Commission 

Appendix C. — No. 7. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY THE PROVINCIAL JUDGE OF FOOCHOW IN THE MATTER OF 
OPIUM SUPPRESSION: DATED KUANG HSU, 33RD YEAR, 6TH MOON, 5TH DAY. 

The importation of opium into China lias done great harm to the people. I received 
instructions some time ago to order the closing of all opium dens and opium dross shops 
before the end of the 3rd moon. 

On investigation, though the various opium shops and opium dross shops have obeyed 
and closed tlieir shops within the limited time, yet I hear that the different sedan chair shops 
in the city stfll set out lamps and retail opium to a number of men to smoke, under the pretext 
that it is for their own use. If the report is true, they are violating the prohibition. I therefore 
again order all the sedan chair shops to stop this practice by the end of the llth moon — a 
limit of six months from the ist of the 6th moon, — after which no one will be allowed to smoke. 
Ever within the prescribed time they are only allowed to smoke themselves and not to retail 
surreptitiously to a great number of men. This is aimed at ending the cause and eradicating 
the opium evil. Besides giving orders to the different police stations to issue special proclama- 
tions and to constantly inspect such places, I now issue this proclamation to prohibit such 
practice within the above specified time. 

I therefore hope all the sedan chair shops in the city will obey and break off their 
smoking practice at the prescribed time, and not set out lamps or allow smoking again. If 
anyone is found to disobey this order, or has been petitioned against, he is to be arrested and 
punished without mercy. 



Appendix C. — No. 8. 



PROCLAMATION CONJOINTLY ISSUED BY YUAN, THE ACTING MAGISTRATE OF THE MIN 
DISTRICT; CHANG, THE PREFECT OF FOOCHOW; CH'EN, THE ACTING MAGLSTRATE Of 
HOUKWANHSIEN : DATED KUANG HSU, 33RD YEAR, 8TH MOON. 

Since the closing of the opium dens a number of lawless smokers have been found 
smoking in temples and in boats. A proclamation forbidding such practice has alread)- been 
issued. We have now again heard of a number of law-breakers setting up divans and lamps and 
smoking in private families, making very little difference from the former opium dens to be 
found in almost every city and village. Besides making private investigations for the purpose of 
arresting and punishing such law-breakers when found, we now again issue this proclamation, 
hoping all classes of the people will realise the infinite benefit to be derived from the suppression 
of the opium habit, and not remain ignorant as hitherto and suffer punishment therefor. 

After this proclamation every offender should reform. 

Tipaos and house owners should exercise special vigilance to see that their houses are not 
converted into opium dens. If such practices are again detected, we will first seal and confiscate 
the house, and then punish without mercy such Tipaos and house owners who fail to report 
such cases as if they were smokers and the proprietors of such opium dens. We have repeatedlv 
issued proclamations to this effect, so we think sufficient warning has been o-iven. 



Appendix C. — No. 9. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY HIS HONOUR KU, THE MAGISTRATE OF IIOUKWAN DISTRICT, 
FUKIEN: DATED KUANG HSU, 33RD YEAR, lOth MOON, 2^RD DAY 

Opium has done a great deal of harm to China. It has wasted her money, enfeebled 
her subjects, and degenerated the race. One of our ancient Ministers, LiN WI:n-CHUNG, tried 
to suppress opium, but to our sorrow he failed; but we are fortunate in seeing our misfortune 
now disappearing, and happiness is dawning just like one awaking from a long sleep. 

Successive Imperial Decrees and official exhortations have been promulgated to you, 
and I do not know how you are going to exert yourselves in suppressing this poisonous drug. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 99 

I hear that a number of men have reformed and are cured of their habit, but there are also a 
number of men privately selling opium and setting up lamps in private families and enticing 
men to smoke. To such class of people suppression is only a name. Are those classes of 
people insensible to honour and shame? Are they wood that they should not be affected by 
such exhortations ? After much consideration, I came to the conclusion that they are the 
uneducated class and strangers to self-honour. They thought that they could deceive the 
Magistrate, who is far away from them, forgetting that they cannot deceive their immediate 
relatives — fathers, brothers, etc. So if such family members will advise and stop them at the 
beginning, I think they can be easily persuaded. If they still dare to disregard the family 
advice, the case should be reported to me, and I will use all kinds of methods to arrest such 
men and punish them. If the village elders and family fathers can work conjointly with the 
officials, I cannot see that there should be any difficulty in stamping out the evil. If the 
village elders and family fathers can found a society and entirely suppress opium smoking 
in their own village, I should think it would be also to their advantage. I know that the 
method of resting such responsibility on them is generally used. 

Therefore I will also use this method. In future, when anyone is detected by the 
members of the Anti-Opium Society opening opium dens and retailing opium without a license, 
I will at once make the elders, etc., hand the man over to me for punishment. 

Besides writing to the Committee of the Anti-Opium Society to make strict investigations, 
I now issue this proclamation, hoping that the village elders, etc., will obey and carry out my 
wishes. 



Appendix C— No. 10. 



proclamation issued by the foochow taotai in the matter of increasing the 
opium tax: dated kuang hsu, 33rd year, iith moon. 

Opium is a very poisonous drug. Successive Decrees have been received, ordering the 
suppression of opium. Foochow has proved to be the first in closing the opium dens. Though 
the various opium dens both within and without the city have been closed, the number of opium 
retailing shops is yet great. If their number is not strictly controlled, I am afraid it will be 
difficult to foretell the day of entire suppression. Therefore, in order that I may carry out the 
orders of the Throne and relieve the sufferings of the people, I have consulted with the local 
gentry on the matter. The result is that it has been decided to send out deputies to clearly 
investigate the position of the present 214 shops, to forbid any future addition to those already 
established, and to impose an additional tax of 300 cash on every ounce (Hang) of opium from 
the 6th of 1st moon, 34th year of KUANG HsiJ. 

I will further select some officials to go round with books to the different shops with the 
Committee of the Anti-Opium Society to ask the different proprietors to undertake to write in 
the said books the amount of tax they have to pay. The least amount they may enter shall 
not be under the present tax on 2 ounces of opium. An official will collect the amounts so 
promised when they are due. A list of the money collected will be posted in front of the 
Bureau of Finance, Central Police Station, and its branches for the information of the public and 
to discourage frauds. If any shops are found to report less than the amount actually sold, they 
will be severely punished. In short, the present additional tax is not intended to impoverish 
the people, but to give some hindrance to smokers in the way of raising the cost of their vice. 
Such an obstacle to the sellers and buyers may gradually rouse them to reform and lead to the 
entire suppression of this harmful drug. 

I therefore issue this proclamation hoping that all opium-shop proprietors will obey. 



Appendix C. — No. ii. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED CONJOINTLY BY YUAN, THE ACTING DISTRICT MAGISTRATE OF MIN 

DISTRICT, AND CH'EN, THE ACTING DISTRICT MAGISTRATE OF HOUKWAN : DATED 

KUANG HSU, 34TH YEAR. 

The poisonous effect of opium has circulated everywhere. Though the different opium 
dens in the city and country were closed and business stopped in obedience to orders, I yet hear 
upon inquiry that a number of lawless country people dare to hide themselves in country 
private families, temples, monasteries, and boats, and there they set up lamps and entice 



100 International Opium Commission 

a number of people to smoke ; and we really felt very angry to see such ignorance. Besides 
holding the village elders, inspectors, monks in monasteries and temples, and the respective 
Tipaos responsible, we now issue this proclamation conjointly, hoping that all classes of 
people will note that the present opium prohibition was ordered by Imperial Decree: we must 
therefore try to remove the root of poison. There is no reason why they should obey outwardly 
and disobey privately, so as to throw themselves into the arms of justice. Therefore after this 
proclamation, if any man is found setting out lamps or being petitioned against to that effect, 
in private families, temples and monasteries, or in boats, enticing a number of men to smoke, 
he will be arrested and severely punished. 

If house owners, monks of monasteries, and boatmen are discovered to be accessories to 
such practices and fail to report same to the authorities, they will also be arrested and 
punished and their premises sealed. Tipaos who fail to report what they know about these 
matters will also be punished. 



Appendix C. — No. i; 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY HIS EXCELLENCY CHU, THE PROVINCIAL JUDGE AND THE 
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE POLICE OF FUKIEN : DATED KUANG HSU, 34TH YEAR, 
3RD MOON, 29TH DAY. 

Following the receipt of the Imperial Decree concerning the suppression of opium, 
the various opium dens and opium dross shops were closed under orders from this office last 
year. The restaurants, brothels, etc., were also prohibited from furnishing lamps for their 
visitors. But among the vast number of smokers residing in this capital, there may be some 
people still arranging utensils for smoking in their own house, presumably for themselves, but 
in reality making a good profit from them. I have therefore suggested a set of regulations to 
the Viceroy for the purpose of obtaining a list of smokers. As my suggestions have been 
approved, I now issue this proclamation hoping that all classes of people will give their true 
name, age, address, occupation, and daily consumption to the police inspectors and members 
of the Anti-Opium Society, who will make a proper list of such smokers for the purpose of 
future investigation, and will also distribute licenses to such smokers. 

The purpose of the said registration is to prevent fresh smokers and to exhort confirmed 
smokers to break off the habit. 

If a smoker is found to report less than he actually consumes, or falsely that he is a 
non-smoker, I will at once treat him as a violator of this order and liable to punishment 
or fine. 



Appendix C. — No. 13. 



PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY THE VICEROY OF FUKIEN IN THE MATTER OF PROHIBITING 
POPPY CULTIVATION; DATED KUANG HSU, 34TII YEAR, 6tH MOON, 23RD DAY. 

The cultivation of opium has done great harm to the soil. I regret to say our nation 
has been reduced to a state of weakness and poverty, due greatly to the excessive cultivation 
of poppy and to the unusual number of opium smokers. 

Since the 8th moon of the 32nd year of KUANG HsiJ orders were repeatedly received 
that poppy cultivation must first be reduced gradually, and cease entirely at the end of nine 
years, in accordance with the approved regulations drawn up by the Cheng-wu Ch'u. The 
above order has already been made known to you in the form of a proclamation. 

At present the Board of Foreign Affairs has obtained the consent of the different 
foreign Ministers to reduce the importation of opium for a trial period of three years, beginning 
from this year, and to commence further negotiations at the end of three )'ears after seeing 
the actual reduction in cultivation and smoking made by China herself 

Even the different foreign nations show a great sympathy in our movement ; why 
should the Chinese themselves, who are directly affected by the harm, not feel concerned and 
do away with the evil entirely ? 



Memorandum on Opium from China ioi 

Furthermore, if more land is devoted to poppy cultivation, less land is devoted to 
cereals. Consequently, in case of necessity we are affected by the price of food and the 
shortness of supply ; so in order to prevent such hardship all opium-cultivated fields should be 
planted with other crops. The oris^inal order for reduction gives a time liinit of nine years, so 
the present cultivated area should be 20 per cent, less than formerly, as it is two years since 
the issuing of that order. Whether that order was obeyed or not, no report has been received 
from the District Magistrates. I now learn that the cultivation in the province of Yunnan and 
Kiangsu, etc., where the greatest amount of opium is produced, will be entirely prohibited 
within this year. The province of Fukien should also imitate such an example, and it is a 
much quicker way to prohibit such cultivation in one }'ear than to gradually reduce it in nine 
years. Therefore the poppies that were planted last year may be harvested this year. After 
the present crop, no further planting is to be made. The land must be sown with some cereal. 
Henceforth no more poppy-cultivated land is to be permitted in the whole Fukien province, 
and the farmers are further commanded to throw away their seeds so that no trace of the plant 
will remain. At a certain time I will despatch officials to mak-e investigations together with 
the District Magistrates. If anybody is found cultivating the poppy, his land will be confiscated 
and the plants destroyed. 

Besides instructing the different districts, prefects, etc., to strictly prohibit such cultiva- 
tion, I now issue this proclamation, hoping it will be obeyed by all classes of people. 



Appendix C. — No. 14. 



SUMMARY OF VARIOUS PROCLAMATIONS ISSUED AT TENGVUEH, YUNNAN. 

No. I (25th July, 1907). — Proclamation of Tengyueh Magistrate, notifying the 
instructions of the Viceroy Hsi LlANG that all officials are to give up smoking at once (the 
instructions of the previous Viceroy having been disregarded), and that immediate returns are 
to be forwarded of the acreage under poppy, the number of persons engaged in the cultivation, 
and the measures proposed. 

No. 2 (7th August, 1907). — Proclamation of the Provincial Treasurer, Provincial Judge, 
Commissioner of Education, and the Taotais of the Shan Hou Chii, notifying the rules 
of a Provincial Anti-Opium Association which has been formed by the order of the Viceroy 
Hsi Liang. 

[The first four rules are not notified, being concerned with the Association itself] 

Rule 5. — Investigations. 

1°. A complete list of smokers in the city and suburbs to be made within a month. 
The smokers will obtain medicines from the Association, or buy those approved by it and cure 
themselves. The young and strong to be given si.x months and the old and weak one )'ear. 

2°. In country places the duty of reporting smokers will rest with the T'uan Chang, 
who will be responsible for all concealment. 

3°. Existing dealers in prepared opium in the city will be required by the police 
to take out licenses within half a month, and at the end of a year will close. No new shops 
to be opened. 

4°. Dealers in remedies will submit their remedies to the inspection of the Association 
and will not be allowed to sell without a certificate of the Association. 

S°. All smokers who have given up the habit to be reported periodically. 

Rule 6. — Cure. 

1°. A hospital to be attached to the head office, in which smokers without homes will 
be received, 20 at a time, and for a period of 20 days. Cost of food to be paid by patients. 

2°. Those who, the number being complete, cannot be admitted to hospital may, in 
accordance with Rule 5, 1°, register their names and receive medicines and medical 
attendance. 



102 International Opium Commission 

Rule 7. — Limits of Time. 

1°. Registers of civil and military officials who smoke will be made by the Provincial 
Treasurer and the Ying-wu Ch'u respectively, and all, in accordance with previous instructions, 
and whether much or little addicted to the habit, will be required to abandon it by the end of 
the 6th moon of this year. Those who fail to do so will be reported to the Governor 
and Treasurer and will then be given an extension to the end of the 8th moon. If still 
unreformed, they will again be reported and punished. If over 60 years of age they will be 
dealt with leniently, but must retire from the public service. 

2°. In the Education Department investigation will rest with the Education Commis- 
sioner, and in mercantile circles with the guilds, and lists are to be returned to the head office 
within a month. Smokers to be allowed six months to cure themselves, after which, if 
uncured, they will be ineligible for any educational office, will not be allowed to open any 
business, and will not be recognised as members of any companies or associations. 

3°. People of the lower class being difficult to supervise, opium divans will be required 
to close in six months from the establishment of the Association. 

Rule 8. — Prohibition. 

1°. In the vicinity of the provincial capital the Magistrate will call for a return of the 
people growing opium, with the acreage cultivated and the quantit}' expected to be reaped by 
each in the present year, and report to the head office. The Magistrate will also by 
proclamation admonish growers to reduce the quantity grown year by year, and after three 
years cultivation will be forbidden altogether. In outlying ma'^istracies the procedure 
to be similar. 

2°. In the suppression of poppy planting the local authorities will confine themselves 
in the first year to injunction, in the second they will forbid it, and in the third they may 
forcibly put a stop to it. 

3°. The sale of opium-smoking implements to cease, as before ordered, by the end of 
the 6th moon, and such implements to be considered as contraband after that date and 
destroyed wherever found. 

Rule 9. — Rewards and Penalties. 

1°. Local officials and gentry who establish societies and in six months or a year 
succeed in completely suppressing the evil will be recommended for rewards. 

2°. All who offend against the rules laid down by the Association will be punished as 
misdemeanants. 

No. 3 (7th September 1907). — Proclamation in colloquial by the Viceroy of Yunnan, 
Hsi Liang, earnestly and forcibly pointing out the destructive effects of opium smoking and 
foot-binding. 

No. 4 (13th September 1907). — Proclamation of Tengyueh Magistrate, notifying the 
chief of the 10 regulations of the Government Council, prescribing forms for reporting 
smokers, and adding recipes for anti-opium remedies. 

No. S (8th October 1907). — Instruction from Tengyueh Magistrate to local officers, 
calling for complete lists of inhabitants showing the number of smokers and non-smokers, and 
of poppy cultivators, with acreage, as required by the Viceroy. 

No. 6 (i8th October 1907). — Joint proclamation of Chungking and Kiinmin Prefects, 
warning opium divan keepers that soldiers will be sent to arrest all who have not closed. 

No. 7 (9th September 1907). — Instruction from the Viceroy to the Tengyueh 
Magistrate, ordering him to post the Viceroy's colloquial proclamation against opium-smoking 
and foot-binding throughout his district, and to report the date on which the copies of the 
proclamation have been received and the places at which they have been posted. 

No. 8 f no date). — Telegram from head office of Anti-Opium Association, requesting 
that it be applied to at once for various remedies named, including A-chih-nai. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 103 

No. 9 (nth November 1907). — Proclamation of Tengyueh Magistrate, notifying that 
all divan keepers having agreed to adopt other callings, the public are required (i) to pay 
their debts to the said divans, and (2) to refrain from further buying at the divans. 

No. 10 (3rd April 1908). — Short proclamation by Tengyueh Magistrate, re closing of 
divans and licensing of smokers. 

No. 1 1 (3rd April 1908). — Tengyueh Magistrate notifies that the Viceroy will soon send 
deputies to inquire into the carrying out of regulations, and that if it be found that smokers 
have not been reported or that divans are not all closed the local officers will be held responsible. 

No. 12 (no date). — Proclamation by Tengyueh Magistrate against the extortion of 
fees for smokers licenses. 

^°- I3(i3tb May 1908). — Proclamation by Tengyueh Magistrate, stating that evasions 
of the law regarding the closing of divans and the registration of smokers have come to his 
knowledge, and that such evasions will by severely punished. 

No. 14 (3rd March 1908). — Memorial to the Throne by Viceroy Hsi LlANG, praying 
that the term for the abolition of opium be shortened, and that after the end of the current 
year it be forbidden to smoke opium, to grow opium, or to deal in opium and opium-smoking 
accessories. 

No. 15 (17th July 1908). — -Viceroy's instruction to the Tengyueh Magistrate to post 
the proclamation, of which copies have been sent to him, and to report the date of receipt and 
of posting and the places in which posted. 

No. 16 (no date). — Telegram from Viceroy to local officials, calling on them to carry 
out the new instructions to the letter. Hereafter there must be no poppy planters, From the 
beginning of next year there must be no opium smokers, and no merchants who store, buy, 
or sell opium. If these instructions are disobeyed, the offenders will be severely punished 
immediately on detection, and the local officials reponsible will be rigorously dealt with. 

No. 17 (no date). — Proclamation by Viceroy in six character lines, to the same effect 
as No. 16. 

No. 18 (no date). — General order by' the Viceroy, who states that the Government 
Council has reported in favour of his proposals for immediate and complete prohibition. There- 
fore after the autumn of this year the poppy is no more to be planted on any land. Smokers, 
of whatever age or sex, must one and all abandon the pipe by the end of the year. Dealers in 
crude or prepared opium must by the end of the year dispose of stocks outside the province, 
retaining not the smallest quantity. After the first day of next year if any plant opium they 
will meet with immediate punishment, and the land, whether of large or small extent and 
whether owned or only rented by the planter, will be summarily confiscated; and if dealers 
retain stocks, they will be punished in addition to the confiscation of their stocks. Officials in 
whose jurisdiction planting or dealing in or smoking opium is allowed to continue after the 
time fixed will be impeached and punished without mercy, while the Viceroy will certainly re- 
commend to the Throne those who carry out instructions so that not a vestige of opium or a 
single smoker can be found under their rule. Measures taken and progress made are to be 
reported, as also the date of the receipt of these instructions. 

No. 19 (no date). — Viceroy confirms the decision of the Fumin Magistrate in the case 
of a tea shop which has kept a divan against regulations. The offender to be bambooed and 
put in the cangue, the landlord to be deprived of his rank, and the house to be confiscated and 
sold for the benefit of the anti-opium funds. 



Appendix C. — No. 15. 



regulations for the control of the buying and selling of prepared 
opium in the province of fukien. 

Having completed their inquiry and registration of all the opium smokers in the 
provincial city of Foochow, the Chu To Hsi (an Anti-Opium Society) has drawn up some 
regulations which have been approved by the Provincial Judge and by him ordered to be 
observed by all concerned. 



104 International Opium Commission 

I.— The regulation providing for the buying and selling of prepared opium under a pass 
only must not be allowed to become a dead letter. Hence all the opium smokers as well as 
dealers are to observe the following rules from the 26th day of the 12th moon : — 

1°. No opium smoker will be allowed to purchase prepared opium without a pass, 
nor may any shop sell opium without first inspecting the pass. 

2°. When buying opium during the regular hours, the pass shall be handed to the 
shop and the shopkeeper shall stamp it with the date when the opium is sold. 

3°. Each pass contains 90 spaces for as many dates, and at the end of every three 
months the pass shall be sent in to the Chu To Hsi in exchange for a new 
one. Failing to have it exchanged at the expiration of tiie period, the pass 
shall no longer be valid. 

4°. When a buyer wishes to purchase opium under a pass for several days or a 
month in advance, he is allowed to do so, but it .shall not exceed the number 
of days as indicated by vacant spaces in the pass. 

5°. Should anyone be found buying opium without a pass, or should any shop sell 
opium without inspecting the pass, he is liable to a fine of not more than 
$10 and not less than $5, or to hard labour for not more than 10 days and 
not less than five days. 

2. — Opium smokers shall be required to pay dues on opium which they keep for then- 
own use. When they happen to possess a large stock of opium, they must report its exact 
weight to the Opium Tax Office, by whom a ta.x at the rate of 300 cash per ounce shall be 
levied on the net weight of the opium as weighed by the said office. After the smoker shall 
have finished smoking this opium, as calculated by his usual daily quota of consumption, he 
shall be allowed to buy more opium from the opium shops with a pass. 

3. — -All places or depots for the preparation of boiled opium shall be registered for the 
purpose of inspection, and every shop selling opium may have a place for preparing opium 
annexed thereto. To prevent fraud, all opium shops are required to report to the police station 
in their district or to the Chu To Hsi, for purposes of identification, their opium-cooking rooms, 
and should any such place be found not corresponding with what is reported, the case shall be 
dealt with as one of unauthorised preparing of opium. 

4. — The rule for the inflicting of a fine is made with a view to preventing the secret 
keeping of opium or the clandestine preparation of 0))ium. Opium smokers shall truly report 
the quantity of opium they have in stock and pay the prescribed dues. They shall not be 
allowed to have any opium prepared by themselves. Infringement of this rule will entail 
confiscation of the opium and a heavy fine besides. 

5. — A reward will be given for information leading to the discovery of opium clandes- 
tinely kept. A reward will also be given to anyone who supplies information leading to the 
discovery of an)' place illegally used for the preparation of opium. Half of the price realised 
on the sale of opium confiscated will be given to the informant, and the other half to the 
Government. The name of the informant shall not be made known, in order to save him 
from trouble. 



Appendix C. — No. 16. 



DESPATCH FROM THE SZECHWAN VICEROY TO THE PROVINCIAL JUDGE, ORDERING THE 
ISSUE OF INSTRUCTIONS TO IHS VARIOUS SUBORDINATES TO SHORTEN THE TIME 
LIMIT FOR REDUCING POPPV CULTIVATION, AND TO PROHIBIT ENTIRELY ANY 
FUTURE PLANTING IN THE VARIOUS FAMINE DISTRICTS. 

(Undated, but known to have been issued in the suuimer of Tpo8.) 

I NOW address you on the question of tlie reduction of poppy cultivation. Since His 
Majesty's approval of the various regulations submitted by the Min-chuan Pu, orders have 
been issued to the different provinces to investigate and shorten the time limit of poppy 
cultivation in accordance with local conditions. Yunnan has memorialised the Throne 



Memorandum on Opium from China 



105 



promising to suppress the entire poppy cultivation there within a year. As this method is 
going to be followed by other provinces, I am afraid the time limit will soon come only to find 
the evil here not entirely eradicated, a fact which may lead to great complications in our 
foreign relations and to the payment of a heavy indemnit}'. On investigation I find more 
opium is grown in this province than elsewhere. In some districts there are tens of 
thousands oi mou and in others thousands oi ii/ou of land under poppy cultivation. 

If we reduce them little by little, the growers will pay very little attention, to say 
nothing of the insignificant amount reduced. If growers continue to cultivate them privately, 
or the investigators mistook the plant for some cereal, it would never be possible to stamp out 
cultivation entirely. There are places in various districts which have been rendered unproduc- 
tive b)- prolonged drought or excess of rain and floods. Such places, if they were originally 
poppy fields, should be ordered to plant cereals, so that more food will be raised in the 
pro\ince and famine be less severe in time of scarcit)'. 

I trust that you will at once start to make investigations and to keep a list of such 
famine-stricken lands or fields having a poor harvest this year, and to prohibit them from being 
sown with poppy seeds, if they were previously poppy fields, and they are further forbidden 
from sowing poppy seeds in future. Such fields should be ordered to plant beans, wheat, or 
other cereals, or anj- kind of useful trees. 

The non-famine-stricken lands should be ordered to reduce cultivation by one-half 
and, if circumstances will permit, to entirely cease cultivation by next year. In short, the 
earlier the poppy cultivation finishes the earlier it will be possible to reap cereals, etc., from such 
fields, and less of the people's money will be wasted. 

The different District Magistrates should be instructed to issue proclamations to the 
planters, and to organise methods of investigation in order to prevent fraud and private 
cultivation. Any diligent Magistrate who can exhort the people to cease the entire cultivation 
within this or next }'ear without inflicting undue hardship on them will be recoinmended to the 
Throne for reward in accordance with the area of such cultivated lands under his jurisdiction ; 
while those who fail to carry out this order energetically and to send genuine reports will be 
dismissed when detected or petitioned against. 

Besides instructing the Agricultural and the Police Departments, I now write to \'ou, 
trusting )'ou will at once investigate and instruct the different District Magistrates to prepare a 
detailed report of the scheme to be used within 50 days dating from the arrival of this despatch 



Appendix C— No. 17. 



summary of proclamations issued at ningpo. 



Placb. 


Date of 


Issue. 


By whom issued. 


Subject. 


YUYAO 


KUANG Hsu, 
gth moon. 

KUANG Hsij, 
7th moon. 

KuANG Hsu, 
8th moon. 

(No date) .. 


33rd year, 
34th year, 
34th year, 




Opium prohibition; farmers exhorted to raise 
cotton, grain, or pulse in place of poppy. 

Cultivation of poppy prohibited ; farmers warned 
not to yield to the temptation of high prices. 

Referring to the Imperial Decree on the subject 
of gradual decrease in importation of opium 
and of the prohibition against smoking by 
officials, the people are enjoined to cease culti- 
vating the poppy. 

Cultivation of poppy prohibited ; disobedience 
will be punished by confiscation of land. 

Repeating the injunctions of the last proclamation. 

Evils of opium smoking; opium dens to be con- 
fiscated and smoking appliances destroyed 
whenever found ; monks who are smokers to be 
ejected from monasteries. 

Official employes allowed three months in which 
to break off opium haliit ; failure to entail 
dismissal. 










Ninghai 








Shangyu 

Shaohing 






KUANG HsiJ, 
2nd moon. 


34th year, 


Prefect 





io6 



International Opium Commission 



SUMMARY OF PROCLAMATIONS ISSUED AT NlNGFO.—(contd.) 



Pl.ACK. 



HUICHI . 



Chuchow, 

Shihpu .... 
Taichow. .. 



Datr of Issue. 



By whom issued. 



KUANG Hsij, 
8th moon. 



34th 



KuANG Hsu, 34th year 
9th moon. 



KuANG Hsu, 34th year, 
3rd moon. 

KuANG IIsu, 34th year, 
6th moon. 



Magistrate. 



Superintendent 
Police. 



of 



SUBJKCT. 



Police Station Same as last 



Area of poppy fields having been ascertained, 
farmers are warned that confiscation of ground 
will result if cultivation of poppy is continued. 

Houses in which opium smokers are entertained 
with the pipe liable to confiscation. Proprietors 
and smokers will both be dealt with according 
to law. 



huangyen .. . 
Haimen 

TiNGHAI 

)» 

HSIANGSHAN .. 



.Sub-Prefect. 
Prefect 



KuANG Hsu, 34th year, 
9th moon. 

(No date) 



TZEKI . 



KuANG HsiJ, 34th year, 
8th moon. 



KuANG Hsu, 34th year 
9th moon. 



KuANG Hsu, 34th year, 
8th moon. 



Magistrate. 



Commander of 
chow forces. 



Tai- 



Sub-Prefect . 



KUANG Hsu, 33rd year, 
5th moon. 



Magistrate . 



Opium dens not closed within a fortnight will be 
confiscated and the keepers prosecuted. 

Five regulations to bring about the cessation of 
poppy cultivation in due time : — 

1. Magistrates assisted by local committees 

and tipao are to ascertain the area and 
location of poppy fields and to report 
within a fortnight to the Prefect. 

2. The local committees and tipao are to 

dissuade farmers from extending cul- 
tivation of ihe poppy and are to report 
to the local Magistrate tho.se who dis- 
regard their representations. 

3. Successful committees and tipao will be 

rewarded ; the negligent will be other- 
wise dealt with. 

4. Weiyiian furnished with particulars of 

reported fields will make tours of inspec- 
tion in winter to check illicit cultivation. 

5. Illicit cultivation that escapes the notice 

of weiyiian may be reported by private 
individuals, who will be rewarded, or 
the poppies may be rooted up by them 
without incurring legal penalty. 

The instructions of the Taichow Prefect's proclama- 
tion made known and obedience enjoined. 

Opium dens closed ; private houses not to be used 
as opium dens; military patrol to make tours of 
inspection. 

Farmtrs required to cultivate grain instead of 
poppy next year; non-compliance will entail 
severe penalties and confiscation of fields. 

Houses rented to opium-den keepers liable to 
confiscation. Sub-Prefect will make tours of 
mspection in person by night and day. 

Cultivation of poppy prohibited; opium dens 
closed ; opium shops to be registered and licensed ; 
anti-opmm dispensaries established. The 
nilmerous smokers at Shihpu are warned to throw 
off the habit and enter the hospital established 
by the Chamber of Commerce ; if they fail of a 
cure after three months treatment they will lose 
their rights as citizens to have a voice in public 
affairs. 

Opium dens closed : tax on opium lamps dis- 
continued ; shops to cease selling pipes and other 
opium-smoking appliances by the end of the 6th 
moon ; shops selling opium to be licensed and to 
reduce sales annually ; opium tax continued. 



For the compilation of tiie above report information has been collected from travellers 
and from postal employes m various inland places, as well as from native merchants through 
members of the Chmese staff; official sources of information have not been available. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 107 

Appendix C. — No. 18. 



proclamation by viceroy Hsij and governor tang : 

I2TH NOVEMBER, 1908. 

Our people have gradually become more enlightened during the past few years. None 
of them would not detest the evil of smoking opium whenever opium is mentioned, but many 
persons are still addicted to the evil habit. The reason is not far to seek. It is due to the 
cultivation of the poppy, which has not been entirely abolished. As a rule, the planters think 
only of the profit to be derived from it. Why should it be so ? Why should you, who have 
fields to plant, plant the very thing which does harm to other people ? 

If you will think over the matter carefully, you will then understand the reason why 
opium must be strictly prohibited and why our Government, with its exchequer nearly empty 
at a time when money is needed to pay for Boxer indemnity and to carry on the work of 
reform, foregoes the large amount of opium revenue. It is because of the great havoc wrought 
on our people by opium. 

Opium is a chief staple of China's imports from the British territory. The British 
Government has willingly consented to reduce gradually its import into China until totally 
abolished within a certain prescribed period. If the foreign opium has ceased to find its way 
into China, and at the same time the native opium continues to be grown as before, will this 
not be a matter for foreigners to laugh at us? It will also furnish the neighbouring Powers an 
evidence of our inability to abolish opium. 

As regards yourselves, it can never be said that without planting poppy you have no 
other means of getting your living. Before the opium was brought into China you certainly 
were never in a position to be without sufficient clothing and food. And is there anyone of 
you at the present time, without planting the poppy, who suffers from hunger and cold ? 

We have received instructions from the Ministry of Finance to the effect that, in 
accordance with the Opium Memorial, the cultivation of opium must be strictly prohibited in 
the Fengtien province after next summer. 

In addition to the present proclamation, instructions have been issued to the various 
Magistrates with orders to enforce the prohibition. It is hoped that all of you will remember 
that the fields now planted with poppy must be planted with grain after next summer. As 
it is feared that you may not fully understand the opium prohibition and opium evil, so we 
will not shirk our duty in earnestly admonishing you beforehand : you are not to regard 
the present notification as a mere paper. It is hoped that all of )'ou will advise each other 
not to tread again the forbidden path, and that you will not disobey the prohibition order. 

When the time arrives we will send competent officials to go round and make strict 
investigation re poppy fields. If any new poppy be planted, the field will be confiscated and 
its owner punished in accordance with the opium regulation. After the issue of this proclama- 
tion the prohibition will be strictly enforced and no leniency will be shown to the offenders. 



Appendix C. — No. 19. 



memorial from yuan shu-hsun, governor of shantung, denouncing a number OF 

officials for their non-compliance with THE ANTI-OPIUM REGULATIONS, AND 
recommending THEIR DEGRAD.\TION AND CASHIERMENT. 

According to the Memorial of Yuan Shu-hsun, Sub-Perfect Tsai Ssu-YUNG, Magis- 
trate Kung Tun-JEN, and three others have not yet got rid of the opium habit, and their 
reputation is not enviable. Expectant Prefect Mu Wu-KAi and 17 other officials in various 
capacities are still deep in the opium habit, and are most ingenious in concealing their vice. 
All these officials are to cashiered without exception. 

Huang Nai-HAN and LiU Pang-YEN, while acting as inspecting officers to detect 
opium smokers, have been guilty of intentionally trying to hoodwink their superiors, and they 
should be dismissed from office, never to be employed again. Expectant Prefect Tang 
ShiH-HSUN and 10 others, who are unenergetic in the discharge of their duties on account of 
their opium habit, should be relieved of office. Expectant Prefect HSIA ChiN-SHEn and two 
others, who have contracted the opium habit and are devoid of ambition, are ordered to vacate 
their posts and return home. 

The above Memorial was approved by the Prince Regent, December 1908. 



io8 International Opium Commission 

Appendix C. — No. 20. 



PROPOSED regulations OF THE ANTI-OPIUM HEAD BUREAU OF CHIHLI CONCERN- 
ING MEASURES TO BE TAKEN FOR THE EVENTUAL SUPPRESSION OF THE USE OF 
OPIUM. 

The Anti-Opium Bureau considering the measures to be taken pursuant to the proposed 
regulations ah'eady submitted to and approved b}- the Throne, have made the foUowing 
conditions: — 

I.— No opium shop shall be allowed to open without a license, and in case of any illegal 
opening of such shop it shall be immediately sealed and its property confiscated. Upon any 
shop being found to have been newly opened under cover of a license it shall also be forced 
to close up, but its propert)' shall not be confiscated. The license will be valid within the 
period of one year, at the e.xpiration of which it shall be renewed. The fees payable monthly 
for each license will be invariabl)- $6 for the first cla.ss establishment, $4 for the second class, 
and $2 for the third class. 

2. — From the commencement of the operation of the Tientsin Anti-Opium Head Bureau, 
on the 25th of the ist moon, all opium shops shall within one month apply for a license. Any 
shops taking license in the 2nd moon shall be required also to pay the fees for the 1st moon 
from which its payment is to commence. Though the operations of local branch bureaus in 
the various sub-prefectures and districts may be tardy, as a measure against dilatoriness and 
other irregularities the payment of monthly fees should commence from the month its operation 
comes into effect, and not fiom the month when the application for license is made. 

3. — Opium shops are distinguished by three classes. Any shops having in the first 
instance obtained the third class licenses, and desiring to substitute them for the first or second 
class, shall be required to make good the payment of the first or second class fees commencing 
from the month of its operation, but not from the month when such application is made, so 
as to stop the irregularities. 

4. — Every license before it is issued must be properl)' stamped with a chop, showing 
that the fee for the commencing month has been paid, and another bearing the inscriptions 
that in case of non-payment for 20 days after it is due the holder of the license is liable to a 
fine not exceeding twice the amount of the fee. 

5. — Opium smokers are not allowed to purchase any opium without having obtained a 
license. Failing to do so, the purchaser, as well as the seller, is liable to a fine not exceeding 
fifty times the value of the opium thus illegally purchased, or he shall be called upon to undertake 
heavy labours as his punishment if he is unable to pay the fine. The license is not transferable. 
In case of any smoker being found to be holding for his own use another's license, the offender, 
as well as the rightful holder of the license, is liable to a fine not exceeding twenty times the 
value of the opium he uses, or he will have to undertake hard labour for his punishment. 

6. — The licenses for opium smokers are classified into A and B license. A is for those 
who are above 60 years of age, and who, being too far advanced in years and too feeble to speedily 
give up the habit, are not obliged to do so; but they must not keep up their habit after the 
expiration of the period allowed for the suppression of opium. License B is for those under 
60 years of age who are obliged to reduce the use of opium to a degree of 20 or 30 per cent, 
and in the course of time before the expiration of the limited period to give it up entirely. 
Those who have taken license B are not allowed to apply for license A in exchange when they 
come to the age of 60. 

7. — The smokers licenses shall be issued quarterly. Before being issued, they 
shall be first stamped by this Bureau, numbered and divided into two classes, A and B, by 
chop, and into four quarters, as spring, summer, autumn, and winter (by chops also), so 
that there will be no confusion. If any smoker who has already got his first quarter's license 
comes to get the second quarter's license on or after the 15th of the 3rd month, the first 
quarter's license shall be endorsed " Not to be used for the second quarter and to be returned 
for cancellation in the third quarter." For the third and fourth quarters the procedure shall be 
the same. If any smoker comes to get a second quarter's license on or after the first of the 
4th month, the first quarter's license shall be demanded back by this Bureau and cancelled. 

8. — As the smokers license is issued quarterly, so subscriptions shall be paid quarterly. 
Should an)' smoker come at the middle or the end of the quarter to buy that quarter's license 



Memorandum on Opium from China 109 

he shall pay that quarter's whole subscription without deduction. If it happens that the year 
has an intercalary moon, the smoker shall be allowed to buy one month's opium more than 
usual, but the subscription for that quarter which has the intercalary moon shall be no more 
than an ordinary quarter. 

9. — In selling licenses to the smokers of districts, sub-prefectures, or i)refectures other 
than those of the provincial capital, the Magistrate, the Sub-Prefect, or the Prefect should 
write clearl\- the quantity of opium which the purchaser daily smokes on the middle of the 
official stamp which is affixed to the license, in order to avoid an\' possible alteration. 

10. — The local opium dealer of tlie third class wishing to buy opium from the opium 
shop of the first or second class shall show his certificate and opium bill to this Bureau, which 
will give him a warrant permitting him to bu)' opium from the shop. This warrant is used 
for the purpose of recording the exact amount of opium sold in the market, and is supplied 
free of charge. 

II. — For the convenience of the outport opium merchant who comes to Tientsin to 
buy opium before he has received the license, a kind of outside dealer's license is issued to him. 
This kind of license is entrusted to the opium sellers of the first and second classes to 
be given to those who are outsiders only. To prevent the local smoker from assuming to be 
an outsider and getting the benefit thereof, the merchant who buys less than Tls. 360 worth 
of opium shall pay the license fee the same as a local smoker, e.g., for every Tls. 18 worth of 
opium he shall pay 10 cents as license fee; for more than Tls. iS worth he shall pay 20 cents; 
for more than Tls. 36 worth, 30 cents ; and so on. Should any outsider buy more than 
Tls. 360 worth of opium he will be treated differently from the local smoker, and need not pay 
any license fee. 

12. — The outsider's license shall be issued only temporarily. When all the smokers 
and dealers in other prefectures, sub-prefectures, and districts have got their licenses, this kind 
of license shall be cancelled. 

13. — When the opium dealer gives out the outsider's license (which is in triplicate) 
to any non-resident merchant, he should first put down the date, the number, the 
quantity of opium, and the names of himself and the merchant on each part of the license. 
The merchant should then bring the license to this Bureau, which will register and stamp it 
with a chop especially provided for such purpose. After tliat, the holder is permitted to buy 
opium from the shop. Failing compliance herewith, or if the number or quantity on the 
license does not tally with the counterfoil, the merchant will be punished severely upon 
detection by the inspector or police. 

14. — The outsider's license should bear a stamp declaring "No fee charged if the 
opium purchased is worth over Tls. 360," in order to prevent the opium dealer getting any 
license fee from the outsider. 

15. — A kind of transient smokers license is issued especially for travellers in the hotels, 
but these licenses are non-available outside of the hotels. Small inns in which persons have 
no luggage and pay only i or 2 cents for their lodging are not permitted to get this kind 
of license for their customers ; but hotels conducted on a large scale and keeping 
account books which can be inspected are allowed to make use of this kind of license, 
subject to certain regulations. 

16. — The transient smokers licenses are bound in book form of two kinds, one 
containing loO and the other 50 forms. The former are for the larger and the latter the 
smaller hotels. 

In issuing transient smokers licenses the location of the hotel should be written on the 
cover of each book of tickets to avoid confusion. 

17. — Every hotel-keeper applying for transient smokers licenses should get a shop to 
furnish security. 

18. — fiotel-keepers, when paying in the fees for the transient smokers licenses to this 
Bureau, should bring a pass book, in which the Bureau will enter the amount received and 
put its stamp thereon, to save trouble of giving receipts. Hotel-keepers coming to get 
transient smokers licenses should give a receipt to the Department Bureau for future reference. 

19. — On delivering the counterfoils and fees of the transient smokers licenses, the 
hotel-keeper should state the number of licenses sold and the amount of copper coins received. 



no International Opium Commission 

20. — Hotel-keepers should receive 5 per cent, commission on the licenses sold. 

2i._When issuing transient smokers licenses, the Bureau should first examine the 
municipal license of the shop which furnishes the security, as well as the municipal license 
of the hotel. 

22.— There shall be a fixed time for issuing licenses to the local smokers. Beyond the 
fixed time no purchasing of licenses will be allowed. Anyone, however, who returns from 
outside and applies beyond the time limit may get the license if he can provide a bond ; but 
the fee for the same shall be double the regular rate. 

23. — After the issue of the various licenses every quarter, all the names, addresses, 
number of the smokers, and quantity of opium sold should be recorded in a book, which is to 
be kept for reference for the next quarter. 

24. — Those who take out smokers licenses are not allowed to smoke in hotels, 
restaurants, or brothels, but at home. 

25. — The accountants and employes of hotels, restaurants, or brothels are allowed to 
purchase smokers licenses for themselves, if they have got the habit of smoking, but they are 
not permitted to let others smoke. 

26. — Smokers shall buy their license from the office where they got it before. 

27. — The opium dealer's license is good for one year, but its fee shall be paid monthly. 

28. — As the number of smokers is uncertain, and some of them are living far from the 
office, from five to ten days grace are allowed them for changing their licenses; but the dealers 
must get their licenses on or before the fixed date. 

29. — Since the Police Department assists the Anti-Opium Bureau in its exercise of 
supervision, half the fines, if any, shall be retained by this Bureau and the other half go to 
reward that department. 



Appendix C. — No. 21. 



PROPOSED regulations OF THE ANTI-OPIUM BUREAU OF CHIHLI FOR INVESTIGATING 

THE OPIUM SMOKING HABIT OF OFFICIALS. 

I. — This Bureau proposes to establish an institute for discovering whether officials are 
opium smokers or not. All officials who are opium smokers, upon the fact being ascertained, 
shall be required to come to this Bureau to undergo a test. Taotai Wang Hsueh-TSENG 
having been appointed director of this Bureau, the responsibility of investigation is devolved 
on him, and he must carry out his duties faithfully. 

2. — Provincial officials of the higher ranks, both civil and military, shall be examined 
by officers appointed by the Viceroy, and their certificates of non-smoking shall be deposited 
in the yamen of the Viceroy. Whether records of their cases are to be kept in this Bureau or 
not shall depend upon the decision of the highest provincial authorities. 

3. — Officials, holding either substantive or acting posts, shall be examined by their 
superior officers as to whether they are smokers or not. If not a smoker, he must file a 
certificate signed by himself to that effect, and this must be supplemented by another 
certificate of endorsement from his superior officer. If any favouritism is shown by shielding 
any offender, upon this being discovered the matter will be reported to the high authorities, 
and the offending official will be required to come to this Bureau for undergoing a test, and the 
officer shielding him shall be given serious black marks. 

4. — Officials of expectant rank in Government service shall be examined by the director 
or co-director of their respective departments as to whether they are opium smokers or not. 
Smokers will be removed from their posts, while each non-smoker will be required to submit a 
certificate of non-smoking signed by himself, in addition to another certificate of endorsement 
signed by the director or co-director. Should a smoker be allowed to smoke through the 



Memorandum on Opium fkom China hi 

favouritism of his superior officer, upon the case being reported to this Bureau and duly verified 
the informing official will be rewarded with meritorious marks, while the question of punish- 
ment for the negligent director or co-director will be considered. 

5. — Officials of expectant rank and not in Government service must also each submit 
a certificate of non-smoking. If anyone cannot submit such a certificate he shall not be given 
any post. Besides submitting his own certificate, each one must hand in an additional certificate 
signed by a high official of his own province, for the purpose of verification. This Bureau will 
also appoint reliable Prefects, Sub-Prefects, and Departmental Magistrates to direct the making 
of inquiries among the expectant officials of their respective provinces. If any favouritism is 
shown, upon the same being reported and the case duly verified the offending smoking official 
will never be taken into the Government service, while the official of the same province as the 
culprit who was his endorser, and the official whose duty it was to find out smokers, will both 
be given serious black marks. 



Appendix C. — No. 22. 



memorial from viceroy tuan fang reporting on the shortage of revenue 
derived from the likin on native opium. 

According to a report by the director of the Consolidated Likin Bureau at Hsiichow, 
the amount of native opium production has, in consequence of Imperial instructions which 
were duly circulated throughout the various districts, considerably decreased this year. In 
addition to this, a number of people who had clandestinely planted the poppy, but were afraid 
afterwards of detection and punishment, uprooted their crops and planted grain in their stead. 
Besides, many of those who had planted their poppy and duly reported same had their crops 
considerably damaged by drought. In consequence the total production for all the districts 
was lessened by over 30 per cent. This fact was established by the reports of all those officers 
who had been sent to investigate the matter. 

As a result of the shortage of the opium crops, the quantity of new opium put on the 
market has been small and its price abnormally high. Dealers have had perforce to go else- 
where to purchase their opium. All this has resulted in the loss of considerable revenue to 
the Consolidated Likin Bureau, which has been further accentuated by the facilities for 
smuggling opium into Shantung, Honan, and Anhwei, which three provinces arc conterminous 
with the districts of Hsiichow. Most stringent preventive measures have been taken against 
this smuggling, but it is most difficult to adopt totally effective steps. 

Rescript dated 25th day, nth moon, 34thyearof KUANG Hsu (i 8th December): "Noted." 



Appendix C. — No. 23. 



ANTI-OPIUM measures IN CHEKIANG. 

Recently instructions from His Excellency TSENG, Governor of Chekiang, were sent 
to the various Prefects of his province, to be passed on to all the Magistrates of the districts. 
These instructions state that owing to the comparative cheapness of native-grown opium and 
the ready facilities for procuring same, the number of those who smoke and cultivate the drug 
has increased. It is now proposed to enter into an official register the particulars of all land 
under poppy cultivation, and this registration must be completed within one month after receipt 
of instructions. After the returns have been submitted for examination, the farmers will be 
required to plant other things instead, and by the 4th moon of next year plantation of poppy 
must entirely cease. When the returns have been received by the Governor's yamfin, he will 
appoint officers to make a tour of inspection for the purpose of verification and to prevent 
fraud. Those who smoke opium, whether they be gentry, merchants, students, or commoners, 
must be found out and their names registered as opium smokers. Anyone wishing to rid 
himself of the habit must do so within one or two years, and after he has done so he 
must present a certificate signed conjointly by the elders of his clan or the directors of his 
business. He may then petition the local authorities to have his name deleted from the 
register of opium smokers. 

But if even after two years a smoker should still be found addicted to the habit, 
he will always be regarded as an opium habitue\ and be treated differently from the general 
class of people. 



112 International Opium Commission 

Appendix C. — No. 24. 



TELEGRAM FROM THE GOVERNOR OF SHENSL 

His Excellency £;n Shou, Governor of Shensi, telegraphs as follows regarding the 
condition of the opium problem in Shensi: — 

In 1905, 530,991 mou of land were under poppy cultivation in Shensi; in 1906, 
537,617 mou; in 1907, owing to the inauguration of the Native Opium Consolidated Tax, 
when no likin was paid, no record was kept; in 1908, 356,374 mou. The above returns were 
reported to the Board concerned and are on record. Regarding the number of opium 
smokers, returns have only been received from 40 odd districts, while 48 more districts have 
yet to send in their reports. No figures can, therefore, be given for this. There are in Shensi 
seven prefectures and five independent sub-prefectures, with a total population of 9,000,000. 
Taking the head prefecture as example, it is found that over half of its 900,000 inhabitants 
are habitual smokers. Since the issuance of the strict Anti-Opium Edicts, over 106,500 
smokers have given up their habit. At this rate, there is no doubt that opium suppression 
can be successfully carried out within the ten-year period. The conditions of the opium 
problem in Kansu are similar, and the officials there are also most earnest in the matter. 



Appendix C. — No. 25. 



memorial from HSI LIANG, VICEROY OF YUN-KWEI, REPORTING ON THE SUPPRESSION 
OF NATIVE OPIUM AND THE ABOLITION OF OPIUM LIKIN. 

In a former Memorial the writer proposed that smoking and production of opium might 
be totally suppressed at the end of the current year, and the dealers in raw and prepared opium 
be compelled to export the balance of their stock at the end of the year and take up other 
business or trade. During the past months the officials have been carrying out opium 
suppression with sincerity, and the people, repenting of their error, are obeying with earnestness. 
In consequence, at the end of this year all the native opium will have been exported from the 
province of Yunnan, and the Opium Likin Collectorate will be closed. A proposal is submitted 
by the officials of the Consolidated Likin Collectorate of Yunnan that, from the ist day, 1st 
moon, 1st year of HSUAN T'UNG, all the stations in the province shall cease collecting likin on 
native opium, and if any further stock is found after that date still unexported, the same shall 
be confiscated and destroyed, in order that the province may be entirely rid of opium. 

The above proposals are fully approved by the memorialist. 

The loss of the opium likin, amounting from ffe. 400,000 to Tfe. 500,000, on which the 
expenditures of Yunnan have hitherto so largely depended, however, should be taken into 
consideration. If the loss is to be made good simply by the extra tax on salt, a large deficit 
will be inevitable. The officials of the Consolidated Likin Collectorate should therefore take 
the general situation into consideration and devise other measures for recouping the loss. 

Referred to the Ministry of Finance by Decree dated 25th day, iith moon, 34th year 
of KuANG HsiJ (i8th December 1908). 



x'\PPENDIX C. — No. 26. 



THE OPIUM QUESTION IN SHANTUNG. 

His Excellency YlJAN SllU-HSiJN, Governor of Shantung, reports telegraphically as 
follows to His Excellency Viceroy TUAN Fang, regarding the present condition of the 
opium question in Shantung: — 

In the provincial capital an institute for testing opium-smoking officials has been estab- 
lished. Already over 1,100 officials have been tested as to their smoking habits. Opium-cure 
institutes have been established in all the districts of the province, and in one district alone over 
10 such institutes have been established. The number of opium-cure institutes thus far estab- 
lished and reported is 193, but this number is being increased. Those who have already been 
cured in these institutes number 49,573. Following the practice adopted in Chihli, opium 



Memorandum on Opium from China 113 

smokers are required to take out a license before they can purcliase opium. The exact 
figures of the number of smokers cannot yet be obtained, owing to the shortness of time since 
the anti-opium movement went into operation. Accijrding to the statistics of the Native 
Opium Consolidated Tax Bureau, in the 33rd year of Kuang Hsu Shantung produced for home 
consumption 242,105 catties of opium, and in the first 10 months of the 34th year, 95,679 
catties, thus showing a reduction of 60 per cent. In the 33rd year the native production for 
export was 72,730 catties, and in the first 10 months of the 34th year, 52,557 catties, making 
a reduction of 30 per cent. Again, in the 33rd year, native opium imported into Shantung 
was 6,816 catties, and in the first 10 months, 585 catties, making a reduction of 90 per cent. 
All these diminished quantities of consumption is a clear proof of the reduced number of 
opium smokers. But the ultimate success of the anti-opium movement depends upon the 
suppression of the home production of opium. Instructions were issued, therefore, that the 
plantation of opium must entirely cease within this year, with the exception of those who had 
planted their opium late, who would be allowed to reap their crops next spring. In the 
prefecture of Wuting no opium has ever been cultivated. In the Taian prefecture opium planta- 
tion has entirely ceased. In 16 of the sub-prefectures and 11 of the districts of Tsinan opium 
cultivation has been entirel}' suppressed. The same is true of the 10 sub-prefectures and nine 
of the districts of Tengchow ; also of 10 of the sub-prefectures and seven of the districts of 
Tungchang; also of the same number of sub-prefectures and the same number of districts in 
Yenchow. In the above-named four prefectures the majority of the districts have already 
ceased opium cultivation. The reduction of area under opium cultivation is 60 or 70 percent. 
In a few of the worst districts which are noted for the opium industry reduction has been 
effected to 20 per cent. 

After next spring it is confidently expected that opium plantation will practically 
disappear throughout the entire province. 



Appendix C. — No. 27. 



telegram from the governor of chekiang to the grand council requesting 

THE latter to MEMORIALISE THE THRONE. 

Although the lOyears period allowed for the total suppression of opium is ample for its 
purpose, still steps must be devised to bring about success in their proper order. The prohibition 
of opium cultivation is much harder than the suppression of the opium habit. According to the 
plans proposed by the Ministry of Finance for the suppression of opium cultivation, each province 
must investigate into its own conditions and adopt uniform measures for the entire province or 
separate measures for each district. In the province of Chekiang the two prefectures ofTai and 
Wan, the two sub-prefectures of Yuwan and Tinghai, the district of Shangshan, where Ningpo 
is situated, and also the Yuyao district, in which is Shaohing, are the centres for opium culti- 
vation. Since the suppression movement was started cultivation in the district of Shangshan 
has entirely ceased, and in the other districts it is gradually decreasing. At the present moment 
it is estimated that a reduction of 30 to 40 percent, has been effected. People growing poppy 
were persuaded to plant cereals in their place, and as soon as they find this to be as profit- 
able, poppy cultivation will automatically cease. Judging from present prospects, it will not 
require 10 years before the cultivation of opium will have totally disappeared. It is proposed 
that in the ist year of HSUAN T'UNG an attempt shall be made at the suppression of poppy culti- 
vation throughout the province, and that in the 3rd year the said cultivation must absolutely 
cease. During the remaining four years steps will be taken to find out if there are poppy crops 
still growing clandestinely, and to do whatever else may be necessary to bring about a complete 
abolition of the opium problem. 

Dated 13th January 1909. 



Appendix C. — No. 28. 



TELEGRAM FROM THE GOVERNOR OF SHANGTUNG TO THE VICEROV AT NANKING. 

Your message of the 2nd inst. to hand. The remarks made by the British Commissioners 
concerning this province perhaps refer to the condition of affairs 10 months ago. Since then 
suppression of opium cultivation has been energetically carried out, and as far as has been 
reported, the whole poppy area has been taken up by other crops, with the exception of two 



114 International Opium Commission 

districts. There are districts which have not yet reported, and orders have been sent to their 
officials to be energetic in suppressing cultivation. A table is prepared, and will be forwarded, 
showing the area of land under poppy before and the area that is to be planted with cereals in 
their place, in accordance with the prepared schedule. This plan will be duly carried into 
operation the coming spring, and in the 2nd moon officials will be sent to investigate the real 
condition more closely. Should any districts be found to be still disobeying orders, the officials 
will be impeached and cashiered, according to the degree of their culpability. 

Dated 25th January 1909. 



ArPEXUix C. — No. 29. 



TELEGRAM FROM THE VICEROY UK SZECHWAN TO THE VICEROY AT NANKING. 

Your message of the 2nd inst. is received. Forty odd districts in this province have 
been reported as being entirely free of opium cultivation last year. Every effort is being put 
forward to suppress cultivation. Strict orders have again been sent out to investigate the 
poppy areas thoroughly. This province has been noted for opium cultivation, but to say that 
there is still as much opium grown throughout the province as formerly is erroneous. 

Dated 25th January 1909. 



Appendix C. — No. 30. 



TELEGRAM FRO.VI THE GOVERNOR OF HONAX TO THE VICEROY AT NANKING. 

Your message of the 2nd inst. is to hand. My last report referred to the suppression 
of opium cultivation, and not reduction. Capable officials have been sent out to the different 
districts to investigate carefully this matter m conjunction with the local officials. Efforts 
will not stop short of uprooting all the crops. The planting of poppy is a matter which can 
be seen and heard of and cannot be concealed. The Indian merchants are trying to make 
difficulties for us by their criticism, but I beg you will state the true facts to them. 

Dated 30th January 1909. 



Appendix C. — No. 31. 



PROGRESS OF THE OPIUM WAR IN FUKIEN. 

1st. In the 32nd year of KUANG Hsij, the iith month and 29th day, a proclamation 
was issued that after a period of six months from date all opium dens in the city of Foochow 
must be closed. 

At this time there were over 820 opium dens in the city and immediate suburbs. As 
the time drew near for the going into effect of this proclamation every effort was put forth to 
influence the officials to give a further extension of the time or to wink at the violation of the 
order, but on the 4th month and 1st of the month in the following year, the order was put into 
effect and all opium dens were closed and have remained closed from that time. 

2nd. KUANG Hsu 33rd, 2nd month, 9th day, the Viceroy issued a proclamation 
establishing opium hospitals, to aid those who desired to break off the habit. Arrangements 
were made whereby those who were poor could have the benefit of these hospitals free 
of expense save for their food. 

At this time there were six of these hospitals opened in Foochow, while other places in 
vicinity also established such hospitals. 

3rd. On the 26th of the 2nd month, 33rd year of KUANG Hsu, a proclamation was 
issued establishing certain places where opium could be bought by those who were unable to 
immediately break off the habit and a limit of three years was fixed for the complete closing 
out of these places. No place of sale was allowed to be opened where opium was smoked. 



Memorandum on Opium from China 115 

At first there opened 430 of these places where opium was allowed to be sold. In the 
1 2th month of that \-ear officials were ap[3ointed to examine into these places of sale and a 
tax of 30 cents per ounce was levied upon the opium with the result that the number of places 
of sale were reduced to 214. This number has since been reduced to 155. 

4th. 29th of the 3rd month, 33rd year of KUANG Hsu, an Edict was issued that 
anyone found guilty of inviting a friend to smoke opium with him should be considered as 
opening an opium den and his property should be confiscated and he severely punished. 
452 families have been punished and 17 shops have been closed under this regulation. The 
effect of the prohibition was that opium smoking must become solitary and not in company 
with others. This proclamation is also effective and is enforced. 

5th. Immediately following the above proclamation was another, to the effect that any 
person detected in selling or using opium in violation of the above proclamations should have 
his property taken from him and sold. He should not be allowed to hold the property even 
for legitimate purposes. 

6th. 8th of the 5th month, 33rd year, an Edict was issued that all opium dens in the 
province should be closed in the same manner as those in Foochow had been. This 
proclamation is being enforced where the authorities at Foochow have the knowledge, but in 
spite of their efforts there are many opium dens still running full blast in outlying districts, 
though they are steadily being closed. 

7th. In the 8th month, 33rd year, a proclamation was issued forbidding coolies from 
smoking opium in their stands or in compaii}'. 

8th. 2 1st of the 8th month, 33rd year, a proclamation was issued forbidding those who 
were smokers from going on board boats where they might be out of the way of the officers, 
or of using temples for their purposes, a heavy penalty was placed upon the violation of this 
order and the owners of the boats or priests of the temples were held responsible. 

9th. 4th of 1 2th month, 33rd year, a proclamation was issued e.xhorting all heads 
of the salt establishments and all people to break off the habit. 

lOth. The Anti-Opium Societies had already appointed committees in all parts of the 
city, whose business it was to use every means in their power to detect the illicit use or sale of 
opium, and they were very much hampered in their work by lack of authority, until the 29th 
of the 3rd month of the 34th year of KuANG Hsij, when an Edict was issued gi\'ing these 
committees full authority to enter any place for examination and placing at their disposal 
officers to enforce their demands for admittance or to make arrests where ordered by such 
committees. These committees have been busy every night and have accomplished much in 
enforcing the above decrees. At times they have been attacked and some of them severely 
beaten, but nothing has deterred them from their purpose. They are still warring nightly. 

iith. About this time the Anti-Opium Societies were authorized to make a careful 
canvass of the city with intent to determine the number of opium smokers and their location. 
At this tiine each house was marked as either having an opium smoker within or as being clear, 
and a close record was kept. Each opium smoker was furnished with a certificate giving his 
name, age, residence, business and the amount of opium he consumed in a day. Fraudulent 
statements in this matter on the part of the parties were punished by imprisonment or heavy 
fines. In this way a fairly correct record was secured of those who were using opium, and of 
the amount consumed each day and by each person. 

1 2th. Many proclamations were issued along the above line and are summed up in the 
following conditions for the sale and use of opium, as set forth in a proclamation issued 24th 
of the lOth month of this year: — 

(a) These certificates shall be in triplicate, one form to be deposited in the hands of 
the proper official, one form to be deposited with the Anti-Opium Society, and one form to be 
left in the hands of the opium user. 

(d) Without this certificate, it shall be impossible to buy opium; without this certificate 
before him, the licensed opium salesman is forbidden to sell opium under any condition. 

(c) There shall be a blank space on each certificate for the entry of the daily amount 
of opium used and the salesman must stamp the amount into the blank as the daily sales are 
made. The amount each may buy as a limit, daily, is stated in the face of the certificate, this 
amount may not be exceeded. 



ti6 International Opium Commission 

{d) This certificate is issued for only three months, after which it must be r3newed. 

{e) In case the person cannot come daily to buy, he may buy the supply once per 
month, but cannot exceed the daily allowance for the month. 

(/) In case opium is sold without the presentation of this certificate the saleman shall 
be fined $30 for each offense. The purchaser shall be fined or imprisoned. 

{g) After the first three months, upon the renewal of the certificate it must be for a 
less amount each time. 

(/«) The licensed saleman must regularly report the amount of opium sold and make 
the proper returns in cash for the same including the tax of 30 cents per ounce. 

{i) The place of preparation of opium for sale and its sale must be fixed and cannot 
be changed from place to place. This is to avoid fraud. 

A heavy penalty is placed upon the violation of these regulations. These regulations 
are being well enforced. A reward is offered for any information which will lead to the con- 
viction of any who may secretly engage in the opium business in violation of the above. 

rROCLAMATION AGAINST CULTIVATION OF POPPY. 

Whereas the Viceroy of the Fukien Province has received instructions from the 
Imperial Government at Peking, authorizing him within the present \ear to entirely prohibit 
the cultivation of the poppy, it is now ordered that all ground formerly given to the cultivation 
of this plant be hereafter devoted to other uses. If anyone is reported to have violated this 
injunction and is found guilty, not only shall the opium plants be destroyed, but the land 
also shall be confiscated. 

Fearing that some of the remote countr)/ places may not have seen the notices that 
have been published in the papers, we therefore are issuing this proclamation and posting it 
everywhere, that all may be informed regarding these regulations. We hope that all the 
people will take notice and thus avoid incurring the punishment that will surely be visited 
upon all offenders. 

Issued by the 

"Fukien Anti-Opium Society" 

In the seventh month, KUANG HsU, 34th year. 



In the carrying out of this proclamation against the grovi'ing of poppy the Government 
is very strict, and the poppy has been practically given up in the whole province. One may 
travel for clays and in any direction without seeing a single poppy plant. This is the report 
of missionaries who are penetrating into all sections of the province. Fukien practically has 
no poppy growing, as a result of the proclamation and its strenuous enforcement. 

The above are practically the proclamations and somewhat of the statement of their 
contents. These proclamations are being generally enforced at least about Foochow. Below 
are some of things which have been accomplished by the Anti-Opium Societies up to date. 

WORK OF ANTI-OPIUM SOCIETIES. 

The Anti-Opium Societies have put out 56 letters and documents at different times 
urging the people to give up the opium habit and striving to create a sentiment against 
opium. 

Among other things this Society has put forth three illustrated reports of their work 
and circulated them largely. They are now at work on the fourth. 

In the hospitals for breaking off the opium habit much has been done and five out of 
the six hospitals report 4,414 persons as having been discharged cured of the opium habit. 

There are seven headquarters for the committees appointed to nightly inspect certain 
territories for violations of the laws. Outside of Foochow City there are 61 Branch 
Associations actively at work. 

In addition to this all officials are compelled to appear before a regularly appointed 
official for examination as to whether he is an opium user 



Memorandum on Opium from China 117 

There have been eight burnings of opium and opium fixtures amounting as follows : — 

I'ipes 4433 

Pipe bowls 4,4^2 

Lamps 3.693 

Boxes 3,497 

Plates 3,'J-O 

Needles ^',97^ 

Cooking vessels, large 427 

„ ,, small 87 

Opium destroyed oz. 3,138 

Opium deposits from pipes ,, 577 

At first there were 6,585 certificates in use. Of this number 483 have been taken up 
leaving but 6,102 certificates now in force. 

EXTRACTS KROM TELEGRAPHIC KEl'OKTS TO HIS EXCELLENCY VICERO\' TUAN EANG, 
GIVING LATEST RESULTS IN THE PROVINCES J^E UPIU.M CULTIV.\TION. 
MANCHURIA: — 

Fengticn. — The cultivation of the poppy has been entirely suppressed. 
Kirin. — Cultivation already reduced by 25 per cent., and will be totally suppressed 
by end of 1909. 

Hcilungkiaytg. — Cultivation slightly reduced, but will be totally suppressed by end 
of 1909. 

Chihli. — Cultivation has been reduced by one-third, and will be totally suppressed 
in 1909. 

Shantung. — Cultivation reduced by 60 per cent., and to be totally suppressed by 
end of 1909. 

Kiangsu. — Cultivation already reduced by 70 per cent.; th